Chukwuedu Nathaniel II Nwokolo (19 April 1921 – 18 May 2014) was an internationally distinguished tropical diseases, nutrition, human, medical, biological and life sciences expert; plus research scientist, scholar, pioneer medical doctor, author, humanitarian and acclaimed professor of medicine. He was Nigerian, and is listed in the Who's Who in Nigeria series by Newswatch. Nwokolo was outstandingly recognised worldwide for discovering and mapping out the area of paragonimiasis lung disease in Eastern Nigeria, with a study of the disease in Africa and clinical research for its control. Nwokolo founded SICREP: Sickle Cell Research Programme to effectively fight the disease in Nigeria and globally.
Nwokolo was a yaws eradication, mass vaccinations and lung disease consultant plus advisor for the Geneva: Switzerland headquartered WHO: World Health Organization. From 1963 to 1964, he was a Rockefeller Foundation fellow in gastroenterology at the University of Minnesota. He was honoured in 1964 with the Edinburgh: Scotland "Free Man of the City" award and "Key to the City of Edinburgh," having been inducted as a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. He was a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, fellow of the Nigerian Postgraduate Medical College: FMCP, fellow of the West African College of Physicians: FWACP, and fellow of the Nigerian Academy of Science.
Nwokolo had Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons: MRCS and Membership of the Royal College of Physicians: MRCP; as well as being an Officer of the Order of the Federal Republic: OFR. He was chairman: joint council of ASUTECH: Anambra State University of Technology – now Nnamdi Azikiwe University and Enugu based IMT: Institute of Management and Technology. Nwokolo was also board chairman of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. The Professor Chukwuedu Nwokolo Annual Lecture Series and Award of Prizes for Academic Excellence to stimulate research and scholarship was established in his honour by professor Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba in 2006.
Nwokolo was an advisor to the Federal Government of Nigeria at the National Science and Technology Development Fund. Nwokolo was an in-law of Jaja Wachuku: Nigeria's first Speaker of the House of Representatives, first Nigerian Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations; and first Nigerian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth Relations. He was a contributor to the Cambridge University published: Principles of Medicine in Africa.
Nwokolo had a Licentiate from the Royal College of Physicians of London, honorary doctor of science from the University of Maiduguri plus another honorary doctor of science from the University of Ibadan; and was a professor emeritus at the University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigerian National Order of Merit Award-winner, national chairman and vice-president at West African College of Physicians, pro-chancellor and chairman of council at Ahmadu Bello University; chairman at Medical Research Council of Nigeria, chairman: governing board at National Council for Medical Research, president at Association of Physicians of Nigeria and Ugo-Dibia: Eagle of Medicine.
|Born||19 April 1921|
|Died||18 May 2014 (aged 93)|
|Residence||United States of America|
|Education||Human, medical and life sciences|
|Alma mater||Yaba Higher College, University of Ibadan, Queen Mary's Hospital, Sidcup: London, University of Minnesota|
|Occupation||Medical doctor, humanitarian, research scientist and professor of medicine|
|Known for||Discovering and mapping out the area of lung disease in Eastern Nigeria, with a study of the disease in Africa and clinical research for its control |
|An Introduction to Clinical Medicine|
|Spouse(s)||Njideka Priscilla Nwokolo: née: Okonkwo|
|Children||Chuka Nwokolo, Ngozi Nwokolo Okpara, Obioma Nwokolo Meyerson, Mezie Nwokolo, Chioma Nwokolo Nwangwu, Njide Jr. Nwokolo Ojukwu, Chiedu Jr. Nwokolo|
|Parent(s)||Nathaniel Ezuma Nwokolo and Matilda Nwokolo: née: Efobi|
|Relatives||Keziah Ndukwe: née Nwokolo (sister), late Mercy Obiagwu: née Nwokolo (sister), Ikenna Ephraim Nwokolo (brother), Uchenna Nwokolo (brother), Ifeyinwa C. Nzeako: née Nwokolo (sister), Ebele J. Maduewesi: née: Nwokolo (sister)|
Nwokolo's grandfather was Nwokolo Ikebudu. Nwokolo was born Chukwuedu – God leads or God guides – on Tuesday 19 April 1921 – at Amaimo, now located in Imo State: Nigeria, where his parents worked for Church Missionary Society as evangelists; and was christened Nathaniel after his father. He was the first male child amongst seven children, comprising four girls and 3 boys, born to Matilda and Nathaniel Nwokolo; namely: Chukwuedu Nathaniel II, Keziah, Mercy, Ikenna Ephraim, Uchenna, Ifeyinwa Cecilia and Ebele Josephine. His father: Nathaniel Ezuma Nwokolo of Umuanugwo, Umudala-agbaim, Nkalafia, Irefi, Oraifite:Anambra State was a church teacher; while his mother: Matilda Efobi was from the Efobi family of Umuagu, Umuezopi, Oraifite. She was trained at the Niger CMS: Church Missionary Society Onitsha, at the home of the general manager of schools: Reverend W. R. Blackett from the West Indies. Blackett and his wife were disciplinarians, and from them Matilda learnt Victorian era styles and culture.
