The Church Mission Society (CMS), formerly known as the Church Missionary Society, is a British mission society working with the Anglican Communion and Protestant Christians around the world. Founded in 1799, CMS has attracted over nine thousand men and women to serve as mission partners during its 200-year history. The society has also given its name "CMS" to a number of daughter organisations around the world, including Australia and New Zealand, which have now become independent.
In 1802 Josiah Pratt was appointed secretary, a position he held until 1824, becoming an early driving force in the CMS. The first missionaries went out in 1804. They came from the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg and had trained at the Berlin Seminary. The name Church Missionary Society began to be used and in 1812 the society was renamed The Church Missionary Society. The principal missions, the founding missionaries, and the dates of the establishment of the missions are:
West Indies (1813): The CMS started work in Antigua and expanded to other islands. By 1838 the CMS had congregations of 8,000, with 13 ordained missionaries, 23 lay teachers and 70 schools. In about 1848 a shortage of funds resulted in the CMS withdrawing from the West Indies.
Australia (1825): Rev. William Watson and Rev. Johann Simon Christian Handt arrived to establish the Wellington Valley Mission near to Wellington, New South Wales. However, because of drought and the lack of success of the mission, the CMS withdrew. In 1892 CMS Associations were set up in New South Wales and Victoria. In 1916 the Church Missionary Association of Australia was formed, which was later renamed the Church Missionary Society of Australia. By 1927 the CMS Australia was active in the Northern Territory, Australia, including in communities along the Roper River in the Katherine region.
South Africa (1837): Captain Allen Francis Gardiner R.N. obtained the permission of Dingaan, a Zulu chief, to establish a CMS mission. Rev Francis Owen arriving in August 1837, followed by W. Hewetson and a surgeon, R. Philips. However, following armed conflict between the Zulus and the newly arrived Voortrekkers (Boers), the CMS abandoned the mission.
Palestine (1851): The Revd Frederick Augustus Klein arrived in Nazareth in 1851 where he lived for 5–6 years, then he moved to Jerusalem until 1877. In 1855 the Revd John Zeller was sent to Nablus. In 1857, he moved to Nazareth, where he stayed for the next 20 years, then he moved to Jerusalem.Edith Eleanor Newton began a mission in 1887 and served as the Sister Head of the Medical Mission Hospital. In 1892, she became owner and operator of the Jaffa Mission Hospital.
Mauritius (1854): Bishop Vincent W Ryan was appointed the bishop of Mauritius in 1854 and the same year the Revd David Fenn established a mission station.
Japan (1868): The Revd George Ensor established a mission station at Nagasaki and in 1874 he was replaced by the Revd H Burnside. The same year the mission was expanded to include the Revd C. F. Warren at Osaka, the Revd Philip Fyson at Yokohama, the Revd J. Piper at Tokyo (Yedo), the Revd H. Evington at Niigata and the Revd W. Dening at Hokkaido. The Revd H. Maundrell joined the Japan mission in 1875 and served at Nagasaki. The Revd John Batchelor was a missionary to the Ainu people of Hokkaido from 1877 to 1941. Hannah Riddell arrived in Kumamoto, Kyūshū in 1891. She worked to establish the Kaishun Hospital (known in English as the Kumamoto Hospital of the Resurrection of Hope) for the treatment of Leprosy, with the hospital opening on 12 November 1895. Hannah Riddell left the CMS in 1900 to run the hospital.
From the beginning of the organisation until 1894 the total number of CMS missionaries amounted to 1,335 (men) and 317 (women). During this period the indigenous clergy ordained by the branch missions totalled 496 and about 5,000 lay teachers had been trained by the branch missions. In 1894 the active members of the CMS totaled: 344 ordained missionaries, 304 indigenous clergy (ordained by the branch missions) and 93 lay members of the CMS. As of 1894, in addition to the missionary work the CMS operated about 2,016 schools, with about 84,725 students.
