Christmas Island

The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 kilometres (220 mi) south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 kilometres (960 mi) north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).

Christmas Island had a population of 1,843 residents as of 2016,[1] the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island. The main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is estimated to have Malaysian Chinese origin (though just 21.2% of the population declared a Chinese ancestry in 2016[1]), with significant numbers of Malays and European Australians as well as smaller numbers of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians. Several languages are in use, including English, Malay, and various Chinese dialects. Islam and Buddhism are major religions on the island, though a vast majority of the population does not declare a formal religious affiliation and may be involved in ethnic Chinese religion.

The first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615. The island was later named on Christmas Day (25 December) 1643 by Captain William Mynors but only settled in the late 19th century.[2] Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism among its flora and fauna, which is of interest to scientists and naturalists.[3] The majority (63 percent) of the island is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest. Phosphate, deposited originally as guano, has been mined on the island since 1899.

Flag of Christmas Island 圣诞岛 (Simplified Chinese)
Flag
Location of Christmas Island 圣诞岛 (Simplified Chinese)
StatusExternal Territory
Capital
and largest city
Flying Fish Cove
("The Settlement")
Official languagesEnglish[a]
Native languagesChinese, Malay, English
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Christmas Islander
Sovereign stateAustralia
GovernmentLocal authority under a federal constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Sir Peter Cosgrove
Natasha Griggs
Gordon Thompson
Establishment
• Annexed by UK
1888
• Transferred to Australia
1957
Area
• Total
135 km2 (52 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0
Population
• 2018 census
1,843 (2018)[1]
• Density
10.39/km2 (26.9/sq mi) (n/a)
CurrencyAustralian dollar (AUD)
Time zoneUTC+7 (CXT)
Driving sideleft
Calling code61
Internet TLD.cx

History

First visits by Europeans, 1643

The first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615.[4] Captain William Mynors of the Royal Mary, an English East India Company vessel, named the island when he sailed past it on Christmas Day, in 1643.[5] The island was included on English and Dutch navigation charts as early as the beginning of the 17th century, but it was not until 1666 that a map published by Dutch cartographer Pieter Goos included the island. Goos labelled the island "Mony" or "Moni",[6] the meaning of which is unclear.[7]

English navigator William Dampier, aboard the English ship Cygnet, made the earliest recorded visit to the sea around the island in March 1688.[6] He found it uninhabited.[8][6] Dampier gave an account of the visit which can be found in his Voyages.[9] Dampier was trying to reach Cocos from New Holland. His ship was blown off course in an easterly direction, arriving at Christmas Island twenty-eight days later. Dampier landed at the Dales (on the west coast). Two of his crewmen became the first Europeans to set foot on Christmas Island.[10]

Captain Daniel Beeckman of the Eagle passed the island on 5 April 1714, chronicled in his 1718 book, A Voyage to and from the Island of Borneo, in the East-Indies.[11]

Exploration and annexation

Poonsaan1v2
Poon Saan in the evening
Poonsaan2
Poon Saan shops

The first attempt at exploring the island was in 1857 by the crew of the Amethyst. They tried to reach the summit of the island but found the cliffs impassable.

During the 1872–76 Challenger expedition to Indonesia, naturalist John Murray carried out extensive surveys.[12]

In 1886, Captain John Maclear of HMS Flying Fish, having discovered an anchorage in a bay that he named "Flying Fish Cove", landed a party and made a small collection of the flora and fauna.[6] In the next year, Pelham Aldrich, on board HMS Egeria, visited the island for ten days, accompanied by J. J. Lister, who gathered a larger biological and mineralogical collection.[6]

Among the rocks then obtained and submitted to Murray for examination were many of nearly pure phosphate of lime. This discovery led to annexation of the island by the British Crown on 6 June 1888.[12]

Settlement and exploitation

Soon afterwards, a small settlement was established in Flying Fish Cove by G. Clunies Ross, the owner of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands some 900 kilometres (560 mi) to the southwest, to collect timber and supplies for the growing industry on Cocos. Phosphate mining began in 1899 using indentured workers from Singapore, Malaya, and China. John Davis Murray, a mechanical engineer and recent graduate of Purdue University, was sent to supervise the operation on behalf of the Phosphate Mining and Shipping Company. Murray was known as the "King of Christmas Island" until 1910, when he married and settled in London.[13][14]

The island was administered jointly by the British Phosphate commissioners and district officers from the United Kingdom Colonial Office through the Straits Settlements, and later the Crown Colony of Singapore. Hunt (2011) provides a detailed history of Chinese indentured labor on the island during those years. In 1922, scientists attempted unsuccessfully to view a solar eclipse from the island to test Einstein's Theory of Relativity.[15]

Japanese invasion

From the outbreak of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II in December 1941, Christmas Island was a target for Japanese occupation because of its rich phosphate deposits.[16] A naval gun was installed under a British officer and four NCOs and 27 Indian soldiers.[16] The first attack was carried out on 20 January 1942, by Japanese submarine I-59, which torpedoed a Norwegian freighter, the Eidsvold.[17] The vessel drifted and eventually sank off West White Beach. Most of the European and Asian staff and their families were evacuated to Perth.

