Cimex

Cimex is a genus of insects in the family Cimicidae.[1] Cimex species are ectoparasites that typically feed on the blood of birds and mammals. Two species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, are known as bed bugs and frequently feed on humans, although other species may parasitize humans opportunistically.[2] Species that primarily parasitize bats are known as bat bugs.

The insects are 3 to 9 millimetres (0.12 to 0.35 in) long and have flattened reddish-brown bodies with small nonfunctional wings.[1]

Bed bugs
Bed bug, Cimex lectularius
Cimex lectularius
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Family: Cimicidae
Genus: Cimex
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

Description

BedBugwithMeasure
An adult bed bug (Cimex lectularius) about 4 to 5 mm long

Adult Cimex are light brown to reddish-brown, flat, oval, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in) long and 1.5–3 mm (0.059–0.118 in) wide.

Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug nymph of any age that has just consumed a blood meal has a bright red, translucent abdomen, fading to brown over the next several hours, and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like, and like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.

Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding, and reproduction.

The lifespan of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.

Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions.[3] Below 16 °C (61 °F), adults enter semihibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at −10 °C (14 °F), but die after 15 minutes of exposure to −32 °C (−26 °F).[4] Common commercial and residential freezers reach temperatures low enough to kill most life stages of bed bug, with 95% mortality after 3 days at −12 °C (10 °F).[5] They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 35–40 °C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.[6]

The thermal death point for C. lectularius is 45 °C (113 °F); all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46 °C (115 °F).[4] Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.[7]

Household insecticides often do not have a prolonged effect on the bug population. Professional pest control experts may use potentially harmful substances such as chlorpyrifos.

Taxonomy

Feeding habits

CDC 11739 Cimex lectularius SEM
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) digitally colorized with skin-piercing mouthparts highlighted in purple and red

Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other prey are unavailable.[14][15][16] They obtain all the additional moisture they need from water vapor in the surrounding air.[17] Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.[18][19][20] Bedbugs prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck, and arms of a sleeping person.

Bedbugs have mouth parts that saw through the skin, and inject saliva with anticoagulants and painkillers. Sensitivity of humans varies from extreme allergic reaction to no reaction at all (about 20%). The bite usually produces a swelling with no red spot, but when many bugs feed on a small area, reddish spots may appear after the swelling subsides.[4] The bite marks may appear in a straight line.[21]

Although under certain cool conditions adult bed bugs can live for over a year without feeding,[22] under typically warm conditions they try to feed at five- to ten-day intervals, and adults can survive for about five months without food.[23] Younger instars cannot survive nearly as long, though even the vulnerable newly hatched first instars can survive for weeks without taking a blood meal.

At the 57th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, newer generations of pesticide-resistant bed bugs in Virginia were reported to survive only two months without feeding.[24]

DNA from human blood meals can be recovered from bed bugs for up to 90 days, which means they can be used for forensic purposes in identifying on whom the bed bugs have fed.[25][26]

Feeding physiology

Budbug 001
Rostrum tip

A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with a stylet fascicle, rostrum, or "beak". The rostrum is composed of the maxillae and mandibles, which have been modified into elongated shapes from a basic, ancestral style. The right and left maxillary stylets are connected at their midline and a section at the centerline forms a large food canal and a smaller salivary canal. The entire maxillary and mandibular bundle penetrates the skin.[27]

The tips of the right and left maxillary stylets are not the same; the right is hook-like and curved, and the left is straight. The right and left mandibular stylets extend along the outer sides of their respective maxillary stylets and do not reach anywhere near the tip of the fused maxillary stylets. The stylets are retained in a groove in the labium, and during feeding, they are freed from the groove as the jointed labium is bent or folded out of the way; its tip never enters the wound.[27]

The mandibular stylet tips have small teeth, and through alternately moving these stylets back and forth, the insect cuts a path through tissue for the maxillary bundle to reach an appropriately sized blood vessel. Pressure from the blood vessel itself fills the insect with blood in three to five minutes. The bug then withdraws the stylet bundle from the feeding position and retracts it back into the labial groove, folds the entire unit back under the head, and returns to its hiding place.[27] It takes between five and ten minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood.[28] In all, the insect may spend less than 20 minutes in physical contact with its host, and does not try to feed again until it has either completed a moult or, if an adult, has thoroughly digested the meal.

