Chur or Coire (German: [ˈkuːr] or [ˈxuːr]; Romansh: Cuira [ˈkwerɐ] or [ˈkwoi̯rɐ]; Italian: Coira [ˈkɔi̯ɾa]; French: Coire [ˈkwaʁ])[notes 1] is the capital and largest town of the Swiss canton of Grisons and lies in the Grisonian Rhine Valley, where the Rhine turns towards the north, in the northern part of the canton. The city, which is located on the right bank of the Rhine, is reputedly the oldest town of Switzerland.
Chur, looking upstream, to the west
Location of Chur
|• Executive||Stadtrat |
with 3 members
|• Mayor||Stadtpräsident (list)|
Urs Marti FDP/PRD
(as of February 2014)
|• Parliament||Gemeinderat |
with 21 members
|• Total||28.09 km2 (10.85 sq mi)|
|593 m (1,946 ft)|
|1,885 m (6,184 ft)|
|554 m (1,818 ft)|
|• Density||1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)|
|Localities||Altstadt, Sand, Kasernenquartier, Industriegebiet, Loestrasse-Lürlibad, Masans, Rheinquartier|
|Surrounded by||Churwalden, Domat/Ems, Felsberg, Haldenstein, Maladers, Malix, Trimmis|
|Twin towns||Bad Homburg (Germany), Cabourg (France), Mayrhofen (Austria), Mondorf-les-Bains (Luxembourg), Terracina (Italy)|
Archaeological evidence of settlement at the site, in the Eastern Alps, goes back as far as the Pfyn culture (3900-3500 BC), making Chur one of the oldest settlements in Switzerland. Remains and objects from the Bronze and Iron Ages have also been found in the eastern sector of the current city's centre. These include Bronze Age Urnfield and Luco-Meluno settlements from 1300-800 BC and Iron Age settlements from the 5th to 3rd centuries BC.
The Roman Empire conquered the area that then came to be known as the Roman province of Raetia in 15 BC. Under emperor Diocletian (late 3rd century AD), the existing settlement of Curia Raetorum (later Chur) was made the capital of the newly established province of Raetia prima.
In the 4th century Chur became the seat of the first Christian bishopric north of the Alps. Despite a legend assigning its foundation to an alleged Briton king, St. Lucius, the first known bishop is one Asinio in 451 AD.
After the invasion of the Ostrogoths, it was rechristened Theodoricopolis; in the 6th century it was conquered by the Franks. The city suffered several invasions, by the Magyars in 925-926, when the cathedral was destroyed, and by the Saracens (940 and 954), but afterwards it flourished thanks to its location, where the roads from several major Alpine transit routes come together and continue down the Rhine. The routes had been already used under the Romans but acquired greater importance under the Ottonian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Otto I granted the town the right to collect tolls in 952 and appointed his vassal Hartpert as bishop of Chur in 958, giving the bishopric numerous privileges. In 1170 the bishop became a prince-bishop and kept total control over the road between Chur and Chiavenna.
In the 13th century the town had some 1,300 inhabitants, and was surrounded by a line of walls. In the 14th century, at least six fires damaged or destroyed the monasteries of St. Luzi and St. Nicolai, St. Martin's church and twice destroyed much of the town. The Gotteshausbund (League of the House of God) was formed in 1367 in Chur to resist the rising power of the Bishopric of Chur and the House of Habsburg. Chur was the chief town of the League and one of the places the Leagues' assemblies met regularly. A burgmeister (mayor) of Chur is first mentioned in 1413, The bishop's residence was attacked by the inhabitants in 1418 and 1422, when a series of concessions were wrung out of him.
On 27 April 1464 most of the town was destroyed in a fire, which only the bishop's estates and St. Luzi monastery survived. With the bishops' power waning as he came increasingly under the influence of the nearby Habsburg County of Tyrol, the citizens sent a delegation to Emperor Frederick III. The Emperor reconfirmed the historic rights of Chur and also granted them extensive new rights which freed the city from the bishop's power. In 1465 the citizens wrote a constitution which granted all governmental power to Chur's guilds. All government positions were restricted to guild members, allowing the guilds to regulate all aspects of life in Chur. Because guild membership was the only route to political power, local patricians and nobles quickly became guild members, often joining the winemakers guild.
