Chudasama dynasty

The Chudasama dynasty ruled parts of the present-day Saurashtra region of Gujarat state in India between the 9th and 15th centuries. Their capital was based in Junagadh and Vamanasthali, and they were later classified among the Rajput clans.

The early history of Chudasama dynasty is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Traditionally, the dynasty is said to have been founded in the late 9th century by Chudachandra. Subsequent rulers such as Graharipu, Navaghana and Khengara were in conflict with Chaulukya rulers Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Thus they are mentioned in contemporary and later Jain chronicles. After end of the rule of Chaulukya and their successor Vaghela dynasty in Gujarat, the Chudasamas continued to rule independently or as a vassal of successor states, Delhi Sultanate and Gujarat Sultanate. Mandalika I was the first known ruler from inscriptions during whose reign Gujarat was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi. The last king of the dynasty, Mandalika III, was defeated and forcibly converted to Islam in 1472 by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada, who also annexed the state.[1][2]

Chudasama dynasty
c. 9th century–1472
CapitalVamanasthali
Junagadh
Religion
Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
• c. 9th century
Chudachandra
• c. 10th century
Graharipu
• late 11th century
Navaghana
• early 12th century
Khengara
• 1294 - 1306
Mandalika I
• 1451 - 1472
Mandalika III
History 
• Established
c. 9th century
• Disestablished
1472
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Chavda dynasty
Gujarat Sultanate

Titles

Ra, Rao, Raval, Raul were the titles adopted by the rulers of Chudasama dynasty which are found in their inscriptions, manuscripts and bardic literature.

The Chudasamas are sometimes referred to as the Abhira Ranaka or Ahir Ranas, and Tambs-Lyche says that, "The structure of the Chudasama state ... seems to have been an alliance between a small royal clan — later to be classified as Rajputs — and the Ahir tribe."[3] In Dvyashraya and Prabandhchintamani written by Hemchandra and Merutunga respectively, the king of Vamanasthali is described as Abhira Ranaka and the term can fairly be applied to Chudasama prince Navaghana as he was placed on throne with the aid of the Ahirs, according to bardic tales.[4]

Chudasama rulers had Yadava in their names claiming yaduvanshi kinship [5][6][7][8] In Saurashtra ni Rashdar written by noted poet Jhaverchand Meghani , the chudasama rajputs are described as Yaduvanshi Rajputs.[9][10]

Origin, genealogy and chronology

Archaeologist K. V. Soundararajan considers the Chudasama dynasty as originally of Abhira clan.[11]

There are no inscriptions of the period before the king Mandalika I available. Still it is certain that they had established their rule in the Saurashtra region before the Chaulukya king Mularaja came to power in Anahilavada because literary sources tell about battles between Chudasama kings and Chaulukya kings; Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Dhandusar inscription (VS 1445) says that the founder of the dynasty was Chudachandra. A Vanthali inscription tells about Mandalika, a kings whose kingdom was captured by Jagatsimha, a feudatory of Chaulukya king Viradhavala. This Mandalika king must be another Mandalika king mentioned in latter half genealogy. As Viradhavala is known to live in VS 1288, he must be assigned the same date. As another Vanthali inscription date VS 1346, it must have been under the Jagatsimha's family till then. It seems that a later Chudasama king Mandalika regained Vanthali when Chaulukya rule weakened. So the later genealogy starts from him in later inscriptions. The Chudasamas continued to rule till VS 1527 (1472 CE) when they were defeated by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada. As inscriptions says about their resistance to Gujarat Sultans, it can be said that they were the most powerful dynasty in Saurashtra region at that time.[12]

Coins

Based on historical records, it is known that the coins known as Kodis, Karshapan or Pan, Vishopak, Dram and Rupak were used in Chudasama domains. 80 Kodis were equal to one Karshapan and 16 Karshapan were equal to one Dram. One Dram was equal to 20 Vishopak.[13]

Their copper coins had a humped bull (Nandi) seated facing left on obverse and a Devanagari letter 'Sri' within dotted and line circle on reverse. They weighted around 2.18 g and were 14.38mm is diameter.