In late February and early March 1942, there were two aerial bombing raids. Shelling from a Japanese naval group on 7 March led the district officer to hoist the white flag.[16] But after the Japanese naval group sailed away, the British officer raised the Union Flag once more.[16] During the night of 10–11 March, a mutiny of the Indian troops, abetted by Sikh policemen, led to the killing of the five British soldiers and the imprisonment of the remaining 21 Europeans.[16]

At dawn on 31 March 1942, a dozen Japanese bombers launched the attack, destroying the radio station. The same day, a Japanese fleet of nine vessels arrived, and the island was surrendered. About 850 men of the Japanese 21st and 24th Special Base Forces and 102nd Construction Unit came ashore at Flying Fish Cove and occupied the island.[16] They rounded up the workforce, most of whom had fled to the jungle. Sabotaged equipment was repaired and preparations were made to resume the mining and export of phosphate. Only twenty men from the 21st Special Base Force were left as a garrison.[16]

Isolated acts of sabotage and the torpedoing of the Nissei Maru at the wharf on 17 November 1942[18] meant that only small amounts of phosphate were exported to Japan during the occupation. In November 1943, over 60% of the island's population was evacuated to Surabayan prison camps, leaving a total population of just under 500 Chinese and Malays and 15 Japanese to survive as best they could. In October 1945, HMS Rother re-occupied Christmas Island.[19][20][21][22]

After the war, seven mutineers were traced and prosecuted by the Military Court in Singapore. In 1947, five of them were sentenced to death. However, following representations made by the newly independent government of India, their sentences were reduced to penal servitude for life.[16]

Transfer to Australia

At Australia's request, the United Kingdom transferred sovereignty to Australia, with a $20 million payment from the Australian government to Singapore as compensation for the loss of earnings from the phosphate revenue.[23] The United Kingdom's Christmas Island Act was given royal assent on 14 May 1958, enabling Britain to transfer authority over Christmas Island from Singapore to Australia by an order-in-council.[24] Australia's Christmas Island Act was passed in September 1958 and the island was officially placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 October 1958.[25]

Under Commonwealth Cabinet Decision 1573 of 9 September 1958, D. E. Nickels was appointed the first official representative of the new territory.[26] In a media statement on 5 August 1960, the minister for territories, Paul Hasluck, said, among other things, that, "His extensive knowledge of the Malay language and the customs of the Asian people... has proved invaluable in the inauguration of Australian administration... During his two years on the island he had faced unavoidable difficulties... and constantly sought to advance the island's interests."

John William Stokes succeeded him and served from 1 October 1960, to 12 June 1966. On his departure, he was lauded by all sectors of the island community. In 1968, the official secretary was retitled an administrator and, since 1997, Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands together are called the Australian Indian Ocean Territories and share a single administrator resident on Christmas Island. Recollections of the island's history and lifestyle, and lists and timetables of the island's leaders and events since its settlement are at the World Statesmen site[27] and in Neale (1988), Bosman (1993), Hunt (2011) and Stokes (2012).

The settlement of Silver City was built in the 1970s, with aluminium-clad houses that were supposed to be cyclone-proof.[28] The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami centred off the western shore of Sumatra in Indonesia, resulted in no reported casualties, but some swimmers were swept some 150 metres (490 ft) out to sea for a time before being swept back in.[29]

Refugee and immigration detention

Christmas Island Immigration Detention Centre and the Lilac compound (5775019842)
Immigration Detention Centre

From the late 1980s and early 1990s, boats carrying asylum seekers, mainly departing from Indonesia, began landing on the island. In 2001, Christmas Island was the site of the Tampa controversy, in which the Australian government stopped a Norwegian ship, MV Tampa, from disembarking 438 rescued asylum-seekers. The ensuing standoff and the associated political reactions in Australia were a major issue in the 2001 Australian federal election.[30]

The Howard government operated the "Pacific Solution" from 2001 to 2007, excising Christmas Island from Australia's migration zone so that asylum seekers on the island could not apply for refugee status. Asylum seekers were relocated from Christmas Island to Manus Island and Nauru. In 2006, an immigration detention centre, containing approximately 800 beds, was constructed on the island for the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. Originally estimated to cost A$276 million,[31] the final cost was over $400 million.[32]

In 2007, the Rudd government decommissioned Manus Regional Processing Centre and Nauru detention centre; processing would then occur on Christmas Island itself.[33]

In December 2010, 48 asylum-seekers died just off the coast of the island in what became known as the Christmas Island boat disaster when the boat they were on, hit rocks off Flying Fish Cove, and then smashed against nearby cliffs.[34][35]

