White Rose was the name of a resistance group in Munich in the time of the Third Reich. The group, founded in June 1942, consisted of students from the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich who distributed leaflets against the Nazis' war policy. Christoph Probst belonged, along with the Scholl siblings, Willi Graf and Alexander Schmorell to the tightest circle, into which university professor Kurt Huber also came.
The members of White Rose put together, printed and distributed, at the risk of their lives, six leaflets in all. On 18 February 1943, the Scholls were distributing the sixth leaflet at the university when they were discovered by a custodian, who delivered them to the Gestapo.
On 22 February 1943, Christoph Probst and the Scholls were tried and sentenced together at the Volksgerichtshof by judge Roland Freisler, who was known for often determining sentences even before the trial, and all three were sentenced to death by guillotine. Their sentences were carried out on the very same day at Stadelheim Prison in Munich.
Their grave may be found in the graveyard bordering the execution place, "Am Perlacher Forst".
His father, Hermann Probst, was a private scholar and Sanskrit researcher, fostered contacts with artists who were deemed by the Nazis to be "decadent". After his first marriage with Karin Katharina Kleeblatt, Christoph's mother, broke up in 1919, he married Elise Jaffée, who was Jewish. Christoph's sister, Angelika, remembers that her brother was strongly critical of Nazi ideas that violated human dignity.
Probst went to boarding school at Marquartstein and Landheim Schondorf, which was also not conducive to fostering Nazi German ideas, and at 17, he matriculated. After military service, he began his medical studies with great earnestness. Aged 21, he married Herta Dohrn, with whom he had three children: Michael, Vincent and Katja.
Christoph Probst came rather late into the White Rose as he did not belong to the same student corps as Hans Scholl, Alexander Schmorell and Willi Graf, and stayed for the most part in the background, as he had to think of his family. He wrote some of the text for the White Rose's leaflet which Hans Scholl was carrying with him when he and his sister Sophie went to the university on 18 February 1943 to distribute leftover copies of the sixth leaflet.
When the Scholl siblings were arrested at the University of Munich, the Gestapo acquired proof against Probst. Before his execution he requested to be and was baptized by a Roman Catholic priest. He was executed on 22 February 1943, along with Hans and Sophie Scholl, despite asking for clemency during interrogation. He also requested a trial for the sake of his wife and three children, who were aged three years, two years and four weeks old. His wife, Herta Probst, was sick with childbed fever at the time.
Christoph Probst was portrayed by Florian Stetter in the film Sophie Scholl: The Final Days.
February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 312 days remain until the end of the year (313 in leap years).Gudrun Kugler
Gudrun Veronika Kugler, née Lang, also known as Kugler-Lang (born 1976, Gmunden, Upper Austria) is a Roman Catholic theologian and jurist. Kugler teaches theology and is active in the pro-life movement and works against social discrimination and Persecution of Christians in Europe and worldwide. In 2015 she was elected to the Viennese municipal council for the ÖVP due to the high amount of preference votes received. In October 2017 she was unexpectedly elected as leading ÖVP candidate in her electoral district to the National Council with an increase in votes of over 9 %.Inge Scholl
Inge Aicher-Scholl (11 August 1917 – 4 September 1998), born in present-day Crailsheim, Germany, was the daughter of Robert Scholl, mayor of Forchtenberg, and elder sister of Hans and Sophie Scholl, who studied at the University of Munich in 1942, and were core members of the White Rose student resistance movement in Nazi Germany. Inge Scholl wrote several books about the White Rose after the war. However, according to the Center for White Rose Studies, she did not even "so much as listen to her siblings' talk", when they tried to convince her to take part in 1942.Kommilitonen!
Kommilitonen! (Young Blood!, or Student Activists, literally Fellow Students!) is an opera by Sir Peter Maxwell Davies. The libretto is by David Pountney, who was also the director of the premiere performances in March 2011.Landheim Schondorf
Landheim Schondorf is a boarding school located in Schondorf am Ammersee with two separate upper schools and a lower school. The campus includes 27 buildings and a private dock on the Ammersee. The school’s motto is “Learning with Mind, Heart and Hand,” with each part representing a different type of learning: the “Mind” represents academic learning, the “Heart” an education in social skills and a sense of community, and the “Hand” a development of artisanal, musical, artistic and athletic skills.List of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich people
This is a list of people associated with Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich in Germany.Marie-Luise Jahn
Marie-Luise Jahn (28 May 1918 – 22 June 2010) was a German physician and a member of the anti-Nazi resistance movement White Rose.