Constructions

The Uparkot Fort of Junagadh was occupied by Chudasamas during the reign of Graharipu. Later it is said to have been rebuilt by Navaghana who had transferred his capital from Vamanasthali to Junagadh. He is also attributed with the constructions of Navghan Kuvo and Adi Kadi Vav, a well and a stepwell respectively, in the fort. His descendant Khengara is attributed with a stepwell, Ra Khengar Vav, on the way to Vanthali from Junagadh though it was built by Tejpal, the minister in the Vaghela court.[14]

Conflict with Chaulukyas

The Chudasama dynasty were in constant conflict with the Chaulukyas. Hemachandra states that Mularaja of the Chaulukya dynasty fought against Abhira raja, Graharipu ruling at Junagadh to protect the pilgrims going to Prabhas Patan.[15]

References

  1. ^ "Gujarat, Malwa and Khandesh". The Cambridge Shorter History of India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1934. pp. 307–308. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  2. ^ Gupta, R. K.; Bakshi, S. R., eds. (2008). Studies In Indian History: Rajasthan Through The Ages: Marwar and British Administration. 5. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-8-17625-841-8. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  3. ^ Lyche, Harald Tambs (2002). "Townsmen, Tenants and Tribes: War, Wildness and Wilderness in the Traditional Politics of Western India". In Ratha, S. N.; Pfeffer, Georg; Behera, Deepak Kumar. Contemporary Society: Concept of Tribal Society. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-8-17022-983-4. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  4. ^ Kumar, Sushil (2003). Kumar, Naresh, ed. Encyclopaedia of folklore and folktales of South Asia. 10. Anmol Publications. p. 2771. ISBN 978-8-12611-400-9.
  5. ^ J, Chaube. History of Gujarat Kingdom, 1458-1537. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. 16.
  6. ^ Chopra, Pran Nath. History of Gujarat. S Chand. p. 101.
  7. ^ Singh, Rajvi. Mediaeval History of Rajasthan: Western Rajasthan. S Chand. p. 1391.
  8. ^ DB, Diskalkar. Sanskrit and Prakrit Poets Known from Inscriptions. Anandashram Samstha. p. 178.
  9. ^ Kālīdāsa Meghāṇī, Jhaveracanda (2006). Saurashtra Ni Rashdhar 2 - Ra Navghan. Gurjar Granthratna Karyalay. p. 30. ISBN 8189166182.
  10. ^ Saurashtra ni Rashdhar - ઝવેરચંદ મેઘાણી. p. 36.
  11. ^ KV, Soundararajan. Junagadh. Archaeological Survey of India. p. 10.
  12. ^ Diskalkar, D. B. (December 1938). "Inscriptions Of Kathiawad". New Indian Antiquary. 1. pp. 578–579, .
  13. ^ Gazetteers: Junagadh. Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications. 1975. p. 467.
  14. ^ Jutta Jain-Neubauer (1981). The Stepwells of Gujarat: In Art-historical Perspective. Abhinav Publications. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-391-02284-3.
  15. ^ Romila Thapar (2004). "Somanatha". History. Penguin Books. p. 108.
Chronology of Chudasama dynasty

The early history of Chudasama dynasty of Saurashtra (now in Gujarat, India) is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Mandalika Kavya, a Sanskrit poem by Gangadhara, gives some information on dynasty but it has little historical value. Some of their inscriptions gives their early genealogy but they too differ in order of succession. Ranchhodji Diwan, A. K. Forbes, James Burgess and Gaurishankar Oza had tried to fix genealogy and chronology. Based on the dates of the inscriptions assigned to Chudasama kings and other literary sources, the genealogy and chronology of latter half of the dynasty can be established fairly. Still it is certain that they ruled about from about Vikram Samvat (VS) 900 to VS 1527 (c. 875 CE to 1472 CE).

Chudachandra

Chudachandra, also known as Chadrachuda or simply Chuda, was a legendary king and the founder of the Chudasama dynasty of Saurashtra (now in Gujarat, India).

Chudasama

The Chudasama are a Rajput clan found in the state of Gujarat in India.

The Anthropological Survey of India, which relies heavily on sources compiled during the period of the British Raj, notes that they are "an offshoot of the Samma tribe, probably of Turk origin who entered India during the seventh or eighth century and are found in Kachchh, Junagadh and Jamnagar districts."

Dyas (king)

Dyas, also spelled Diyas, was an 11th-century Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India mentioned in bardic literature and folklore. He is not known from historical sources. He was defeated and killed by Patan Raja (probably Chaulukya ruler). So Chudasama domain fell under Chaulukyas for some years.

Gajaraja

Gajaraja, also known as Mahipala, was an early Chudasama king known only from the ballads and folklore of Saurashtra region of Gujarat, India.

Graharipu

Graharipu was a 10th-century Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India with his capital at Vamanasthali (now Vanthali). He was a contemporary of Mularaja, the first Chaulukya ruler of Anahilapataka (now Patan). Graharipu built or repaired Durgapalli, the ancient fort in Junagadh identified as Uparkot.The growing power of the Chudasama dynasty and his acts of harassing the pilgrims to Somnath temple resulted in his conflict with Mularaja. After a major and decisive battle, Mulraja defeated Graharipu. The ruler from Kutch, Laksha had fought alongside Graharipu in the battle and was killed. After this battle, the Chudasama domain was repeatedly attacked by subsequent Chaulukya rulers.

