Christoffer Gabel

Christoffer Gabel (6 January 1617 – 13 October 1673) was a Danish statesman.

Christoffer von Gabel
Christoffer Gabel
Born6 January 1617
Died13 October 1673 (aged 56)

Biography

He was born on 6 January 1617 at Glückstadt.[1][2] His father, Wulbern or Waldemar Gabel, originally a cartographer and subsequently recorder of Glückstadt, was killed at the siege of the fortress there, by the German Imperial Army, in 1628.[2] Nothing is known of Christoffer's youth, but it is certain he received a university education.[3] Christoffer's name is first recorded in 1639, as overseer and accountant at the court of the Archbishop of Bremen, Duke Frederick.[2] When the duke ascended the Danish throne as King Frederick III of Denmark, Gabel followed him to Copenhagen as his private secretary and man of business,[4] holding great influence over the irresolute king.[5]

During the brief interval of peace between King Charles X's first and second attack upon Denmark, Gabel was employed in several secret missions to Sweden;[5] and he took part in the intrigues which resulted in the autocratic revolution of 1660. While not the originator of the revolution, he was certainly the chief intermediary between Frederick III and the Conjoined Estates in the mysterious conspiracy which established absolutism in Denmark.[6] His activities won the king's lifelong gratitude. He was enriched, ennobled, and in 1664 made governor of Copenhagen.[7] From 1660 to 1670 he was regarded as the most influential figure at court,[8] and very largely employed in financial and diplomatic affairs. During this period he carried out a pro-French foreign policy,[8] while his domestic policy was affected by laziness[2] and corruption.[9]

When Frederick III died, in February 1670, Gabel's power was at an end. The new ruler, Christian V did not favour him, and accusations against Gabel poured in from every quarter.[10] When, on 18 April 1670, he was dismissed, there was no public sympathy for a man who had grown wealthy in a time of widespread poverty. He was stripped of all titles and privileges, except the financial control of the Faroe Islands. He spent his remaining time in Copenhagen, and died on 13 October 1673 and was buried in St. Peter's Church.[11]

Sources

  • Christian Bruun, "Gunde Rosenkrantz: Et Bidrag Til Danmarks Historie Under Frederik Den Tredie", 2008, ISBN 0-559-24640-4 Google Books edition
  • Carl Frederik Bricka, "Dansk biografisk Lexikon : Volume V : Faaborg - Gersdorff", Copenhagen, 1891 Online edition
  • Anders Thiset, "Danmarks Adels Aarbog : Volume X, Dansk Adelsforening, 1893
  • Dansk Biografisk Leksikon Online Edition

References

  1. ^ Bruun (2008), p.110
  2. ^ a b c d Bricka (1891), p.512
  3. ^ Bruun (2008), p.111
  4. ^ Artikel: Enevælden, Danmarkshistorien.dk, Aarhus University
  5. ^ a b Bricka (1891), p.513
  6. ^ Bricka (1891), p.514
  7. ^ Bricka (1891), p.515
  8. ^ a b Bricka (1891), p.516
  9. ^ Bricka (1891), p.517
  10. ^ Bricka (1891), p.518
  11. ^ Thiset (1893) p.141
1617

1617 (MDCXVII)

was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1617th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 617th year of the 2nd millennium, the 17th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1617, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1673

1673 (MDCLXXIII)

was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1673rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 673rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 73rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1673, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1673 in Denmark

Events from the year 1673 in Denmark.

1718 in Denmark

Events from the year 1718 in Denmark.

Aristocracy of Norway

Aristocracy of Norway refers to modern and medieval aristocracy in Norway. Additionally, there have been economical, political, and military élites that—relating to the main lines of Norway's history—are generally accepted as nominal predecessors of the aforementioned. Since the 16th century, modern aristocracy is known as nobility (Norwegian: adel).

The very first aristocracy in today's Norway appeared during the Bronze Age (1800 BC–500 BC). This bronze aristocracy consisted of several regional élites, whose earliest known existence dates to 1500 BC. Via similar structures in the Iron Age (400 BC–793 AD), these entities would reappear as petty kingdoms before and during the Age of Vikings (793–1066). Beside a chieftain or petty king, each kingdom had its own aristocracy.