Jahn was born in Sandlack, East Prussia (today Sędławki, Poland), where she grew up. From 1934 to 1937 she attended school in Berlin and began her studies in chemistry at the University of Munich in 1940. There Jahn became a close friend of Hans Conrad Leipelt and a member of the White Rose resistance group. After Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst
had been imprisoned she continued to publish the Scholl leaflets and collected money to aid the widow of Kurt Huber. In October 1943 she was also arrested by the Gestapo and sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment by the Volksgerichtshof in 1944.After her liberation she studied medicine at the University of Tübingen and worked as a physician in Bad Tölz. In 1987 she was a founding member of the White Rose Foundation and member of the executive board until 2002.She died on 22 June 2010 in Bad Tölz.Murnau am Staffelsee
Murnau am Staffelsee is a market town in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region of Bavaria, Germany.
The market originated in the 12th century around Murnau Castle. Murnau is on the edge of the Bavarian Alps, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of Munich. Directly to its west is the Staffelsee lake and to the south are the peaks and ridges of the Ammergauer Alps beginning with the Hörnle and extending up to the Ettaler Manndl, southwest of the Wetterstein. This mountain range is formed by the Zugspitze and the Alpspitze in the south as well as the Estergebirge with their striking Kistenkar and the Walchensee mountains including Heimgarten and Herzogstand in the southeast.
To the south, the Murnauer Moos is the largest continuous wetland of its kind in Central Europe.Obergiesing
Obergiesing is a borough of Munich, about 3 miles south-east of the city center. The larger part is residential or a mix of business and residential, but there are also a number of recreational facilities.Probst
For the ecclesiastical title, see Propst (German) or Provost (English).Probst is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Christoph Probst (1919–1943), German resistance fighter
Eva Probst (1930–2018), German actress
Jeff Probst (born 1962), American television personality
Larry Probst, CEO of Electronic Arts
Paul Probst (1869–1945), Swiss sports shooter
Pierre Probst (1913-2007), French cartoonistSophie Scholl
Sophia Magdalena Scholl (9 May 1921 – 22 February 1943) was a German student and anti-Nazi political activist, active within the White Rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany.She was convicted of high treason after having been found distributing anti-war leaflets at the University of Munich (LMU) with her brother, Hans. As a result, she was executed by guillotine. Since the 1970s, Scholl has been extensively commemorated for her anti-Nazi resistance work.Sophie Scholl – The Final Days
Sophie Scholl – The Final Days (German: Sophie Scholl – Die letzten Tage) is a 2005 German historical drama film directed by Marc Rothemund and written by Fred Breinersdorfer. It is about the last days in the life of Sophie Scholl, a 21-year-old member of the anti-Nazi non-violent student resistance group the White Rose, part of the German Resistance movement. She was found guilty of high treason by the People’s Court and executed the same day, 22 February 1943.
The film was presented at the 65th Berlin International Film Festival in February 2005 and won Silver Bear awards for Best Director and Best Actress (Julia Jentsch). It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.Stadelheim Prison
Stadelheim Prison (German: Justizvollzugsanstalt München), in Munich's Giesing district, is one of the largest prisons in Germany.
Founded in 1894, it was the site of many executions, particularly by guillotine during the Nazi period.Studentenstadt
Studentenstadt Freimann is a student housing complex in Munich, Germany.
The complex was built in two stages, between 1961-1968 and between 1970-1977, and is Germany's largest student housing complex with 2,478 residential units in 14 buildings. Next to the Olympic Village, it is the second largest complex of the Studentenwerk München. In order to create affordable housing relatively quickly, several "Wohncontainer" (similar to mobile homes) have been set up near the original buildings. Today, more than 2,500 people live in "StuSta". The streets that run through Studentenstadt are named after the World War II era resistance group, the White Rose. For example, they are named Willi-Graf-Straße, Hans-Leipelt-Straße, and Christoph-Probst-Straße.Traute Lafrenz
Traute Lafrenz (born May 3, 1919) is a German-American physician and anthroposophist, who was a member of the White Rose anti-Nazi group during World War II.She was born in Hamburg. Together with Heinz Kucharski, Lafrenz studied under Erna Stahl at the Lichtwark-Gymnasium, a liberal arts school in Hamburg. When coeducation was abolished in 1937, Lafrenz moved to a convent school, where she and classmate Margaretha Rothe graduated in Easter 1938. Together with Rothe, Lafrenz began to study medicine at the University of Hamburg in the summer semester of 1939. After the semester she worked in Pomerania, where she met Alexander Schmorell who had begun studying in the summer of 1939 at the Hamburg University's Medical School but continued his studies from 1939/40 in Munich.