Reproduction

Traumatic insemination 1 edit1
Male bed bug traumatically inseminating a female

North Carolina State University found that bedbugs in contrast to most other insects tolerate incest and are able to genetically withstand the effects of inbreeding quite well.[29] Male bed bugs sometimes attempt to mate with other males and pierce their abdomens.[30] This behaviour occurs because sexual attraction in bed bugs is based primarily on size, and males mount any freshly fed partner regardless of sex.[31]

All bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination.[32][33] Female bed bugs possess a reproductive tract that functions during oviposition, but the male does not use this tract for sperm insemination.[32] Instead, the male pierces the female's abdomen with his hypodermic penis and ejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except Primicimex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege,[32] a component of the spermalege,[32] a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination.[34][35][36] Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structures called seminal conceptacles, with fertilisation eventually taking place at the ovaries.[35]

The "bed bug alarm pheromone" consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disturbed, as during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated the alarm pheromone is also released by male bed bugs to repel other males that attempt to mate with them.[36][37]

Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, one of 479 eggs was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, Cimex hemipterus × lectularius.[38][39]

Sperm protection

Cimex lectularius males have environmental microbes on their genitals. These microbes damage sperm cells, leaving them unable to fertilize female gametes. Due to these dangerous microbes, males have evolved antimicrobial ejaculate substances that prevent sperm damage. When the microbes contact sperm or the male genitals, the bed bug releases antimicrobial substances. Many species of these microbes live in the bodies of females after mating. The microbes can cause infections in the females. It has been suggested that females receive benefit from the ejaculate. Although the benefit is not direct, females are able to produce more eggs than optimum increasing the amount of the females' genes in the gene pool.[40]

Sperm and seminal fluid allocation

In organisms, sexual selection extends past differential reproduction to affect sperm composition, sperm competition, and ejaculate size. Males of C. lectularius allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid per mating. Due to these findings, Reinhard et. al proposed that multiple mating is limited by seminal fluid and not sperm. After measuring ejaculate volume, mating rate and estimating sperm density, Reinhardt et al. showed that mating could be limited by seminal fluid. Despite these advances, the cost difference between ejaculate-dose dependence and mating frequency dependence have not been explored.[41]

Egg production

Males fertilize females only by traumatic insemination into the structure called the ectospermalege (the organ of Berlese, however the organ of Ribaga, as it was first named, was first designated as an organ of stridulation. These two names are not descriptive, so other terminologies are used). On fertilization, the female's ovaries finish developing, which suggests that sperm plays a role other than fertilizing the egg. Fertilization also allows for egg production through the corpus allatum. Sperm remains viable in a female's spermathecae (a better term is conceptacle), a sperm-carrying sack, for a long period of time as long as body temperature is optimum. The female lays fertilized eggs until she depletes the sperm found in her conceptacle. After the depletion of sperm, she lays a few sterile eggs. The number of eggs a C. lectularius female produces does not depend on the sperm she harbors, but on the female's nutritional level.[42]

Alarm pheromones

In C. lectularius, males sometimes mount other males because male sexual interest is directed at any recently fed individual regardless of their sex, but unfed females may also be mounted. Traumatic insemination is the only way for copulation to occur in bed bugs. Females have evolved the spermalege to protect themselves from wounding and infection. Because males lack this organ, traumatic insemination could leave them badly injured. For this reason, males have evolved alarm pheromones to signal their sex to other males. If a male C. lectularius mounts another male, the mounted male releases the pheromone signal and the male on top stops before insemination.

Females are capable of producing alarm pheromones to avoid multiple mating, but they generally do not do so. Two reasons are proposed as to why females do not release alarm pheromones to protect themselves. First, alarm pheromone production is costly. Due to egg production, females may refrain from spending additional energy on alarm pheromones. The second proposed reason is that releasing the alarm pheromone reduces the benefits associated with multiple mating.[43] Benefits of multiple mating include material benefits, better quality nourishment or more nourishment, genetic benefits including increased fitness of offspring, and finally, the cost of resistance may be higher than the benefit of consent—which appears the case in C. lectularius.[44]

Life stages

Bed bugs have five immature nymph life stages and a final sexually mature adult stage.[45] They shed their skins through ecdysis at each stage, discarding their outer exoskeleton, which is somewhat clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults, and must consume at least one blood meal to complete each molt.[46]

Each of the immature stages lasts about a week, depending on temperature and the availability of food, and the complete lifecycle can be completed in as little as two months (rather long compared to other ectoparasites). Fertilized females with enough food lay three to four eggs each day continually until the end of their lifespans (about nine months under warm conditions), possibly generating as many as 500 eggs in this time.[46] Genetic analysis has shown that a single pregnant bed bug, possibly a single survivor of eradication, can be responsible for an entire infestation over a matter of weeks, rapidly producing generations of offspring.[47]