In the first 25 years of the CMS nearly half the missionaries were Germans trained in Berlin and later from the Basel Seminary. The Church Missionary Society College, Islington opened in 1825 and trained about 600 missionaries; about 300 joined the CMS from universities and about 300 came from other sources. 30 CMS missionaries were appointed to the Episcopate, serving as bishops.
The CMS published The Church Missionary Gleaner, from April 1841 to September 1857. From 1813 to 1855 the society published The Missionary Register, "containing an abstract of the principal missionary and bible societies throughout the world". From 1816, "containing the principal transactions of the various institutions for propagating the gospel with the proceedings at large of the Church Missionary Society".
During the early 20th century, the society's theology moved in a more liberal direction under the leadership of Eugene Stock. There was considerable debate over the possible introduction of a doctrinal test for missionaries, which advocates claimed would restore the society's original evangelical theology. In 1922, the society split, with the liberal evangelicals remaining in control of CMS headquarters, whilst conservative evangelicals established the Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society (BCMS, now Crosslinks).
In 1995 the name was changed to the Church Mission Society.
At the end of the 20th century there was a significant swing back to the Evangelical position, probably in part due to a review in 1999 at the anniversary and also due to the re-integration of Mid Africa Ministry (formerly the Ruanda Mission). The position of CMS is now that of an ecumenical Evangelical society.
In 2004 CMS was instrumental in bringing together a number of Anglican and, later, some Protestant mission agencies to form Faith2Share, an international network of mission agencies.
In June 2007, CMS in Britain moved the administrative office out of London for the first time. It is now based in east Oxford.
In 2008, CMS was acknowledged as a mission community by the Advisory Council on the Relations of Bishops and Religious Communities of the Church of England. It currently has approximately 2,800 members who commit to seven promises, aspiring to live a lifestyle shaped by mission.
In 2010 Church Mission Society launched the Pioneer Mission Leadership Training programme, providing leadership training for both lay people and those preparing for ordination as pioneer ministers. It is accredited by Durham University as part of the Church of England's Common Awards. In 2015 there were 70 students on the course, studying at certificate, diploma and MA level.
On 31 January 2016 Church Mission Society had 151 mission partners in 30 countries and 62 local partners in 26 countries (this programme supports local mission leaders in Asia, Africa and South America in "pioneer settings") serving in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East. In addition, 127 mission associates (affiliated to Church Mission Society but not employed or financially supported through CMS) and 16 short-termers. In 2015–16, Church Mission Society had a budget of £6.8 million, drawn primarily from donations by individuals and parishes, supplemented by historic investments.
^Donald Crummey, Priests and Politicians, 1972, Oxford University Press (reprinted Hollywood: Tsehai, 2007), pp. 12, 29f. For an account of the society's Amharic translation, see Edward Ullendorff, Ethiopia and the Bible (Oxford: University Press for the British Academy, 1968), pp. 62–67 and the sources cited there.
^Stock 1923. The more liberal CMS position may be compared with the attitude expressed in the preface to its 1904 English–Kikuyu Vocabulary, whose author, CMS member A. W. McGregor, complained of the difficulty in obtaining information about Kikuyu from "very unwilling and unintelligent natives" (McGregor 1904, p. iii).
^ abChurch Mission Society Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 January 2016.
Hewitt, Gordon, The Problems of Success, A History of the Church Missionary Society 1910–1942, Vol I (1971) In Tropical Africa. The Middle East. At HomeISBN 0-334-00252-4; Vol II (1977)Asia Overseas PartnersISBN 0-334-01313-5
Murray, Jocelyn (1985). Proclaim the Good News. A Short History of the Church Missionary Society. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-34501-2..
Stock, Eugene (1899–1916). "The History of the Church Missionary Society: Its Environment, Its Men, and Its Work". 1–4. London: CMS.