Between 872 and 1050, during the so-called unification process, the first national aristocracy began to develop. Regional monarchs and aristocrats who recognised King Harald I as their high king, would normally receive vassalage titles like Earl. Those who refused were defeated or chose to migrate to Iceland, establishing an aristocratic, clan-ruled state there. The subsequent lendman aristocracy in Norway—powerful feudal lords and their families—ruled their respective regions with great autonomy. Their status was by no means equal to that of modern nobles; they were nearly half royal. For example, Ingebjørg Finnsdottir of the Arnmødling dynasty was married to King Malcolm III of Scotland. During the civil war era (1130–1240) the old lendmen were severely weakened, and many disappeared. This aristocracy was ultimately defeated by King Sverre I and the Birchlegs, subsequently being replaced by supporters of Sverre.

Primarily between the 9th and 13th centuries, the aristocracy was not limited to mainland Norway, but appeared in and ruled parts of the British Isles as well as Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Kingdoms, city states, and other types of entities, for example the Kingdom of Dublin, were established or possessed either by Norwegians or by native vassals. Other territories, for example Shetland and the Orkney Islands, were directly absorbed into the kingdom. For example, the Earl of Orkney was a Norwegian nobleman.

The nobility—known as hird and then as knights and squires—was institutionalised during the formation of the Norwegian state in the 13th century. Originally granted an advisory function as servants of the king, the nobility grew into becoming a great political factor. Their land and their armed forces, and also their legal power as members of the Council of the Realm, made the nobility remarkably independent from the king. At its height, the council had the power to recognise or choose inheritors of or pretenders to the Throne. In 1440, they dethroned King Eric III. The council even chose its own leaders as regents, among others Sigurd Jonsson of Sudreim. This aristocratic power, which also involved the church, lasted until the Reformation, when the king illegally abolished the council in 1536. This would nearly remove all of the nobility's political foundation, leaving them with mainly administrative and ceremonial functions. Subsequent immigration of Danish nobles (who thus became Norwegian nobles) would further marginalise the position of natives. In the 17th century, the old nobility consisted almost entirely of Danes.

After 1661, when absolute monarchy was introduced, the old nobility was gradually replaced by a new. This consisted mainly of merchants and officials who had recently been ennobled but also of foreign nobles who were naturalised. Dominant elements in the new nobility were the office nobility (noble status by holding high civilian or military offices) and—especially prominent in the 18th century—the letter nobility (noble status via letters patent in return for military or artistic achievements or monetary donations). Based on the 1665 Lex Regia, which stated that the king was to be revered and considered the most perfect and supreme person on the Earth by all his subjects, standing above all human laws and having no judge above his person, [...] except God alone, the king had his hands free to develop a new and loyal aristocracy to honour his absolute reign. The nobilities in Denmark and Norway could, likewise, bask in the glory of one of the most monarchial states in Europe. The titles of baron and count were introduced in 1671, and in 1709 and 1710, two marquisates (the only ones in Scandinavia) were created. Additionally, hundreds of families were ennobled, i.e., without titles. Demonstrating his omnipotence, the monarch could even revert noble status ab initio, as if ennoblement had never happened, and elevate dead humans to the estate of nobles. A rich aristocratic culture developed during this epoch, for example family names like Gyldenpalm (lit. 'Golden Palm'), Svanenhielm (lit. 'Swan Helm'), and Tordenskiold (lit. 'Thunder Shield'), many of them containing particles like French de and German von. Likewise, excessive creation of coats of arms boosted heraldic culture and praxis, including visual arts.

The 1814 Constitution forbade the creation of new nobility, including countships, baronies, family estates, and fee tails. The 1821 Nobility Law initiated a long-range abolition of the nobility as an official estate, a process in which current bearers were allowed to keep their status and possible titles as well as some privileges for the rest of their lifetime. The last legally noble Norwegians died in the early 20th century. Many Norwegians who had noble status in Norway had it in Denmark, too, where they remained officially noble.