The Chur lead League of the House of God allied with the Grey League and the League of the Ten Jurisdictions in 1471 to form the Three Leagues. In 1489 Chur obtained the right to have a tribunal of its own, but never had the title of Free Imperial City. In 1497-98, concerned about Habsburg expansion and with the Bishop of Chur quarrelling with Austria, the Three Leagues formed an alliance with the Swiss Confederation. In 1499 the Swabian War broke out between the Three Leagues and Austria and quickly expanded to include the Confederation. During the war, troops from Chur fought under the Bishop's Vogt Heinrich Ammann in the Lower Engadin, in Prättigau and near Balzers. Troops from Chur also took part in the 1512 invasion of the Valtellina and the Second Musso War in 1530-31.
In 1523 Johannes (Dorfmann) Comander was appointed parish priest of St. Martin's Church and began preaching the new faith of the Protestant Reformation. It spread rapidly and by 1524-25 the bishop had fled the city and Protestant services were taking place in the churches of St. Martin and St. Regula. The Ilanz articles of 1524 and 1526 allowed each resident of the Three Leagues to choose their religion, and sharply reduced the political and secular power of the Bishop of Chur and all monasteries in League territory. By 1527 all of Chur, except the bishop's estates, had adopted the Reformation. On 1 January 1529 Abbot Theodore Schlegel was publicly beheaded. Bishop Thomas Planta, a friend of St. Charles Borromeo, tried, but without success, to suppress Protestantism. He died, probably poisoned, 5 May 1565.
During the 16th century the German language started to prevail over Romansh. In 1479 about 300 houses and stalls burned in another fire. Nearly a century later on 23 July 1574 a fire destroyed 174 houses and 114 stalls, or about half the city. Two years later on 21 October 1576, another 53 houses were burned. Two years after the 1576 fire, the perpetrator, Hauptmann Stör, was executed.
After the Napoleonic Wars, the Three Leagues became the canton of Graubünden in 1803. The guild constitution of the city of Chur lasted until 1839, while in 1874 the Burgergemeinde was replaced by an Einwohnergemeinde. When Graubünden became a canton in 1803, Chur was chosen as its capital.
Chur had an area, (as of the 2004/09 survey) of 28.09 km2 (10.85 sq mi). Of this area, about 17.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 52.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 26.5% is settled (buildings or roads) and 3.9% is unproductive land. Over the past two decades (1979/85-2004/09) the amount of land that is settled has increased by 86 ha (210 acres) and the agricultural land has decreased by 87 ha (210 acres).
Chur is situated at a height of 1,949 ft (594 m) above sea level, on the right bank of the torrent Plessur, just as it issues from the valley Schanfigg, and about a mile above its junction with the Rhine, almost entirely surrounded by the Alps, overshadowed by the Mittenberg (northeast) and Pizoggel (southwest), hills that guard the entrance to the deep-cut valley Schanfigg.
The altitude in the city area varies from 600 meters (2,000 ft) above sea level to 1,800 meters (5,900 ft) above sea level, the Churer Hausberg Brambrüesch (accessible from the Old Town) situated at 2,174 meters (7,133 ft) above sea level.
The water of Chur's spring is exported and sold as Passugger mineral water.
Chur has an oceanic climate in spite of its inland position. Summers are warm and sometimes hot, normally averaging around 25 °C (77 °F) during the day, whilst winter means are around freezing, with daytime temperatures being about 5 °C (41 °F). Between 1981 and 201 Chur had an average of 104.6 days of rain per year and on average received 849 mm (33.4 in) of precipitation. The wettest month was August during which time Chur received an average of 112 mm (4.4 in) of precipitation. During this month there was precipitation for an average of 11.2 days. The driest month of the year was February with an average of 47 mm (1.9 in) of precipitation over 6.6 days.
|Climate data for Chur (1981-2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||4.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||51
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||34.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||7.3||6.6||8.1||7.5||9.9||11.2||11.0||11.2||8.4||7.0||8.5||7.9||104.6|
|Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm)||4.8||3.9||2.5||0.4||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.6||4.1||17.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||73||70||65||63||64||67||68||71||73||73||74||75||70|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||97||112||139||147||169||177||203||185||155||135||93||81||1,692|
|Source: MeteoSwiss |
Blazon: On silver a red city gate with three merlons, in the gate an upright standing black capricorn.
The City Council (Stadtrat) constitutes the executive government of the City of Chur and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of only three councilors (German: Stadtrat/ Stadträtin), each presiding over a department. In the mandate period 2017–2020 (Legislatur) the City Council is presided by Stadtpräsident Urs Marti. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Municipal Council (parliament) are carried by the City Council. The regular election of the City Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Chur allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Council. The current mandate period is from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2020. The delegates are elected by means of a system of Proporz. The mayor is elected as such by public election by means of a system of Majorz, while the heads of the other departments are assigned by the collegiate.