In May 1941 Lafrenz moved to Munich to study there, where she got to know Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst. In her opposition to the Nazi regime, she found inspiration in the writings of Rudolf Steiner. She attended many talks and discussions of the White Rose group, including those with Kurt Huber. In late 1942 she brought the third White Rose flyer to Hamburg and redistributed them via her former classmate Heinz Kucharski. When on 18 February 1943 Hans and Sophie Scholl were arrested in Munich University, Traute Lafrenz also was put under investigation by the Gestapo. She was arrested shortly afterwards on 15 March, together with Alexander Schmorell and Kurt Huber and sentenced to one year in prison on 19 April 1943. During her interrogation by the Gestapo Lafrenz succeeded in disguising the full extent of her involvement in the leaflet distribution. After her release she was arrested again by the Gestapo and imprisoned again.In 1947 she emigrated to the United States, completing her medical studies at Saint Joseph's Hospital in San Francisco, California. After moving to Chicago, she served from 1972 to 1994 as head of Esperanza School, a private, therapeutic day school serving students with developmental disabilities between the ages of 5 and 21. She has been involved in the anthroposophical movement in the United States for more than half a century. She is now retired and lives on Yonges Island near Meggett, South Carolina.University of Innsbruck
The University of Innsbruck (German: Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck; Latin: Universitas Leopoldino Franciscea) is a public university in Innsbruck, the capital of the Austrian federal state of Tyrol, founded in 1669.
It is currently the largest education facility in the Austrian Bundesland of Tirol, the third largest in Austria behind Vienna University and the University of Graz and according to The Times Higher Education Supplement World Ranking 2010 Austria's leading university. Significant contributions have been made in many branches, most of all in the physics department. Further, regarding the number of Web of Science-listed publications, it occupies the third rank worldwide in the area of mountain research.Weiße Rose (opera)
Weiße Rose (White Rose) is a chamber opera in one act by Udo Zimmermann. The opera tells the story of Hans and Sophie Scholl, a brother and sister in their early twenties, who were guillotined by the Nazis in 1943 for leading Die Weiße Rose, a non-violent resistance group. The opera premiered at the Dresden Conservatory on 17 June 1967 with a German libretto by the composer's brother, Ingo Zimmermann, a well known journalist and writer in Germany. The opera was received fairly well. Zimmermann revised it the following year for a professional production in Schwerin.
A completely new and less conventionally narrative opera with the same title and a libretto by Wolfgang Willaschek was premiered at the Hamburg State Opera on 27 February 1986 and was a success with both audience and critics. The opera became an international success and has had performances at many of the world's leading opera houses and with leading orchestras including the Vienna State Opera, Komische Oper Berlin, Zurich Opera, the Salzburg Festival, and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra among many others. The United States premiere of the opera was presented by Opera Omaha in 1988 with soprano Lauren Flanigan as Sophie.White Rose
The White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in the Third Reich led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. The group conducted an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign that called for active opposition to the Nazi party regime. Their activities started in Munich on 27 June 1942, and ended with the arrest of the core group by the Gestapo on 18 February 1943. They, as well as other members and supporters of the group who carried on distributing the pamphlets, faced show trials by the Nazi People's Court (Volksgerichtshof), and many of them were sentenced to death or imprisonment.
The group wrote, printed and initially distributed their pamphlets in the greater Munich region. Later on, secret carriers brought copies to other cities, mostly in the southern parts of Germany. In total, the White Rose authored six leaflets, which were multiplied and spread, in a total of about 15,000 copies. They denounced the Nazi regime's crimes and oppression, and called for resistance. In their second leaflet, they openly denounced the persecution and mass murder of the Jews. By the time of their arrest, the members of the White Rose were just about to establish contacts with other German resistance groups like the Kreisau Circle or the Schulze-Boysen/Harnack group of the Red Orchestra. Today, the White Rose is well-known both within Germany and worldwide.