Jayasimha (Chudasama dynasty)

Jayasimha was an early Chudasama king known only from the ballads and folklore of Saurashtra region of Gujarat, India.

Jayasimha II (Chudasama dynasty)

Ra Jayasimha II was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1416 CE to 1430 CE (VS 1472 to VS 1486). His capital was at Junagadh.

Jayasimha I (Chudasama dynasty)

Jayasimha I was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1351 CE to 1378 CE (VS 1407 to VS 1435). His capital was at Junagadh.

Legendary and early kings of Chudasama dynasty

The early history of Chudasama dynasty of Saurashtra region (now in Gujarat, India) is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Mandalika Kavya, a Sanskrit poem by Gangadhara, gives some information on dynasty but it has little historical value. Some of their inscriptions gives their genealogy but they too differ in order of succession. Ranchhodji Diwan, A. K. Forbes, James Burgess and Gaurishankar Oza had tried to fix genealogy and chronology. They ruled about from Vikram Samvat (VS) 900 to VS 1527 (c. 875 CE to 1472 CE).James W. Watson, in Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Kathiawar Volume VIII (1884), had given the chronology of Chudasama kings. The early kings in chronology were based on the bardic legends. Harold Wilberforce-Bell wrote The History of Kathiawad from the Earliest Times in 1916. He expanded on the chronology of Watson. He presented following chronology of the early kings: Chudachandra (875-907 CE) founded the dynasty. He was succeeded by Mularaja (907-915 CE), Vishwavarah (915-940 CE), Graharipu (940-982 CE), Kavat (982-1003 CE), Dyas (1003-1010 CE), Navaghana (1025-1044 CE), Khengara (1044-1067 CE), Navaghana (1067-1098 CE), Khengara (1098-1125 CE), Navaghana (1125-1140 CE), Kavat (1140-1152 CE), Jayasimha/Graharipu (1152-1180 CE), Raisimha (1180-1184 CE), Gajaraja/Mahipala (1184-1201 CE), Jayamala (1201-1230 CE), Mahipala (1230-1253 CE), Khengara (1253-1260 CE). The accuracy of this genealogy, chronology and dates are doubtful as it is derived from bardic legends and folklore.Khengara was succeeded by Mandalika I in 1294 CE.

Mahipala III

Ra Mahipala III was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1430 CE to 1451 CE (VS 1486 to VS 1507). His capital was at Junagadh.

Mahipala II (Chudasama dynasty)

Raul Mahipala II was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1378 CE to 1384 CE (VS 1435 to VS 1440).

Mahipala I (Chudasama dynasty)

Mahipala I was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1308 CE to 1331 CE (VS 1364 to VS 1387). His capital was at Junagadh.

Mandalika I

Mandalika I was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1294 CE to 1306 CE (VS 1350 to VS 1362). His capital was at Junagadh.

Mandalika II

Ra Mandalika II was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1396 CE to 1400 CE (VS 1452 to VS 1456).

Mokalasimha

Ra Mokalasimha, also known as Muktasimha, was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1384 CE to 1396 CE (VS 1440 to VS 1452). He ruled from Junagadh and later moved his capital to Vanthali when Saurashtra came under influence of the Delhi Sultanate.

Navaghana

Navaghana was a Chudasama king of Saurashtra region of western India who reigned from 1306 CE to 1308 CE (VS 1362 to VS 1364). His capital was at Junagadh.

Navaghana (king)

Navaghana was an early Chudasama king known only from the ballads and folklore of Saurashtra region of Gujarat, India. His capital was at Vamanasthali (now Vanthali) which he later moved to Junagadh during his last years of reign.

The bardic literature says his father Dyas was defeated by Patan Raja (probably Chaulukya king) and Navaghana was rescued. When Navaghana grew up, he regained the throne. He may have been benefited by weakened Chaulukyas due to invasion of Mahmud Ghazni who attacked desecrated the Somnath temple in 1024 CE. Navaghana came to power soon after the attack.According to bardic tales and folklore, Navaghana reigned from 1026 CE to 1044 CE and he was succeeded by his son Khengara who reigned for 23 years (1144-1167 CE), followed by his son Navaghana. Udaymati, wife of Chaulukya ruler Bhima I, was a daughter of his son Khengara.The construction of Navghan Kuvo, a stepwell in the Uparkot Fort, is attributed to him. It is considered an oldest example of stepwell in Gujarat by some scholars.

Sarvaiya

The Sarvaiya / Sarvaiyya are a Rajput clan of India, mainly found in Gujarat.

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