Ward, Kevin, and Brian Stanley, eds. The Church Mission Society and World Christianity, 1799-1999 (Eerdmans, 2000). excerpt
Missionary Register; containing an abstract of the principal missionary and bible societies throughout the world. From 1816, containing the principal transactions of the various institutions for propagating the gospel with the proceedings at large of the Church Missionary Society. They were published from 1813–1855 by L. B. Seeley & Sons, London
Some are online readable and downloadable at Google Books:
Arthur Siddall (born 1943) is a retired Anglican priest.Siddall was educated at Lancaster University and ordained in 1968. He was a curate at Holy Trinity Formby and All Saints' Childwall before five years as a Church Mission Society missionary in Bangladesh. On his return to England he held incumbencies at St Paul's Clitheroe and St Gabriel Blackburn. He was Deputy Secretary to The Mission to Seafarers from 1990 to 1993 and then Vicar of St Bartholomew's, Chipping, before his appointment as Archdeacon of Italy and Malta in 2005. In 2007 he additionally became Archdeacon of Switzerland. He retired in 2009.
Benjamin Bailey (Dewsbury, November 1791 - 3 April 1871 in Sheinton, Shropshire, England) was a British Church Mission Society missionary in Kerala for 34 years. He was ordained 1815 and moved to Kerala in 1816 where he founded a mission station in Kottayam, and in 1821 he established a Malayalam printing press. He translated the Bible into Malayalam, in 1846 published the first English-Malayalam dictionary, and in 1849 published the first Malayalam-English dictionary.
Church Mission Society Higher Secondary School (CMSHSS) is a higher secondary school located in Thrissur city, of Kerala state, in India. The school was started by CMS missionary in 1883. The school gives instruction in Malayalam and English and follows the Kerala state syllabus. It has classes from first standard to 12th standard.
A fresh expression of church is one of over a thousand new Christian churches or congregations that have developed within one or more Christian denominations and organisations in the United Kingdom and abroad, including the Church of England, Methodist Church, United Reformed Church, Church of Scotland, The Salvation Army, Church Mission Society, 24/7 Prayer, Ground Level Network, Congregational Federation, Christian Witness Ministries Europe and Anglican Church Planting Initiatives.A fresh expression of church is a "form of church for our changing culture, established primarily for the benefit of people who are not yet members of any church [which] will come into being through principles of listening, service, incarnational mission and making disciples [and] will have the potential to become a mature expression of church shaped by the gospel and the enduring marks of the church and for its cultural context".
Geoffrey Franceys Cranswick (10 April 1894 – 19 July 1978) was the Bishop of Tasmania from 1944 to 1963.Cranswick was educated at The King's School, Parramatta, Sydney Church of England Grammar School and the University of Sydney. He was ordained in 1920 and was a curate at West Ham before being with the Church Mission Society (CMS) in Bengal to 1937 and then Principal of King Edward's School Chapra until his ordination to the episcopate. He died on 19 July 1978 and is buried in the churchyard at St Matthew New Norfolk. His elder brother, George, was the Bishop of Gippsland from 1917 to 1942.
George Holmes was an English-born Anglican bishop in Canada from 1905 to 1912.Holmes was born in Kendal, Westmorland on 23 November 1858 and ordained in 1887 after which he was a Church Mission Society (CMS) missionary in the Northwest Territories. In 1901 he became Archdeacon of Athabasca and four years later was ordained to the episcopate as the Bishop of Moosonoe. He was translated to the Diocese of Athabasca in 1909. He died on 3 February 1912.
Gordon David Savage was an Anglican bishop who served in two posts from 1960 to 1970.Born on 14 April 1915 he was educated at Reading School and St Catherine's College, Oxford and ordained in 1940 after an earlier career as a Librarian. His first post was as Chaplain, Lecturer and Tutor at Tyndale Hall, Bristol after which he was successively General Secretary of the Church Mission Society, Vicar of Marston, Oxford and Archdeacon of Buckingham before elevation to the eponymous Suffragan Bishopric. After four years he was translated to Southwell where he remained until he resigned.Gordon Savage stepped down as Bishop of Southwell after the News of the World reported on his extracurricular activities with a topless dancer in a Soho nightclub and following a trip to the Canary Islands with a nightclub hostess. Gordon Savage was a Church of England bishop forced to resign because of a sex scandal. He died on 9 June 1990.