Nwokolo's father, Nathaniel Ezuma Nwokolo began his teaching and evangelistic career in 1917, after his marriage to Matilda Efobi in December 1916. He taught mainly in Owerri Province where all his seven children were born. He retired from church teaching as a catechist in 1940, and settled in Oraifite, his native home, where he became a community leader, local government councillor, chief, and customary court judge. At his death in 1978, Nwokolo's father: Nathaniel I was 86 years. From his parents, Nwokolo imbibed an abiding character of punctuality, smart work, humaneness, discipline, honesty, morality and belief in God – in line with the Church Missionary Society.
Nwokolo started primary school at Ezinihitte-Mbaise in today's Imo State. Leah Onumonu, a teacher from Oguta harboured Nwokolo in her home. Onumonu narrated that Nwokolo was a determined pupil who did not let illness separate him from one of his earliest books called: Azundu. Later, before his primary school ended, Nwokolo lived with his encouraging paternal uncle: Zeph Nwokolo, who was a school master at Mbieri Anglican School. Also, Zeph noted that, during his 5th year in primary school, before Nwokolo left for Government College Umuahia, he could, off-hand, recite multiplication tables from two to 20.
In 1933, from primary 5, after great success in the competitive entrance examination to Government College Umuahia, Nwokolo got a government scholarship for his secondary school studies. At Government College Umuahia, Nwokolo studied the following subjects: mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, religious knowledge, English language, metal and woodwork, and commercial agriculture. He was involved in sports activities, such as: table tennis, athletics, football, cricket and hockey. Including farming, Nwokolo was also in the choir group of Reverend Robert Fisher, founding principal of Government College Umuahia. In 1939, at the outbreak of the Second World War, Nwokolo completed his studies at Government College Umuahia with a sense of achievement in science education, high moral character and humane discipline. In his 1991 book: Similia: essays on anomic Nigeria, Ken Saro-Wiwa listed Nwokolo as one of the four "Umuahians" who won Nigeria's National Order of Merit Award.
In 1939, for entry into Higher College Yaba, Nwokolo passed his examination with excellence; and got government scholarship to study medicine. Higher College Yaba prepared students for entry into major professional courses such as: medicine, veterinary medicine, science, forestry, engineering, survey, agriculture and teaching. The 18 months course which was the equivalent of the intermediate science or arts bachelor's degree was meant to give the students advanced basic science or arts background. For medical students, it was called premedical course, and consisted of the study of: botany, zoology, chemistry and physics at advanced level. According to one of Nwokolo‟s contemporaries at Yaba Higher College: Pius Okigbo, who entered in 1941, Nwokolo was "studious, serious, somewhat shy, and witty without ostentation or exuberance" Two notable Nigerians on the teaching staff who provided mentorship to Nwokolo and served as role models were: Titus Seye Ejiwunmi and Michael Etikerentse Okorodudu. Most of the students that went to Government College Umuahia went on to Yaba College which was the only science-based institution of higher learning at the time.
The pre-clinical subjects Nwokolo studied for the next 18 months were: organic chemistry, anatomy, histology, physiology, and pharmacology. During the last 3 years of clinicals, Nwokolo studied: pathology, public health, medicine, obstetrics, gynaecology and surgery. Nwokolo's medical course lasted seven years including internship. General Hospital Lagos was used as teaching hospital. Outlying hospitals outside Lagos provided maternity facilities for students to practice delivery of babies. Nwokolo had to travel to Aba General Hospital to get the required 45 deliveries. He lived in Aba for 3 months. All the pre-clinical and clinical subjects were taught by British doctors. Nwokolo qualified as a medical doctor in 1946, and consequently got the LMS: Licenciate of the School of Medicine. Also, at graduation, Nwokolo won the Walter Johnson prize in public health. Earlier in 1942, Nwokolo won an award in organic chemistry. Among Nwokolo's generation of fellow students at Yaba Higher College were: Chike Obi, Michael Okpara, Okoronkwo Ogan, Dr. David Ekwulugo, Akintola Williams, Robert Burnley, Victor Mukete and Theophilus Oladipo Ogunlesi.