Cimex lectularius 3

Slide of C. lectularius

Bedbug1

On the right is recently sloughed skin from its nymph stage

Bed bug nymph, Cimex lectularius

Nymph feeding on host

Cimex lectularius2

Blood-fed stage (note differences in color with respect to digestion of blood meal)

Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism occurs in C. lectularius, with the females larger in size than the males on average. The abdomens of the sexes differ in that the males appear to have "pointed" abdomens, which are actually their copulatory organs, while females have more rounded abdomens. Since males are attracted to large body size, any bed bug with a recent blood meal can be seen as a potential mate. However, males will mount unfed, flat females on occasion. The female is able to curl her abdomen forward and underneath toward the head to not mate. Males are generally unable to discriminate between the sexes until after mounting, but before inseminating.[48]

Host searching

Cimex lectularius only feeds every five to seven days, which suggests that it does not spend the majority of its life searching for a host. When a bed bug is starved, it leaves its shelter and searches for a host. If it successfully feeds, it returns to its shelter; otherwise, it continues to search for a host. After searching—regardless of whether or not it has eaten—the bed bug returns to the shelter to aggregate before the photophase (period of light during a day-night cycle). Reis argues that two reasons explain why C. lectularius would return to its shelter and aggregate after feeding. One is to find a mate and the other is to find shelter to avoid getting smashed after eating.[49]

Aggregation and dispersal behavior

Cimex lectularius aggregates under all life stages and mating conditions. Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. Airborne pheromones are responsible for aggregations. Another source of aggregation could be the recognition of other C. lectularius bugs through mechanoreceptors located on their antennae. Aggregations are formed and disbanded based on the associated cost and benefits. Females are more often found separate from the aggregation than males. Females are more likely to expand the population range and find new sites. Active female dispersal can account for treatment failures. Males, when found in areas with few females, abandon an aggregation to find a new mate. The males excrete an aggregation pheromone into the air that attracts virgin females and arrests other males.[50]

References

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Alvania cimex

Alvania cimex is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Rissoidae.

Anti Cimex

Anti Cimex were a Swedish crust punk band, based in Skövde, Gothenburg, Linköping, and Malmö, at different times, that formed in 1981. They were one of the first bands to define Scandinavian hardcore punk. Their second 7", Raped Ass, is considered to be a subgenre-defining D-beat record. Scene historian Peter Jandreus describes the group as the most famous Swedish punk band of the 1977–87 era.Their name is taken from the Swedish pest control company with the same name, the name of this company, in turn, comes from the Latin name of a particular type of bedbug; Cimex.

Bat bug

Bat bugs are blood-sucking insect parasites that feed primarily on the blood of bats. The name has been applied to members of the family Cimicidae (e.g. Cimex lectularius, Afrocimex constrictus) and also to members of the family Polyctenidae. Bat bugs are closely related to bed bugs, and are so similar in appearance that they are often mistaken for bed bugs. Microscopic examination is needed to distinguish them. Bat bugs will also bite humans if given the opportunity.Bat bug species include:

African bat bug (Afrocimex constrictus)

Eastern bat bug (Cimex adjunctus)

Bed bug

Bed bugs are a type of insect that feed on human blood, usually at night. Their bites can result in a number of health impacts including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Bed bug bites may lead to skin changes ranging from invisible, to small areas of redness, to prominent blisters. Symptoms may take between minutes to days to appear and itchiness is generally present. Some may feel tired or have a fever. Typically, uncovered areas of the body are affected and often three bites occur in a row. Bed bugs bites are not known to transmit any infectious disease. Complications may rarely include areas of dead skin or vasculitis.Bed bug bites are caused primarily by two species of the insect Cimex: Cimex lectularius (the common bed bug) and Cimex hemipterus. Their size ranges between 1 and 7 mm. They spread by crawling between nearby locations or by being carried within personal items. Infestation is rarely due to a lack of hygiene but is more common in high-density areas. Diagnosis involves both finding the bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms. Bed bugs spend much of their time in dark, hidden locations like mattress seams or cracks in the wall.Treatment is symptomatic. Eliminating bed bugs from the home is often difficult, partly because bed bugs can survive up to a year without feeding. Repeated treatments of a home may be required. These treatments may include heating the room to 50 °C (122 °F) for more than 90 minutes, frequent vacuuming, washing clothing at high temperatures, and the use of various pesticides.Bed bugs occur in all regions of the globe. Rates of infestations are relatively common, following an increase since the 1990s. The exact causes of this increase is unclear; with proposals including greater travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings, a greater focus on control of other pests, and increasing resistance to pesticides. Bed bugs have been known human parasites for thousands of years.