John Charles Jones (3 May 1904 – 13 October 1956) was the Anglican Bishop of Bangor from 1943 until his death.Jones was educated at the Grammar School, Carmarthen, Cardiff University and Wadham College, Oxford. He held curacies at Llanelli and Aberystwyth before 11 years in Uganda as a Church Mission Society (CMS) missionary. He returned to Llanelli as its vicar in 1945, his last post before his ordination to the episcopate.
The Kinnaird College for Women (KCW) is a public college located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is a women's liberal arts college.Kinnaird was established in 1913 by the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission. In 1919, Presbyterian Mission Church and the Church Mission Society joined a consortium to fund and operate the college. It, in 1926, moved to its current campus on the Jail Road, where it grew over the years and by 1939 the college had grown into a 20-acre (81,000 m2) campus.
Norman Henry Tubbs (5 July 1879 – 2 September 1965) was an Anglican bishop in the 20th century.Tubbs was educated at Highgate School and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He was ordained in 1903 and was a curate at Whitechapel Parish Church before going to India as a Church Mission Society missionary, eventually becoming principal of Bishop’s College, Calcutta. In 1923 he was ordained to the episcopate as the 4th Bishop of Tinnevelly. He was translated to Rangoon in 1928 and returned to England six years later to be the Archdeacon of Chester and later Dean of Chester.Norman Tubbs was the father of Christopher Norman Tubbs (1926–2010), Vicar of Scalby, North Yorkshire from 1959 to 1995, Rural Dean of Scarborough from 1976 to 1982 and a Canon of York Minster. Christopher was ordained by his father in Chester Cathedral in 1952.
Peter St George Vaughan (born 27 November 1930) was the area Bishop of Ramsbury from 1989 to 1998.Vaughan was educated at Charterhouse School and Selwyn College, Cambridge before beginning his ordained ministry as a curate at Birmingham Parish Church, followed by an appointment as a chaplain to The Oxford Pastorate based at St Aldate's Church, Oxford. He was then Vicar of Galle Face before becoming the Precentor of Holy Trinity Cathedral, Auckland and then Principal of the Church Mission Society college at Selly Oak and then (his final appointment before ordination to the episcopate) Archdeacon of Westmorland and Furness. In retirement he continues as an assistant bishop in the Diocese of Gloucester.
Philip Ian Mounstephen (born 13 July 1959) is a British Anglican bishop and missionary; he has been the Bishop of Truro (the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Truro) since November 2018. From 2012, he was the executive leader of the Church Mission Society (CMS); he previously worked for Church Pastoral Aid Society (CPAS) and has served in parish ministry in the Diocese of Oxford, the Diocese of Southwark, and the Diocese in Europe.
The Sierra Leone Grammar School was founded on 25 March 1845 in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by the Church Mission Society (CMS), and at first was called the CMS Grammar School. It was the first secondary educational institution for West Africans with a European curriculum. Many of the administrators and professionals of British West Africa were educated at the school.
Timothy John "Tim" Dakin (born 6 February 1958) is an Anglican bishop. He was the General Secretary of the Church Mission Society (CMS) and the South American Missionary Society (SAMS) prior to his consecration. He has been the Bishop of Winchester since 2011 and is ex officio a Member of the House of Lords. He is additionally the Bishop for Higher and Further Education since 2013.
Tyndale Biscoe School is a school in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. The school was founded in 1880 CE and is one of the oldest schools in Jammu and Kashmir. The school was started by Christian missionaries and was named after Canon Cecil Tyndale-Biscoe (1863–1949). It still has affiliations with the Church Mission Society.
William Aubrey Robins (23 September 1868 – 22 November 1949) was Archdeacon of Bedford from 1935 to 1945.Robins was educated at Marlborough and Trinity College, Oxford. He began his ecclesiastical career as a curate at St Mary Redcliffe after which he was a Church Mission Society missionary in British Columbia. He held incumbencies at St Martin’s, Bristol and St John the Baptist, Cirencester before his years as an archdeacon.
This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.