As of 2017, Chur's City Council is made up of one representative of the FDP (FDP.The Liberals, who is also the mayor), one member of the Freie Liste Verda (FLV) (Free Green List), and one of the SP (Social Democratic Party), giving the left parties a majority of two out of three seats. The last regular election was held on 5/26 June 2016.
|Party||Head of Department (Leitung, since) of||elected since|
|Urs Marti[CC 1]||FDP||Departement 1 (2013)||2012|
|Tom Leibundgut||FLV||Departement 3 (2013)||2012|
|Patrik Degiacomi||SP||Departement 2 (2017)||2016|
The Municipal Council (Gemeinderat) holds legislative power. It is made up of only 21 members, with elections held every four years. The Municipal Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the City Council and the administration. The delegates are selected by means of a system of Proporz.
The sessions of the Municipal Council are public. Unlike members of the City Council, members of the Municipal Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Chur allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipal Council. The parliament holds its meetings in the Rathaus (Town Hall).
The last regular election of the Municipal Council was held on 5 June 2016 for the mandate period (German: Legislatur) from January 2017 to December 2020. Currently the Municipal Council consist of 6 members of the Social Democratic Party (SP/PS), 4 Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC), 3 Conservative Democratic Party (BDP/PBD), 3 The Liberals (FDP/PLR), 2 Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP/PDC), 2 Freie Liste Verda (Free Green List), one Green Liberal Party (GLP/PVL).
In the 2015 federal election the most popular party was the SVP/UDC with 26.43% of the vote followed almost equally by the SP/PS (25.96%), then the CVP/PDC (13.74%), the FDP/PLR (12.06%), the BDP/PBD (11.97), and the GLP/PVL (9.71). In the federal election, a total of 11,102 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 45.4%.
Chur has a population (as of 31 December 2017) of 35,038. In 2008, 17.8% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, by 2014 that number was 19.2%. Over the last 4 years (2010-2014) the population has changed at a rate of 2.34%. The birth rate in the municipality, in 2014, was 9.2, while the death rate was 10.0 per thousand residents. Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (81.0%), with Romansh being second most common (5.4%) and Italian being third (5.1%).
As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 47.9% male and 52.1% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Chur is; 3,087 children or 9.4% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old. 1,602 teenagers or 4.9% are 10 to 14, and 2,194 teenagers or 6.7% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, 4,770 people or 14.5% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 5,517 people or 16.7% are 30 to 39, 4,616 people or 14.0% are 40 to 49, and 4,254 people or 12.9% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 3,090 people or 9.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 2,314 people or 7.0% are 70 to 79, there are 1,307 people or 4.0% who are 80 to 89, there are 233 people or 0.7% who are 90 to 99, and 5 people who are 100 or more.
In 2015 there were 15,557 single residents, 13,722 people who were married or in a civil partnership, 1,948 widows or widowers, 3,423 divorced residents and 2 people who did not answer the question.
In 2014 there were 16,970 private households in Chur with an average household size of 2.00 persons. Of the 3,792 inhabited buildings in the municipality, in 2000, about 37.8% were single family homes and 39.7% were multiple family buildings. Additionally, about 20.5% of the buildings were built before 1919, while 8.8% were built between 1991 and 2000. In 2013 the rate of construction of new housing units per 1000 residents was 7.71. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2015, was 0.6%.
The historical population is given in the following chart:
|Historic population data |
|Year||Population||Swiss||% German speaking||% Italian speaking||% Romansh speaking||% Protestant||% Roman Catholic|
|End of the 15th century||ca. 1,500|
From the 2000 census, 14,713 or 44.6% are Roman Catholic, while 12,199 or 37.0% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 15 individuals (or about 0.05% of the population) who belong to the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, there are 589 individuals (or about 1.79% of the population) who belong to the Orthodox Church, and there are 532 individuals (or about 1.61% of the population) who belong to another Christian church. There are 13 individuals (or about 0.04% of the population) who are Jewish, and 917 (or about 2.78% of the population) who are Muslim. There are 424 individuals (or about 1.29% of the population) who belong to another church (not listed on the census), 1,998 (or about 6.06% of the population) belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 1,589 individuals (or about 4.82% of the population) did not answer the question.