Cimex adjunctus

Cimex adjunctus, is an ectoparasite found in a wide range of North America. Like other insects in the genus Cimex, Cimex adjunctus is a temporary parasite that eats blood.Temporary, meaning that they do not linger on their hosts between meals. Cimex adjunctus feed off of many insectivorous bat species. On more than one occasion, according to New Host Record for Cimex adjunctus, these insects have commonly been found on the wings of Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat).

Cimex antennatus

Cimex antennatus is a species of Cimicidae (bed bugs) endemic to North America. Its primary hosts are bats.

Cimex hemipterus

Cimex hemipterus is one of two species of bed bugs that feed on people. It is primarily a tropical insect.

Cimex lectularius

Cimex lectularius is a species of Cimicidae (bed bugs). Its primary hosts are humans, and it is one of the world's major "nuisance pests".

Although bed bugs can be infected with at least 28 human pathogens, no studies have found that the insects are capable of transmitting any of these to humans. They have been found with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), but the significance of this is still unknown.Investigations into potential transmission of HIV, MRSA, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E have not shown that bed bugs can spread these diseases. However, there is some evidence that arboviruses may be transmissible.Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters. Effects include skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.Cimex lectularius goes through five immature life stages that each require a blood meal to develop and move on to the next stage. Blood meals are necessary for each life stage in order to reproduce. They tend to feed exclusively on humans. C. lectularius are obligate blood feeders. C. lectularius typically feed on hosts when they are asleep. Haematophagous insects can use body temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide and visual cues to locate a host. (Siljander) C. lectularius is found all over the world in almost every area that has been colonized by humans.

Cimicidae

The Cimicidae are a family of small parasitic insects that feed exclusively on the blood of warm-blooded animals. They are called cimicids or, loosely, bed bugs (or bedbugs or bed-bugs), though the latter term properly refers to the most famous species of the family, Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug. Around 90 species are placed in the family Cimicidae.

D-beat

D-beat (also known as "discore", "kängpunk" (Swedish for "boot-punk"), "discrust", and crust-beat) is a style of hardcore punk, developed in the early 1980s by imitators of Discharge, after whom the genre is named, as well as a drum beat characteristic of this subgenre. D-beat is known for its "grinding, distorted and brutally political" sound. Discharge may have themselves inherited the beat from Motörhead and the Buzzcocks. D-beat is closely associated with crust punk, which is a heavier, more complex variation. The style was particularly popular in Sweden, and developed there by groups such as Crude SS, Anti Cimex, Mob 47, and Driller Killer. Other D-beat groups include Doom and the Varukers from the UK; Disclose from Japan; Crucifix and Final Conflict from the U.S.; Ratos de Porão from Brazil; and MG15 from Spain. While the style initially developed in the early 1980s, a number of new groups working within the subgenre emerged in the mid-1990s. These include the Swedish groups Wolfbrigade, Totalitär, Avskum, Skitsystem, and Disfear.

Euschistus ictericus

Euschistus ictericus is a North American species of shield bug. It grows up to 12 mm (0.5 in) long, and lives in damp areas.

Euthyrhynchus floridanus

Euthyrhynchus floridanus, the Florida predatory stink bug, is a species of carnivorous shield bug in the family Pentatomidae. It is native to the hottest parts of the southeastern United States and is considered beneficial because it feeds on many species of pest insects.

Hemiptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". True bugs and thrips were brought together under the name Hemiptera.

Punk in Sweden

Punk rock and hardcore punk have created a punk subculture in Sweden since punk music became popular in the 1970s. The most famous Swedish punk band was Ebba Grön, followed by KSMB; other notable bands were Asta Kask, Kriminella Gitarrer, Tant Strul, Pink champagne , The Pain and Göteborg Sound. In the 1980s hardcore punk, kängpunk and raw punk became popular in Sweden. The two perhaps most influential bands are Mob 47 and Anti Cimex, whose music has also inspired many foreign bands. Some other examples of influential bands are Moderat Likvidation, Black Uniforms, Totalitär and Avskum. Together with the early American hardcore bands and the British band Discharge, the Swedish punk scene since the early 1990s consisted almost exclusively of "tribute bands" to the above. In the 1990s the aggressive punk scene turned more towards crust punk with bands like Driller Killer, Skitsystem, Wolfbrigade, and Disfear.

