Church of Hawaii

The Church of Hawaiʻi, originally called the Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church, was the state church and national church of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from 1862 to 1893. It was the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Hawaiʻi.

Church of Hawaiʻi
Honolulu-StAndrews-Cathedral-Royalty
Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma established the Anglican Church of Hawaiʻi in 1862
OrientationCommunion
TheologyAnglican
PolityEpiscopal
RegionHawaiʻi
FounderKamehameha IV
Origin1862
Kingdom of Hawaiʻi
Branched fromAnglican Communion
Merged intoEpiscopal Church (United States) (1890s)

History

As a young prince, King Kamehameha IV had visited England and was impressed by the rich ceremony of the Church of England, compared to the dour simplicity of the American missionaries who educated him as a child. His queen consort Queen Emma had a British grandfather and was brought up in a house of a British Anglican doctor. Their 1856 wedding ceremony included Anglican prayers but had to be performed by the Congregationalist minister.

In 1859, Emma wrote to Victoria of the United Kingdom to request a clergyman from the English church. The King's foreign minister, Robert Crichton Wyllie, also made requests through diplomatic contacts. In 1860, Samuel Wilberforce suggested expanding the mission to include a bishop who could organize a new branch. William Ingraham Kip of the American Episcopal Church in California also supported the idea, but the American Civil War prevented any help from them.[1] The idea was approved by John Bird Sumner and British Foreign Secretary Lord John Russell. The first Bishop was Thomas Nettleship Staley, consecrated on December 15, 1861.[2]

The sending of Staley caused friction with the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions even before he arrived in 1862; making him a bishop bothered the Congregationalists, who opposed any kind of religious hierarchy. Rufus Anderson, of the American Board, became a fierce critic, accusing him of ritualism. The officially chartered name of "Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church" provoked criticism as "papist". After Kamehameha IV died, an elaborate funeral service was held that was compared to a Pontifical High Mass.[1] Staley was even attacked by American writer Mark Twain, and others whom he called "Puritans".[1]

Honolulu Cathedral cornerstone1867
Cornerstone of St. Andrew's Cathedral laid in 1867

The Church of Hawaiʻi became the official royal church, with land donated from the royal family's holdings, not the government. Emma was baptized, followed by a young David Kalākaua who would later also become king. The Royal Mausoleum was built with a private chapel, which contrasted to the simple unadorned graveyards preferred by earlier missionaries. Observance of the holidays of Christmas and Good Friday was begun. Since Kamehameha IV had died on the feast of Saint Andrew, the first cathedral constructed in Hawaiʻi by his brother the new King Kamehameha V was called the Saint Andrew's Cathedral. The cornerstone was laid in 1867, and it became the official residence of the bishop. Two associated schools were also started: Saint Andrew's Priory School for Girls, and a boys' school named for Saint Alban, which eventually became part of ʻIolani School.

After the overthrow of the monarchy in 1893 and United States annexation in 1898, the Church of Hawaiʻi was dissolved and became the Episcopal Diocese of Hawaiʻi as territorial jurisdiction was transferred to the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Robert Louis Semes (2000). "Hawai'i's Holy War: English Bishop Staley, American Congregationalists, and the Hawaiian Monarchs, 1860 - 1870". Hawaiian Journal of History. 34. Hawaii Historical Society. pp. 113–95. hdl:10524/159.
  2. ^ Staley, Thomas N (1868). Five Years' Church Work in the Kingdom of Hawaii. London, Oxford and Cambridge: Rivington's.
  3. ^ "History". Episcopal Diocese of Hawai'i. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-02-11.

External links

Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew (Honolulu)

The Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew, also commonly known as St. Andrew's Cathedral, is a cathedral of the Episcopal Church in the United States located in the State of Hawaii. Originally the seat of the Anglican Church of Hawaii, it is now the home of the bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Hawaii. It is affiliated with St. Andrew's Schools, which consists of the main girls' K-12 school, the coeducational Queen Emma Preschool and a boys' preparatory school (elementary).

Episcopal Diocese of Hawaii

The Episcopal Diocese of Hawai'i is the ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Episcopal Church of the Anglican Communion in the United States encompassing the state of Hawaii. It is led by the Episcopal Bishop of Hawaii pastoring the Hawaiian Islands from the Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew in Honolulu.

The territorial jurisdiction which the Episcopal Diocese of Honolulu holds today was given up to American Episcopalians after the 1893 overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani, head of the Church of Hawaii. The Church of Hawaii, also called the Hawaii Reformed Catholic Church, was established by Kamehameha IV and Emma in 1862. The king and queen, friends of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, were devout members of the Church of England. Episcopalians continue the Anglican Church of Hawaii tradition of celebrating the Feast of the Holy Sovereigns each November 28, in honor of Kamhehameha IV and Queen Emma.

Feast of the Holy Sovereigns

The Feast of the Holy Sovereigns is celebrated annually in the Episcopal Church in Hawaii on November 28. The feast celebrates the founders of the Anglican Church of Hawaii, King Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma of Hawaii. The Anglican Church of Hawaii was originally called the Hawaii Reformed Catholic Church.The rest of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America observes this as the feast day of Kamehameha and Emma, King and Queen of Hawaii, but does not use the name "Feast of the Holy Sovereigns".

