Chrysomeloidea

The Chrysomeloidea are an enormous superfamily of beetles, with tens of thousands of species, mostly in the families Cerambycidae (the long-horned beetles) and Chrysomelidae, the leaf beetles.

Chrysomeloidea
Colorado potato beetle
Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
(unranked): Phytophaga
Superfamily: Chrysomeloidea
Latreille, 1802
Families

Cerambycidae - long-horned beetles
Chrysomelidae - leaf beetles
Disteniidae
Megalopodidae
Orsodacnidae
Oxypeltidae
Vesperidae

Overview

Several species in these two families are important plant pests. The spotted cucumber beetle is a serious pest of vegetables and is a very common insect on all sorts of flowers. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, attacks potatoes and other members of the Solanaceae. The Asian long-horned beetle is a serious pest of trees where it has been introduced.

Some authorities have suggested removing the Cerambycidae and related families (Disteniidae, Oxypeltidae, and Vesperidae) from Chrysomeloidea to create a separate superfamily "Cerambycoidea" (e.g.,[1]), but in the absence of evidence to support the monophyly of the resulting groups, this proposal has not yet been accepted by the scientific community.

References

  1. ^ Švácha, P.; Danilevsky, M.L. (1990). "Cerambycoid larvae of Europe and Soviet Union (Coleoptera Cerambycoidea). Part I.". Entomologia Generalis. 15 (3): 202.

Bibliography

  • Löbl, Ivan; Smetana, Ales, eds. (2010). Chrysomeloidea. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-26091-7.
  • Haddad, S.; McKenna, D.D. (2016). "Phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Chrysomeloidea (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia)". Syst Entomol. 41 (4): 697–716. doi:10.1111/syen.12179.

External links

Aulacoscelidinae

The beetle subfamily Aulacoscelidinae (sometimes misspelled "Aulacoscelinae") is a small, uncommonly-encountered group presently classified within the family Orsodacnidae, historically placed as a subfamily of Chrysomelidae, or sometimes classified as a separate family Aulacoscelidae. There are only 19 species, mostly Neotropical in distribution, and their larval habits are unknown.

Bothromegalopus

Bothromegalopus gibbosus is a species of beetles in the family Megalopodidae, the only species in the genus Bothromegalopus.

Criocerinae

The Criocerinae are a subfamily of the leaf beetles, or Chrysomelidae.

Cucujiformia

Cucujiformia is an infraorder of polyphagan beetles, representing most plant-eating beetles.

The infraorder contains six superfamilies:

Chrysomeloidea (~7 families including longhorn beetles and leaf beetles)

Cleroidea (checkered beetles, bark-gnawing beetles and soft-winged flower beetles)

Cucujoidea (32 families that includes ladybirds, and fungus beetles)

Curculionoidea (~8 families primarily consisting of weevils and also including snout beetles and bark beetles)

Lymexyloidea (ship-timber beetles)

Tenebrionoidea (formerly "Heteromera") (30 families including blister beetles and ant-like beetles)

Disteniidae

The Disteniidae are a small family of beetles in the superfamily Chrysomeloidea, traditionally treated as a group within the Cerambycidae (most resembling certain Lepturinae such as the genus Stenocorus, but having long fine antennae and sometimes metallic colours).

Dorcasominae

Dorcasominae is a subfamily of the longhorn beetle family (Cerambycidae). The family includes only two tribes, Apatophysini and Dorcasomini, but numerous genera.

Eumolpini

Eumolpini is a tribe of leaf beetles in the subfamily Eumolpinae.

Hypocephalus armatus

Hypocephalus armatus, the mole beetle, is a species of beetle in the Cerambycidae family. It is the only species in the genus Hypocephalus.

Leaf beetle

The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families. Numerous subfamilies are recognized, but only some of them are listed below. The precise taxonomy and systematics are likely to change with ongoing research.

Leaf beetles are partially recognizable by their tarsal formula, which appears to be 4-4-4, but is actually 5-5-5 as the 4th tarsal segment is very small and hidden by the 3rd. As with many taxa, there is no single character that defines the Chrysomelidae; instead it is delineated by a set of characters. Some lineages are only distinguished with difficulty from longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae), namely by the antennae not arising from frontal tubercles.

Adult and larval leaf beetles feed on all sorts of plant tissue, and all species are fully herbivorous. Many are serious pests of cultivated plants, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), the asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi), the cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus), and various flea beetles, and a few act as vectors of plant diseases. Others are beneficial due to their use in biocontrol of invasive weeds. Some Chrysomelidae are conspicuously colored, typically in glossy yellow to red or metallic blue-green hues, and some (especially Cassidinae) have spectacularly bizarre shapes. Thus, they are highly popular among insect collectors.

Megalopodidae

The Megalopodidae are a small family of leaf beetles, previously included as a subfamily within the Chrysomelidae. One of its constituent subfamilies, Zeugophorinae, which contains a single genus, has also frequently been treated as a subfamily within Chrysomelidae. The family contains approximately 30 genera worldwide, primarily in the nominate subfamily Megalopodinae, and mostly circumtropical.

Orsodacne

Orsodacne is a genus of beetles, the sole member of the subfamily Orsodacninae. It comprises four Holarctic species.

Orsodacnidae

The Orsodacnidae are a small family of leaf beetles, previously included as a subfamily within the Chrysomelidae. It is the smallest of the Chrysomeloid families.

Oxypeltidae

The Oxypeltidae are a small family belonging to the superfamily Chrysomeloidea, widespread in the Andean region of Chile and Argentina. They have traditionally been considered a group within the Cerambycidae.

Palophaginae

Palophaginae is a small beetle subfamily within the family Megalopodidae. It contains four species in three genera:

Genus Cucujopsis Crowson, 1946

Cucujopsis setifer Crowson, 1946

Genus Palophagoides Kuschel in Kuschel & May, 1996

Palophagoides vargasorum Kuschel in Kuschel & May, 1996

Genus Palophagus Kuschel in Kuschel & May, 1990

Palophagus australiensis Kuschel in Kuschel & May, 1990

Palophagus bunyae Kuschel in Kuschel & May, 1990

Plesioagathomerus

Plesioagathomerus is a genus of beetles in the family Megalopodidae, containing the following species:

Plesioagathomerus atrodiscalis Pic, 1947

Plesioagathomerus bilineatus Pic, 1947

Plesioagathomerus canus Monros, 1945

Plesioagathomerus vittatus Monros, 1945

Polyphaga

Polyphaga is the largest and most diverse suborder of beetles. It comprises 144 families in 16 superfamilies, and displays an enormous variety of specialization and adaptation, with over 300,000 described species, or approximately 90% of the beetle species so far discovered.

Key characteristics of Polyphaga are that the hind coxa (base of the leg), does not divide the first and second abdominal/ventral plates which are known as sternites. Also, the notopleural suture (found under the pronotal shield) is not present.

Vesperidae

The Vesperidae are a small family of beetles, normally classified within the family Cerambycidae, of heterogeneous aspect but all characterised by larval stages related to roots of herbaceous plants or trees

Vesperus

Vesperus is a genus of beetle in the Vesperidae family

Vesperus xatarti

Vesperus xatarti is a species of brown coloured beetle in the Vesperidae family that can be found in Balearic Islands, France, and Spain.

Extant Coleoptera families

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