As of 2014, there were a total of 32,448 people employed in the municipality. Of these, 108 people worked in 26 businesses in the primary economic sector. A majority (68.5%) of the primary sector employees worked in very small businesses (less than ten employees). The remainder worked in 2 small businesses with a total of 34 employees. The secondary sector employed 3,645 workers in 345 separate businesses. A minority (21.2%) of the secondary sector employees worked in very small businesses. There were 75 small businesses with a total of 1,731 employees and 12 mid sized businesses with a total of 1,141 employees. Finally, the tertiary sector provided 28,695 jobs in 3,375 businesses. In 2014 a total of 16,854 employees worked in 3,306 small companies (less than 50 employees). There were 65 mid-sized businesses with 9,093 employees and 4 large businesses which employed 2,748 people (for an average size of 687).
In 2014 a total of 7.7% of the population received social assistance.
In 2015 local hotels had a total of 152,629 overnight stays, of which 47.8% were international visitors.
There were two movie theaters in the municipality, in 2015, with a total of 4 screens and 736 seats.
In 2014 the crime rate, of the over 200 crimes listed in the Swiss Criminal Code (running from murder, robbery and assault to accepting bribes and election fraud), in Chur was 68.6 per thousand residents, only slightly higher than the national average of 64.6 per thousand. During the same period, the rate of drug crimes was 15.7 per thousand residents, which is about one and half times the national rate. The rate of violations of immigration, visa and work permit laws was 2.4 per thousand residents, or about half the national rate.
Chur is 120 kilometres (75 miles) by rail from Zürich, and is the meeting-point of the routes from Italy over many alpine passes (Lukmanier Pass, Splugen Pass, and San Bernardino Pass), as well as from the Engadine (Albula Pass, Julier Pass), so that it is the centre of an active trade (particularly in wine from the Valtelline), though it also has a few local factories.
The city's main railway station is where the Swiss Federal Railways system link with that of the Rhaetian Railway (RhB). While the SBB lines serve most of Switzerland, most of Graubünden's internal rail traffic is served by RhB lines. One of the RhB lines (to Arosa) uses on-street running through streets in the centre of Chur and Sand in order to reach the station - see Chur Stadtbahn.
There are three other railway stations in Chur:
There is also a postbus station situated above the railway station.
Chur is linked by a motorway—the A13.
Chur is home to many buildings or other sites that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance. There are two archeological sites in Chur, the old city which is a medieval city and Welschdörfli a prehistoric settlement and Roman Vicus. There are four archives or libraries; the bishop's palace (library and archive), the Cantonal Library, the Cantonal Archive of Graubünden and the city archive of Chur. There are also four museums on the list; the Bündner Kunstmuseum (Art Museum), Bündner Naturmuseum (Natural History Museum), the Dommuseum and the Rätisches Museum in the Haus Buol. Three churches are included in the list; The cathedral of the Assumption, the Catholic Church of St. Luzi and the Reformed church of St. Martin. There are 15 other buildings that are also heritage sites; these include the Alte Kaserne at Zeughaus 3 (the Old Armory), the Confederation Paper Mill, the Main Post Office, the new Town Hall, headquarters of the Rhätische Bahn and several old patrician houses.
The first church on the cathedral site was built in the first half of the 5th century. The Romanesque crypt was probably built under Bishop Tello (758-73). It contains remarkable paintings by Albrecht Dürer and Hans Holbein. The current building was built between 1154 and 1270. In 1272 it was dedicated to Saint Mary of the Assumption. The round arch window along the center axis is the largest medieval window in Graubünden. The late-Gothic high altar was completed in 1492 by Jakob Russ.
The Church of St. Luzi was probably built in the 8th century, though the first record of it appears in 821 when the relics of St. Luzius were removed from the church. It may have been the site of a Carolingian scribes' school during the early middle ages. In 1149 it became the church of the Premonstratensian monastery.
The American football team Calanda Broncos (formally Landquart Broncos) moved to Chur in 2009, playing their home games at Ringstrasse Stadium. The Broncos currently play in the Nationalliga A and are the most successful Swiss American football team with the record for most Swiss Bowl wins (8 wins) as well as winning the EFAF Cup in 2010 and the Eurobowl in 2012. As of 2017 they finished first in the league, hosting Swiss Bowl XXXII in Ringstrasse Stadium where they defeated the Basel Gladiators 42-6 on July 8.