After his internship at Lagos General Hospital, from 1947 to 1949, Nwokolo was posted to serve at General Hospital Enugu under Dr. Richard Savage who was senior specialist surgeon in charge at Enugu. As AMO: assistant medical officer, Nwokolo's work was to attend to all out-patients during week days. Calls outside official working hours were shared in rotation among doctors in the hospital. Nwokolo also attended ward rounds with Dr. Richard Savage, who was mostly in charge of in-patients, together with his RAMC: Royal Army Medical Corps lieutenant Colonel wife: Dr. Dora Janet Burman Savage: née Falconer.
Outside official working hours, Nwokolo practised privately to shore up his AMO yearly salary of £160 GBP. He also carried out research and other activities, such as being an advisor and consultant for WHO: World Health Organization on mass vaccinations and yaws eradication The World Health Organization had proposed complete yaws eradication in highly yaws endemic regions, and provided penicillin for consultant and advisory doctors who were to take part in the project. Nwokolo served World Health Organization at the grassroots, working around his home town Oraifite, Ozubulu, Nnewi and surrounding towns.
In 1948, as the University College Ibadan was opening its teaching hospital temporarily at the Ibadan Adeoyo Hospital, the University made a request to the government for junior doctors to work as house officers. Nwokolo was the first of such assistant medical officers to be seconded in 1949. He became the first house officer to Alexander Brown who was the first professor of medicine at University College Ibadan.
At University College Hospital, Nwokolo met his old colleague at Yaba Higher College: Theophilus Oladipo Ogunlesi, who was already working as house surgeon to professor Margaret Joly of the surgery department. Nwokolo worked in the department of medicine at the University College Hospital from 1949 to 1950, and subsequently proceeded to London, uplifted with a professional letter of recommendation from professor Alexander Brown.
Arriving in England in 1950, Nwokolo made East End of London his home. With the recommendation letter from professor Alexander Brown, Nwokolo was able to secure student attachment at Queen Mary's Hospital, Sidcup. The hospital was recognised by the RCPL: Royal College of Physicians of London for the crucial conjoint specialist medical examination: LRCP and MRCP. For his examination, Nwokolo spent intensive time studying and revising his knowledge of anatomy, physiology, pathology. pharmacology, medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology. Within nine months Nwokolo passed his examinations, and consequently qualified to register and practice in Great Britain. To complete his registration, Nwokolo got medicine and surgery house jobs in Dover.
At the end of his housemanship in Dover, Nwokolo returned to East End of London and secured a job as a senior house physician in the geriatrics unit of Queen Mary's Hospital, Sidcup. There, Nwokolo worked towards getting his MRCP: Membership of the Royal College of Physicians under his chief: Dr. Bernfeld, an internal medicine physician. For higher specialist qualifications, Nwokolo, while on the job, arranged and attended lectures and tutorials, given in some London hospitals.
In 1952, Nwokolo moved up to Edinburgh to prepare further for the MRCP. He attended lectures and tutorials of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and clinics of some consultants. Early in 1953, Nwokolo took the MRCP examination, and passed at first attempt. He was one of the very few Africans to obtain such a highly prized MRCP: Membership of the Royal College of Physicians qualification, and the second Nigerian to do so: the first being Dr. Olu Mabayoje. Armed with the MRCP, Nwokolo went back to his former Queen Mary's Hospital, Sidcup, London. There, he served as a physician. Nwokolo bought himself a brand new Ford Zephyr, and returned to Nigeria – as a highly qualified specialist physician in internal medicine – just on time for his marriage to Njideka Priscilla Nwokolo: née: Okonkwo – on Saturday 4 July 1953.