During the 19th century, members of noble families continued to hold political and social power, for example Severin Løvenskiold as Governor-general of Norway and Peder Anker and Mathias Sommerhielm as Prime Minister. Aristocrats were active in Norway's independence movement in 1905, and it has been claimed the union with Sweden was dissolved thanks to a 'genuinely aristocratic wave'. Baron Fritz Wedel Jarlsberg's personal efforts contributed to Norway gaining sovereignty of the arctic archipelago Svalbard in 1920. From 1912 to 1918, Bredo Henrik von Munthe af Morgenstierne was Rector of the University of Oslo. When Norway co-founded and entered NATO, ambassador Wilhelm Morgenstierne represented the kingdom when US President Truman signed the treaty in 1949. Whilst they now acted as individuals rather than a unified estate, these and many other noblemen played a significant public rôle, mainly until the Second World War (1940–1945).

Today, Norway has approximately 10-15 families who were formerly recognised as noble by Norwegian kings. These include Anker, Aubert, Falsen, Galtung, Huitfeldt, Knagenhjelm, Løvenskiold, Munthe af Morgenstierne, Treschow, Werenskiold, and the Counts of Wedel-Jarlsberg. In addition, there are nonnoble families who descend patrilineally from individuals who once had personal (nonhereditary) noble status, for example the Paus family and several families of the void ab initio office nobility. There is even foreign nobility in Norway, mainly Norwegian families originating in other countries and who have or had noble status there.

Blågårds Plads

Blågårds Plads (lit. "Blue House Square") is a public square attached to Blågårdsgade, a side street to Nørrebrogade in the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a popular venue for events and various activities in the summer time.

Brahetrolleborg

Brahetrolleborg is a castle about 10 kilometres north-west of Fåborg on the island of Fyn, near the present Korinth. Before the Reformation it was Holme Abbey (Danish: Holme Kloster; Latin: Insula Dei), a Cistercian monastery.

Frederik Ahlefeldt

Frederik Ahlefeldt (1623 - 7 July 1686) was a Danish landowner and Grand Chancellor. His chancellorship occurred during the reign of King Christian V.

His father was Frederik Ahlefeldt of Søgård, Sønderjylland. He married into an influential family in 1656 by marrying with Christian Rantzaus's only daughter, Margrete Dorothea.

In 1657 he became Land Council and General Commission Commissioner and served in a diplomatic capacity to the state of Brandenburg and the Duke of Gottorp. In 1660 he was sent to England in a similar capacity, and there ended a trade and friendship treaty in February 1661. After his return, he was appointed to Statholder in Copenhagen, a judge, and finally a steward in the court of the Governor of Sønder-Ditmarsken. He subsequently spent most of his time at Gråsten. Later, in 1670s and subsequent to the fall of Christoffer Gabel, Ahlefeldt became the leading minister of the government, but was subsequently replaced by Griffenfeld.

On October 11, 1663, he received the Order of the Elephant.

Frederik Gabel

Frederik Gabel (1645–1708) was a Danish-Norwegian nobleman who served as Vice Governor-general of Norway from 1699 until his death in 1708.Frederik Gabel was the son of Christoffer Gabel, who held the trade monopoly for the Faroe Islands. He married Anne Cathrine Juul on 25 April 1671 in Christiania, the daughter of former Vice Governor-general of Norway Ove Juel. From 1667 through 1685 he served as a diplomatic envoy in Paris, St. Petersberg and Moscow.

Gabel promoted a relatively progressive viewpoint, promoting increased separation between the administration in Denmark and that in Norway. Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve had been Norway’s Governor from 1664 through 1699, but served much of that time in Denmark, relying on his Vice Governors, Ove Juul and Just Høeg. Based on his kinship to the king, Gyldenløve, as with Hannibal Sehested before him, had held substantial powers to act freely in Norway. Gabel was authorized extended powers when compared with his immediate predecessor, Just Høeg, but notably less freedom of action than Gyldenløve. Gabel drafted guidelines based on management principles to guide his stewardship of both the King’s land and the country of Norway and proposed them to the King in a letter dated 11 September 1700.During the severe fire in Bergen in 1702, Gabel, who was present, witnessed the obvious class hatred as the proletariat did nothing while the houses of the wealthy burned. After investigation, he concluded that great inequities had developed as the upper class had taken powers to themselves. He took those action he cold, but lacking the power to act as broadly as he’d like by himself, he wrote letters to the King proposing reforms to reduce the class divide.