Adrian J. Meier (born 1976) politician of local council and explorer
Ab Chur (Persian: ابچور, also Romanized as Āb Chūr and Ābchowr; also known as Āpkhvor) is a village in Aladagh Rural District, in the Central District of Bojnord County, North Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 437, in 106 families.Amchoor
Amchoor or aamchur, also referred to as mango powder, is a fruity spice powder made from dried unripe green mangoes and is used as a citrusy seasoning. It is produced in India, and is used to flavor foods and add the nutritional benefits of mangoes when the fresh fruit is out of season.Bishop of Chur
The Bishop of Chur (German: Bischof von Chur) is the ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chur, Grisons, Switzerland (Latin: Dioecesis Curiensis).CHUR-FM
CHUR-FM is a Canadian radio station, which broadcasts a hot adult contemporary format at 100.5 FM in North Bay, Ontario. The station uses the on-air brand KiSS 100.5.Chur, Kurdistan
Chur (Persian: چور, also Romanized as Chūr) is a village in Sarkal Rural District, in the Central District of Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 617, in 151 families.Chur Ab Qalandari
Chur Ab Qalandari (also Romanized as Chūr Āb Qalandarī; also known as Cherr Āb Qalandarī-ye ‘Olyā) is a village in Qarah Chaman Rural District, Arzhan District, Shiraz County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 241, in 50 families.Chur Kuchan
Chur Kuchan (Persian: چوركوچان, also Romanized as Chūr Kūchān and Chever Kūchān; also known as Chever Kūkhān) is a village in Kurka Rural District, in the Central District of Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh County, Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,586, in 428 families.Chur Sharif Halt railway station
Chur Sharif Halt railway station (Urdu: چور شریف ہالٹ ریلوے اسٹیشن) is located in Pakistan.Chur railway station
Chur railway station serves the city of Chur, capital of the Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. Opened in 1858, it is the most important railway junction in Graubünden.
The station is the terminus of the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB-CFF-FFS) standard gauge main line from Zürich, and is also one of the most important stations on the Rhaetian Railway (RhB) metre gauge network.
SBB Intercity, Regio Express and Regional services stop at the station, alongside Rhaetian Railway Regio Express and Regional services. There are SBB trains to Landquart, and then stations to Zürich (and beyond) and Rhaetian Railway services to many destinations in Graubünden. The Glacier Express also calls and reverses at Chur.Eastern Alps
Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine valley up to the Splügen Pass at the Alpine divide and down the Liro River to Lake Como in the south. The peaks and mountain passes are lower compared to the Western Alps, while the range itself is broader and less arched.H. R. Giger
Hans Ruedi Giger ( GHEE-gər; German: [ˈɡiːɡər]; 5 February 1940 – 12 May 2014) was a Swiss painter, best known for airbrush images of humans and machines linked together in a cold biomechanical relationship. Later he abandoned airbrush work for pastels, markers, and ink. He was part of the special effects team that won an Academy Award for design work on the film Alien. In Switzerland there are two theme bars that reflect his interior designs, and his work is on permanent display at the H.R. Giger Museum at Gruyères. His style has been adapted to many forms of media, including record album covers, furniture, and tattoos.Leon Schlumpf
Leon Schlumpf (3 February 1925 – 7 July 2012) was a Swiss politician and a former member of the Swiss Federal Council (1979-1987).Schlumpf was born in Felsberg. He was elected to the Federal Council on 5 December 1979 as a member of the Swiss People's Party (SVP) from the Canton of Graubünden (Grisons). He subsequently handed over office on 31 December 1987.
During his time in office, he held the Federal Department of Transport, Communications and Energy and was President of the Confederation in 1984.
Schlumpf died on 7 July 2012 in Chur, aged 87. He was the father of Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf, member of the cantonal government of Graubünden (Grisons), who was herself elected to the Federal Council on 12 December 2007.Lucius of Britain
Lucius (Welsh: Lles ap Coel) is a legendary 2nd-century King of the Britons and saint traditionally credited with introducing Christianity into Britain. Lucius is first mentioned in a 6th-century version of the Liber Pontificalis, which says that he sent a letter to Pope Eleutherius asking to be made a Christian. The story became widespread after it was repeated in the 8th century by Bede, who added the detail that after Eleutherius granted Lucius' request, the Britons followed their king in conversion and maintained the Christian faith until the Diocletianic Persecution of 303. Later writers expanded the legend, giving accounts of missionary activity under Lucius and attributing to him the foundation of certain churches.There is no contemporary evidence for a king of this name, and modern scholars believe that his appearance in the Liber Pontificalis is the result of a scribal error. However, for centuries the story of this "first Christian king" was widely believed, especially in Britain, where it was considered an accurate account of Christianity among the early Britons. During the English Reformation, the Lucius story was used in polemics by both Catholics and Protestants; Catholics considered it evidence of papal supremacy from a very early date, while Protestants used it to bolster claims of the primacy of a British national church founded by the crown.Rhaetian Railway
The Rhaetian Railway (German: Rhätische Bahn, Italian: Ferrovia Retica, Romansh: Viafier Retica), abbreviated RhB, is a Swiss transport company that owns the largest network of all private railway operators in Switzerland. The RhB operates all the railway lines of the Swiss canton of Graubünden/Grisons, except for the line from Sargans to the cantonal capital, Chur, which are operated by the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS), and the line from Disentis/Mustér to the Oberalp Pass, and further on to Andermatt, Uri, which is operated by Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn (MGB). Inaugurated in 1888 and expanded from 1896 onwards in various sections, the RhB network is located almost entirely within Graubünden, with one station across the Italian border at Tirano.