When he came back from London, Nwokolo returned to the civil service. He was appointed a special grade medical officer. Reorganisation in the service enabled all assistant medical officers to become medical officers after serving a period of one year as house officers. Nwokolo did one year house job in Ibadan before going to the United Kingdom for specialist medical qualification. He also did another year of house jobs in Dover after his highly successful conjoint LRCP and MRCP examination.
With his senior house officer appointment and post MRCP working experience in the United Kingdom, Nwokolo earned his designation as a full medical officer on special grade. General Hospital Enugu was where he mainly served. Nwokolo had his extramural private practice in his home in the evenings. He was in charge of medical wards where in-patients were admitted and treated. Nwokolo taught and supervised junior doctors and house officers who were posted to his unit, including Dr. Wilson Onuigbo, who later became a distinguished professor of pathology.
With experience, Nwokolo carried out medical research in the wards as well as in the field. He did major research in endomyocardial fibrosis, endemic goitre, sickle-cell disease and other areas of national need. Fieldwork was usually done during weekends, and included travelling in his car to different locations in Eastern Nigeria plus Northern and Mid-Western Nigeria, as well as to Obudu. Nwokolo published about nine papers based on his research while in the civil service. On the strength of his research and papers, he was made a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (F.R.C.P.) in 1960, based on recommendations by his boss: professor Alexander Brown and professor Harold Scaborough, a visiting scholar from University of Wales. Nwokolo was also invited to teach as senior lecturer at University College Ibadan by professor Brown. In addition, working with the Rockefeller Foundation, professor Brown recommended Nwokolo for a research fellowship in gastroenterology at the University of Minnesota.
For his 1963 to 1964 Rockefeller Foundation fellowship, Nwokolo travelled by MV Aureol ocean liner to Liverpool, and another ship on to United States. At the University of Minnesota: Minneapolis, he was assigned to the gastroenterology unit under professor James Carey, chief of gastroenterology. Carey taught Nwokolo endoscopy of the stomach and duodenum and other medical procedures. Nwokolo studied as a lone post graduate student under Carey. On completing his Rockefeller Foundation fellowship, Nwokolo followed the same shipping route back. He briefly stopped in the United Kingdom, where he was honoured as an Edinburgh "Free Man of the City" and presented with the "Key to the City of Edinburgh" Scotland as a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.
After his return from the United States, Nwokolo was appointed associate professor of medicine. Subsequently, he set up a sub department of gastroenterology, with senior registrar Dr. Lewis. Nwokolo led research on various gastro-intestinal problems using intestinal biopsies and procedures he learnt in the United States at University of Minnesota. Numerous liver and pancreatic function studies were carried out. Intense, dedicated and diligent teaching of medical students was done. Nwokolo stated that one of his most brilliant students was Jibril Aminu. His long-standing friend: professor Ogunlesi remembered this period of Nwokolo's servant leadership as valuable and inspiring.
In 1966, before the Nigerian civil war with Biafra broke out in 1967, with hostilities and killing of Igbo people rising, Nwokolo left Ibadan for Enugu with his wife and children. The political mood in Enugu at the arrival of the returnees from all parts of Nigeria was that of shock and awareness of danger. In Enugu, thousands of corpses and maimed and half dead, deprived, devastated and homeless refugees were pouring in from Northern Nigeria, without any hope of accommodation or food and nourishment. Things even soon got so agonising as civil war eventually broke out between Nigeria and Biafra.
For those, such as Nwokolo, who escaped from Ibadan and Western Nigeria, the experience was so terrible that twenty-one specialist doctors mainly from Ibadan and Lagos met and resolved to establish a University Teaching Hospital in Enugu. At the meeting were doctors: Nwokolo, Onuaguluchi, Udekwu, Nwako, Nwachukwu, Eziashi, Ikeme, Udeh, Ogan, Uche, Okoro, Kaine, Udeozor, Okafor, Njoku-Obi, Ifekwunigwe, and others. Multiple long planning meetings were held at Nwokolo‟s private residence. Through Dr. Nlogha Okeke plus permanent secretary and chief secretary to the government: chief Onyegbula, approval was rapidly obtained from the military governor: Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu to open a teaching hospital with Enugu General Hospital as base. Ojukwu also approved swift establishment of the faculty of medicine, headed by professor Kodilinye, while Nwokolo became the first head of the department of medicine and associate dean of medicine at the new medical school.