The genre is in Sweden also connected with the hardcore scene that emerged in Umeå and other northern cities in the 1990s, with bands such as Refused (Umeå) and Raised Fist (Luleå) in the lead. Refused had a strong base in the genre's traditional roots and may in part represent how it sounded then, but experimented and stretched the limits sufficiently to their most famous songs rather have come under the term post-hardcore.

The majority of the genre called melodic hardcore influenced later skate punk/pop punk into what it became in the 1990s.

There is also a Swedish subgenre called trallpunk, with its roots in '80s melodic punkbands and raw punk bands like Asta Kask, Total Egon, Strebers, Charta 77, Puke, Rolands Gosskör and Sötlimpa, etc. Many of these early trallpunk bands had a powerful folk music undertone and a style of music with catchy melodies, fast drum speed and narrative texts, often left-wing political lyrics, and unlike the more aggressive hardcore punk, straight to the point lyrics. Notable trallpunk bands include De lyckliga kompisarna, Strebers, Dia Psalma, Charta 77, Coca Carola, Räserbajs, köttgrottorna, Radioaktiva Räker. later trallpunk bands took inspiration from American skatepunk and play a mix between the two. For example Skumdum.

In the 2000s a lot of old Swedish punk bands such as Asta Kask, Dia Psalma, Mob 47, Moderat Likvidation and De lyckliga kompisarna reunited with most of them releasing new albums with new songs. This decade a lot of hardcore punk bands from Umeå and northern Sweden started to play more pop-influenced punk and the early Swedish punk like Ebba Grön and KSMB, for example Invasionen with Dennis Lyxzén from Refused and Knugen Faller with Inge Johansson from Totalt jävla mörker.

Skitsystem

Skitsystem (Swedish pronunciation: [ɧiːtsʏsteːm], Fucking System or Fucking Society, literally "Shit System") is a Swedish crust punk band formed in early 1994. Their sound was heavily influenced by death metal and D-beat. The band members originally came from different death metal bands, bonding over a common interest in d-beat. Initially the group was a side-project of two members of At the Gates. The band announced in December 2007 that they were on indefinite hiatus. In November 2009, Skitsystem announced plans to play two shows in Gothenburg in late February 2010, with possibly more to follow.Fredrik Wallenberg cites the group's initial influences as Anti Cimex, Asocial, Discharge, Doom and Disrupt.

Stenotus binotatus

Stenotus binotatus is a species of plant bug, originally from Europe, but now also established across North America and New Zealand. It is 6–7 mm (0.24–0.28 in) long, yellowish, with darker markings on the pronotum and forewings. It feeds on various grasses, and can be a pest of crops such as wheat.

Traumatic insemination

Traumatic insemination, also known as hypodermic insemination, is the mating practice in some species of invertebrates in which the male pierces the female's abdomen with his aedeagus and injects his sperm through the wound into her abdominal cavity (hemocoel). The sperm diffuse through the female's hemolymph, reaching the ovaries and resulting in fertilization.

The process is detrimental to the female's health. It creates an open wound which impairs the female until it heals, and is susceptible to infection. The injection of sperm and ejaculatory fluids into the hemocoel can also trigger an immune reaction in the female. Bed bugs, which reproduce solely by traumatic insemination, have evolved a pair of sperm-receptacles, known as the spermalege. It has been suggested that the spermalege reduces the direct damage to the female bed bug during traumatic insemination. However experiments found no conclusive evidence for that hypothesis; as of 2003, the preferred explanation for that organ is hygienic protection against bacteria.The evolutionary origins of traumatic insemination are disputed. Although it evolved independently in many invertebrate species, traumatic insemination is most highly adapted and thoroughly studied in bed bugs, particularly Cimex lectularius. Traumatic insemination is not limited to male-female couplings, or even couplings of the same species. Both homosexual and inter-species traumatic inseminations have been observed.

Tritomegas bicolor

Tritomegas bicolor, the pied shield bug, is a species of shield bug found in Europe. The adult is black and white and 5.5–7 mm (0.22–0.28 in) long. It is found across North Africa, Europe and Central Asia, although in the British Isles, it becomes rarer towards the north, and is absent from Scotland and Ireland. T. bicolor lives mainly on the ground, but is also visible on its host plants — chiefly Lamium (dead nettles) and Ballota nigra (black horehound).

Wolfbrigade

Wolfbrigade (formerly Wolfpack) is a Swedish hardcore punk band formed in 1995 by Jocke, Frank, Erik, Marcus and Jonsson (Anti Cimex) their line-up has included members of Asta Kask, To What End?, Today's Overdose, Cosa Nostra, Anti Cimex, Obscure Infinity and Harlequin.

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