Immaculate Conception Catholic Church (Lihue, Hawaii)

Immaculate Conception Catholic Church in Lihue is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located in Lihue on the island of Kauai, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. It is named after the Blessed Virgin Mary. The church was built in 1924.

Maria Lanakila Catholic Church

Maria Lanakila Catholic Church is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located in Lahaina on the island of Maui, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. The parish has a mission in Kapalua under the title of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. Maria Lanakila means "Victorious Mary", the Hawaiian language equivalent to the English language epithet "Our Lady of Victory", which refers to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The first Catholic priests arrived on Maui on April 21, 1846. The pastor was Fr. Aubert of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. A temporary church was built on the site, with a new structure dedicated September 8, 1858. In 1927–1928 a concrete church was built on the original foundation. The pastor as of 2009 was Gary P. Colton.

The church is a contributing property of the Lahaina Historic District, designated a National Historic Landmark District on December 29, 1962.

It is located on 712 Waineʻe Street, coordinates 20°52′31″N 156°40′36″W.

The church appeared in the ABC television series Hart to Hart ("Harts and Palms," Season 3, Episode 14).

Our Lady Queen of Angels Catholic Church (Kula, Hawaii)

Our Lady Queen of Angels Catholic Church in Kula is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located in Kula on the island of Maui, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. It is named after a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Our Lady of Good Counsel Catholic Church (Pearl City, Hawaii)

Our Lady of Good Counsel Catholic Church is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located in Pearl City on the island of Oahu, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop.

Our Lady of the Mount Catholic Church (Honolulu)

Our Lady of the Mount Catholic Church in Honolulu is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. It falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. Located in the Kalihi Valley neighborhood community, it once served the immigrant Portuguese pineapple and sugarcane plantation laborers of the early 20th century. They dedicated their church to Nossa Sanhora do Monte or Our Lady of the Mount, in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu

The Catholic Diocese of Honolulu, officially in Latin Dioecesis Honoluluensis, is an ecclesiastical territory or particular church of the Catholic Church in the United States. The diocese comprises the entire state of Hawaiʻi and the unincorporated Hawaiian Islands.The diocese is suffragan to and a part of the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of San Francisco, which includes the suffragan dioceses of Las Vegas, Oakland, Reno, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Jose, Santa Rosa and Stockton. The patrons of the Diocese of Honolulu are the Blessed Virgin Mary, under the title of Malia O Ka Malu or Our Lady Queen of Peace, Saint Damien of Molokaʻi, and Saint Marianne of Molokaʻi.

The diocese is governed by the Bishop of Honolulu. His canonical seat or cathedra is located at the Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Peace. With his clergy, the bishop ministers to a culturally diverse population in the following languages: Hawaiian; English; Ilokano; Tagalog; Samoan; Tongan; Japanese; Korean; Spanish; and Vietnamese. It is one of the most diverse and one of the largest dioceses in the United States, in terms of territorial area which spans statewide and includes unpopulated Hawaiian Islands.

Saint Ann Catholic Church (Kaneohe, Hawaii)

Saint Ann Catholic Church in Kaneohe is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located in Kaneohe on the island of Oahu, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. It is named after Saint Ann.

Saint Joseph Catholic Church (Hilo, Hawaii)

Saint Joseph Catholic Church in Hilo is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located at 43 Kapiolani Street, 19°43′20″N 155°5′25″W, in Hilo on the Big Island of Hawaii, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. It is named after Saint Joseph, foster father of Jesus.

This parish operates the St. Joseph Junior and Senior High School and an elementary school.

Across the street from the main church built in 1915 - 1917 is the Haili Church.

Saint Joseph Catholic Church (Makawao, Hawaii)

Saint Joseph Catholic Church in Makawao is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located in Makawao on the island of Maui, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. It is named after Saint Joseph, the father of Jesus.

Saint Raphael Catholic Church (Koloa, Hawaii)

Saint Raphael Catholic Church in Koloa is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located in Koloa on the island of Kauai, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. It is named after Saint Raphael.

The oldest Catholic Church in Kauai, St. Raphael's was founded in 1841 by Father Arsenius Walsh. It was founded two years after Catholics were granted religious freedom in Hawaii after the French threatened Honolulu. The church building was completed in 1854. It was enlarged and renovated in 1936.

Saint Theresa Catholic Church (Kekaha, Hawaii)

Saint Theresa Catholic Church in Kekaha is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaii in the United States. Located in Kekaha on the island of Kauai, the church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. It is named after Thérèse of Lisieux.

The original St. Theresa Church was blessed in January 1941. It burned down in 1977 and a new church was built on the original sight and blessed in 1979. The church was staffed by Marist priests from 1944-1985 when LaSalette priests took over. The Franciscan Sisters of Christian Charity of Manitowoc, Wisconsin, have worked at St. Theresa School since coming to Hawaii in 1946. The school also began in 1946. A sister was principal at St. Theresa School until 2006, when the school received its first lay principal.Hurricane Iniki destroyed the original St. Theresa School, as well as, the rectory, convent, and church hall. The church needed a new roof and other repairs.