Nwokolo continued to work as head of the department of medicine of the university teaching hospital which had moved to Awka-Etiti when Enugu was threatened during the civil war. Nwokolo also carried out research especially relevant to the terrible war conditions of starvation and malnutrition. He toured churches and public gatherings to educate the people on nutrition and feeding for survival. Several mimeographed papers were produced and distributed for public education. When the Nigerian Civil War ended in 1970, Nwokolo and family returned to Enugu, and found their house looted and the top floor completely razed by fire. He had to do some extensive rebuilding.
With the approval of the Nigerian Federal Government for the re-opening of the University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nwokolo returned to his position as head of the department of medicine. He was appointed full professor in 1971. Accordingly, renowned Welsh academic, professor Eldryd Parry, who previously served at University College Hospital, Ibadan from 1960, affirms that Nwokolo led and facilitated the establishment of medical schools in Enugu and Nsukka.
With his wife: Lady Njideka Nwokolo: née Okonkwo – whom he married on Saturday 4 July: 1953, Nwokolo had seven children, four girls and three boys. His parents had seven children as well. Accordingly, he has many grandchildren. Nwokolo's children are as follows:
From 1972 to 2004, the following were the achievements, life, career, honours, awards and appointments that came Nwokolo's way during his distinguished life of inspiring and worthy service to humankind:
Some of Nwokolo's numerous research articles and book publications are listed below:
Nwokolo died in New York: United States on Sunday 18 May 2014 at the age of 93; having been born on 19 April 1921.
Alexander Obiefoka Enukora Animalu (born 28 August 1938) is a Nigerian academic, who is Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
He holds a BSc (London), M.A. (Cantab.) and PhD (Ibadan), FAS, NNOM, IOMA pioneer of solar energy in Nigeria, Animalu is a physicist of international repute, member of the highest advisory body on Science and Technology to the Nigerian government, Honorary Presidential Advisory Council on Science and Technology (2001–03) and former Director National Mathematical Centre, Abuja.
The only African member to date of the Advisory Board of the Euro-Journal Physica(B) and the only African member of the Editorial Board of the Hadronic Journal, he is also the founding editor of the Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy and one of the pioneering editors of the Bulletin of the Nigerian Institute of Physics. Foundation President of the Solar Energy Society of Nigeria, foundation editor, Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy, foundation member, United States Energy Research and Development Administration and Foundation member and former President of the Nigerian Academy of Science, Animalu is author of 28 books in both the sciences and the humanities, including the famous Intermediate Quantum Theory of Crystalline Solids and biographies of Rt. Hon. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, Professor Chike Obi, Professor Kenneth Dike, Professor Samuel Okoye, Professor James Ezeilo, Professor Chukwuedu Nwokolo, Professor Cyril Onwumechili among others.Deaths in May 2014
The following is a list of notable deaths in May 2014.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship and reason for notability, established cause of death, reference.Government College Umuahia
Government College Umuahia, or GCU, is an independent secondary school for boys located on Umuahia-Ikot Ekpene Road in Umuahia, Nigeria.
Twenty years after the establishment of Kings College, the first government-owned high school, by the British colonial government, three similar public schools were founded in 1929. These three institutions, Government College Umuahia (GCU), Government College, Ibadan and Government College Zaria (now Barewa College), were designed to follow the traditions of British public schools such as Eton, Harrow and Winchester. The GCU was known as the 'Eton of the East,' at that time because it was located in Nigeria’s orient and was known for its elite standards and selectivity.
Rev. Robert Fisher was the founding principal of GCU.On December, 22nd 2014, a Deed of Trust was signed with the Abia State government, thereby vesting the Fisher Educational Trust with all legal interests, rights and power pertaining to ownership, management, operation, control and funding of Government College Umuahia. The trust was set up by the Government College Umuahia Old Boys Association.May 18
May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 227 days remaining until the end of the year.Nigerian National Order of Merit Award
The Nigerian National Order of Merit Award (NNOM) is an academic award conferred on distinguished academicians and intellectuals who have made outstanding contributions to the academic, growth and development of Nigeria.
The award is often conferred on its recipient by the Federal Government of Nigeria following a nomination and approval of the Governing Board of the Nigerian National Merit Award.
Its recipient is often decorated by the President of Nigeria. Recipients of the award have the legal right to use the postnominal title: Nigerian National Order of Merit (NNOM).
It is the highest academic award in Nigeria and since its institution in 1979, the award has so far been conferred on only 70 distinguished academicians.