Glückstadt

Glückstadt (German pronunciation ) (Danish: Lykstad) is a town in the Steinburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is located on the right bank of the Lower Elbe at the confluence of the small Rhin river, about 45 km (28 mi) northwest of Altona. Glückstadt is part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (Metropolregion Hamburg).

Hans Rostgaard

Hans Rostgaard (15 April 1625 – 31 December 1684) was a Danish bailiff (ridefoged) and county administrator (amtsforvalter) at Helsingør who is remembered for his achievement in the Second Northern War and especially his role during the Swedish siege of Copenhagen and subsequent assault on the city in 1659. He is also associated with Krogerup Manor in Humlebæk where a statue of him by Hans Peder Pedersen-Dan was installed in 1904. He was the father of Frederik Rostgaard and the uncle of Jens Rostgaard.

History of the Faroe Islands

The early details of the history of the Faroe Islands are unclear. It is possible that Brendan, an Irish monk, sailed past the islands during his North Atlantic voyage in the 6th century. He saw an 'Island of Sheep' and a 'Paradise of Birds,' which some say could be the Faroes with its dense bird population and sheep. This does suggest however that other sailors had got there before him, to bring the sheep. Norsemen settled the Faroe Islands in the 9th century or 10th century. The islands were officially converted to Christianity around the year 1000, and became a part of the Kingdom of Norway in 1035. Norwegian rule on the islands continued until 1380, when the islands became part of the dual Denmark–Norway kingdom, under king Olaf II of Denmark.

Following the 1814 Treaty of Kiel that ended the dual Denmark–Norway kingdom, the Faroe Islands remained under the administration of Denmark as a county. During World War II, after Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany, the British invaded and occupied the Faroe Islands until shortly after the end of the war. Following an, unrecognized by Denmark, independence referendum in 1946, the Faroe Islands were given extended self-governance with the Danish Realm in 1948 with the signing of the Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands.

January 6

January 6 is the sixth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 359 days remaining until the end of the year (360 in leap years).

Ladegården, Copenhagen

Ladegården, or Københavns Ladegård ("Copenahgen's Ladegård") was established as a farm under Copenhagen Castle by Christian IV in 1623 and was located roughly at the site of the present-day Radio House on Rosenørns Allé in Copenhagen, Denmark. The complex with later additions later served a range of different functions before it was demolished in the early 1920.

October 13

October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 79 days remaining until the end of the year.

Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg (24 March 1628 – 20 February 1685) was queen of Denmark and Norway as the consort of the King Frederick III of Denmark. She is known for her political influence, as well as for her cultural impact: she acted as the adviser of Frederick III, and introduced ballet and opera to Denmark.

St. Peter's Church, Copenhagen

St. Peter's Church (Danish: St. Petri Kirke, German: St.-Petri-Kirche) is the parish church of the German-speaking community in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated at the corner of Nørregade and Sankt Peders Stræde in the city's Latin Quarter. Built as a single-nave church in the mid-15th century, it is the oldest building in central Copenhagen. It is also notable for its extensive complex of sepulchral chapels.

Tvøst og spik

Tvøst og spik (also called Grind og spik) is a typical dish of the Faroe Islands, a self-governing country of Denmark, located in the North Atlantic. Tvøst og spik consists of Pilot Whale meat, blubber and potatoes. The meat is prepared in different ways, it can be boiled or fried fresh, it can be stored in either dry salt (turrsaltað) or in very salty water (lakasaltað), it can be frozen and later prepared, or it can be hung up outdoors in order to dry. When it is hung out to dry, it is cut in long slices (grindalikkja), and then hung under a roof, to shield it from the rain. The blubber can also be prepared in different ways, boiled, salted or dried, but not fried. Dried blubber can also be eaten together with dried fish, as shown on the photo. The whale meat has a very dark color, almost black.

Undløse Church

Undløse Church (Danish: Undløse Kirke) is located in the village of Undløse some 17 km (11 mi) southwest of Holbæk in northern Zealand, Denmark. The original part of the Romanesque church derives from the late 12th century. The church is noted for its early 15th-century frescoes and for its elaborate Baroque altarpiece and pulpit, both woodcuts by Abel Schrøder.

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