The Rhaetian Railway serves a number of major tourist destinations, such as St Moritz and Davos. One of the RhB lines, the Bernina Railway, crosses the Bernina Pass at 2,253 metres (7,392 ft) above sea level and runs down to Tirano, Lombardy in Italy.
In 2008, the RhB section from the Albula/Bernina area (the part from Thusis to Tirano, including St Moritz) was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Albula-Bernina line is the first rail line in the world to be photographed and put on Google Street View.Roman Catholic Diocese of Chur
The Diocese of Chur extends over the Swiss Cantons of Graubünden (Grisons), Schwyz, Glarus, Zurich, Nidwalden, Obwalden and Uri.Samarium–neodymium dating
Samarium–neodymium dating is a radiometric dating method useful for determining the ages of rocks and meteorites, based on radioactive decay of a long-lived samarium (Sm) isotope to a radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotope. Neodymium isotope ratios together with samarium-neodymium ratios are used to provide information on the source of igneous melts, as well as to provide age information. It is sometimes assumed that at the moment when crustal material is formed from the mantle the neodymium isotope ratio depends only on the time when this event occurred, but thereafter it evolves in a way that depends on the new ratio of samarium to neodymium in the crustal material, which will be different from the ratio in the mantle material. Samarium–neodymium dating allows us to determine when the crustal material was formed.
The usefulness of Sm–Nd dating stems from the fact that these two elements are rare earths and are thus, theoretically, not particularly susceptible to partitioning during sedimentation and diagenesis. Fractional crystallisation of felsic minerals changes the Sm/Nd ratio of the resultant materials. This, in turn, influences the rate at which the 143Nd/144Nd ratio increases due to production of radiogenic 143Nd.
In many cases, Sm–Nd and Rb–Sr isotope data are used together.Senad Lulić
Senad Lulić (Bosnian pronunciation: [sěnaːd lǔlitɕ]; born 18 January 1986) is a Bosnian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Serie A club Lazio.
Lulić began his professional career in Switzerland, first playing in Chur 97, later helping Bellinzona get promotion to the Swiss Super League, appearing in European competitions for Grasshopper and finally joining Young Boys in 2010. A year later, he moved to Lazio, for which he scored the winning goal in the 2013 Coppa Italia Final against city rivals Roma.
A senior international from 2008 to 2017, Lulić earned over 50 caps and scored 4 goals for Bosnia and Herzegovina. He represented the nation at their first major tournament, the 2014 FIFA World Cup.Soleyman Chapar
Soleyman Chapar (Persian: سليمان چپر, also Romanized as Soleymān Chapar; also known as Soleymān Chūr) is a village in Eshkevar-e Sofla Rural District, Rahimabad District, Rudsar County, Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 34, in 9 families.Tranquillizer gun
A tranquillizer gun (also spelled tranquilizer gun or tranquilliser gun), capture gun or dart gun, is a non-lethal air gun often used for incapacitating animal targets via drugs usually referred as tranquilizers. These guns shoot darts with a hypodermic needle tip, filled with a dose of tranquilizer solution that is either sedative, comatosing or paralytic, which once injected will temporarily impair the target's physical function to a level that allows it to be approached and handled in an unresisting and thus safe manner. Tranquillizer guns have a long history of use to stun wildlife when they are in a place where they pose a threat to others and themselves without having to kill the animal, or used to capture wildlife risking serious injuries to both the hunter and the target. They are also used for recreation, which animal rights groups protest against. Tranquillizer darts can also be fired by crossbow or breath-powered blowgun.