St. Michael the Archangel Church (Kailua-Kona, Hawaii)

Saint Michael the Archangel Catholic Church is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church of Hawaiʻi in the United States. Located in Kailua-Kona on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi, 75-5769 Ali'i Drive, coordinates 19°38′13″N 155°59′28″W.

The church falls under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Honolulu and its bishop. On June 17, 1839, Kamehameha III declared religious freedom in the Kingdom in the Edict of Toleration. A mission named after Saint Michael the Archangel was founded in 1840, the first Catholic Church on the island. The first services were in a small grass hut. Governor John Adams Kuakini gave the land South of Mokuʻaikaua Church to the Catholic mission in 1841. The present church was completed in 1850 under Father Joachim Merechel. He was buried inside the church in 1859. In 1940 Father Benno Evers constructed a grotto of coral from Kailua Bay over the site of the original well.

The parish includes the mission churches of Immaculate Conception in Holualoa, St. Peter by the Sea Church (known as the "Little Blue Church") on Kahaluʻu bay, St. Paul in Kawanui and Holy Rosary in Kalaoa. The land beneath Holy Rosary was given to the Church by King Kalakaua in 1876.

The main church building was forced to close on September 24, 2007, due to lingering damage from the earthquake in the area almost a year prior, on October 15, 2006. The parish continued to hold Mass in a tent on the site.

In 2009, the parish announced the church would be demolished in November 2009. A nearby building that served as a convent has also been demolished. Construction on a new church began in early 2013. In 2009, a book was published detailing the history of the 159-year-old church.

Thomas Blackburn (entomologist)

Thomas Blackburn (16 March 1844 – 28 May 1912) was an English-born Australian entomologist who specialized in the study of beetles.

Born near Liverpool, England, Blackburn became interested in entomology in his youth. At the age of 18, with his brother, he began publishing and editing the periodical The Weekly Entomologist; this ceased publication two years later, after which he became one of the editors of the newly founded Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. In 1866, he entered the University of London, from which he received a B.A. degree in 1868. Ordained a priest of the Church of England in 1870, he served for six years as a parish priest at Greenhithe, Kent.In 1876, Blackburn was transferred to the Hawaiian Islands, where he served as senior priest and chaplain to the bishop of the Church of Hawaii in Honolulu. During his time there, he collected insects extensively on Oahu and also made brief collecting journeys to other islands of the archipelago. "The first resident naturalist to concentrate on insects", he "supplied scientists at the British Museum in London and elsewhere with a steady stream of specimens, refuting the belief that insects were poorly represented in Hawai'i". Among his discoveries were 23 previously undescribed species of carabid beetles of the tribe Platynini.Blackburn was transferred to Australia in 1882, becoming rector of St. Thomas' Church in Port Lincoln from 1882 to 1886, then of St. Margaret's in Woodville, where he remained for the rest of his life. After his arrival in Australia, his entomological studies were focused almost exclusively on coleoptera, specimens of which he collected throughout South Australia, as well as on trips to the other states. He also studied, classified, and described specimens sent to him by numerous other collectors throughout the continent. In the words of his obituarist Arthur Lea, Curator of Entomology at the South Australian Museum, "He was a systematist, pure and simple, taking no interest, or, at any rate, very little, in the life histories of the insects themselves." Specializing in the Scarabaeidae, he "became the foremost Australian coleopterist, and published descriptions of 3,069 Australian species". He was a member of the Linnean Society of New South Wales and the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, and from 1887 until his death was Honorary Curator of Entomology for the South Australian Museum. A significant part of his collections, including most of his type material, is housed at the Natural History Museum, London.

Among Blackburn's children were Charles Blackburn and Arthur Blackburn; a grandson was Richard Blackburn. A great-granddaughter of Blackburn's, the biological researcher Elizabeth Blackburn, shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her work in the study of telomeres.

Thomas Nettleship Staley

Thomas Nettleship Staley (17 January 1823 – 1 November 1898) was a British bishop of the Church of England and the first Anglican bishop of the Church of Hawaii.

William Hoapili Kaʻauwai

William Hoapili Kaʻauwai (c. 1835 – March 30, 1874) was a Hawaiian high chief and politician, and religious deacon of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He served two terms as a member of the House of Representatives of the Legislature of the Kingdom in 1862 and 1870. He became the only Native Hawaiian to be ordained a priest of the Anglican Church of Hawaii and traveled with its founder Queen Emma to Europe between 1865 and 1866, circumnavigating the globe upon his return eastward via New Zealand.

ʻIolani School

ʻIolani School, located at 563 Kamoku Street in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi, is a private coeducational college preparatory school serving over 1,800 students. Founded in 1863 by Father William R. Scott, it was the principal school of the former Anglican Church of Hawaiʻi. It was patronized by Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma who gave the school its name in 1870. ʻIolani in the Hawaiian language means "heavenly hawk". Today, ʻIolani School is affiliated with the Episcopal Church in the United States. It is administered by a Board of Governors and is one of the largest independent schools in the United States.

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