In the case Plaintiff M61/2010E v Commonwealth of Australia, the High Court of Australia ruled, in a 7–0 joint judgment, that asylum seekers detained on Christmas Island were entitled to the protections of the Migration Act. Accordingly, the Commonwealth was obliged to afford asylum seekers a minimum of procedural fairness when assessing their claims.[36]

As of 20 June 2013, after the interception of four boats in six days, carrying 350 people, the Immigration Department stated that there were 2,960 "irregular maritime arrivals" being held in the island's five detention facilities, which exceeded not only the "regular operating capacity" of 1,094 people, but also the "contingency capacity" of 2,724.[37]

The Christmas Island Immigration Reception and Processing Centre closed on 30 September 2018.[38] On 13 February 2019 the Morrison government announced it would re-open the centre, after Australia's parliament passed legislation giving sick asylum seekers easier access to mainland hospitals.[39]

Geography

Map of Christmas Island 1976
Christmas Island

The island is about 19 kilometres (12 mi) in greatest length and 14.5 km (9.0 mi) in breadth. The total land area is 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi), with 138.9 km (86.3 mi) of coastline. The island is the flat summit of an underwater mountain more than 4,500 metres (14,800 ft) high,[40] which rises from about 4,200 m (13,780 ft) below the sea and only about 300 m (984 ft) above it.[41]

The mountain was originally a volcano, and some basalt is exposed in places such as The Dales and Dolly Beach, but most of the surface rock is limestone accumulated from coral growth. The karst terrain supports numerous anchialine caves.[42] The summit of this mountain peak is formed by a succession of Tertiary limestones ranging in age from the Eocene or Oligocene up to recent reef deposits, with intercalations of volcanic rock in the older beds.[43]

Steep cliffs along much of the coast rise abruptly to a central plateau. Elevation ranges from sea level to 361 m (1,184 ft) at Murray Hill. The island is mainly tropical rainforest, 63% of which is national parkland. The narrow fringing reef surrounding the island poses a maritime hazard.

Christmas Island lies 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) northwest of Perth, Western Australia, 350 km (220 mi) south of Indonesia, 975 km (606 mi) ENE of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and 2,748 km (1,708 mi) west of Darwin, Northern Territory. Its closest point to the Australian mainland is 1,560 km (970 mi) from the town of Exmouth, Western Australia.[44]

Beaches

Christmas Island has 80 kilometres (50 mi) of shoreline but only small parts of the shoreline are easily accessible. The island's perimeter is embodied by sharp cliff faces, making many of the island's beaches difficult to get to. Some of the easily accessible beaches include Flying Fish Cove (main beach), Lily Beach, Ethel Beach, and Isabel Beach, while the more difficult beaches to access include Greta Beach, Dolly Beach, Winifred Beach, Merrial Beach, and West White Beach, which all require a vehicle with four wheel drive and a difficult walk through dense rainforest.[45]

Climate

Christmas Island is located towards the southern edge of the equatorial region. Climate is tropical and temperatures vary little throughout the year. The highest temperature is usually around 29 °C (84 °F) in March and April, while the lowest temperature is 23 °C (73 °F) and occurs in August. There is a dry season from July to October with only occasional showers. The wet season is between November and June, and includes monsoons, with downpours of rain at random times of the day. Tropical cyclones also occur in the wet season, bringing very strong winds, rain and enormous seas.

Demographics

Christmas Island Population Pyramid-2011
Christmas Island's population pyramid, from a census in 2011, showing a large proportion of males over females.

As of the 2016 Australian census, the population of Christmas Island is 1,843.[1] 21.2% of the population had Chinese ancestry (up from 18.3% in 2001), 12.7% had generic Australian ancestry (11.7% in 2001), 12% had Malay ancestry (9.3% in 2001), 10% had English ancestry (8.9% in 2001), and 2.3% of the population was of Irish origin (the same share as in 2001). 48.1% of the population has undetermined ancestry. as of 2016, most of them are people born in Christmas Island and many are of Chinese and Malay origin.[1] 38.5% of people were born in Australia. The next most common country of birth was Malaysia at 20.1%. 27.8% of the population spoke English as their family language, while 17.2% spoke Mandarin Chinese, 17.2% spoke Malay, 3.7% Cantonese, 1.5% Southern Min, and 1% Tagalog.[1] Additionally, there are small local populations of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians.[47][48]

Government

Christmas Island is a non-self-governing external territory of Australia, as of March 2019 administered by the Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities (from 29 November 2007 until 14 September 2010, administration was carried out by the Attorney-General's Department,[49][50] and prior to this by the Department of Transport and Regional Services).[51]

The legal system is under the authority of the Governor-General of Australia and Australian law. An administrator appointed by the Governor-General represents the monarch and Australia and lives on the island. The territory falls under no formal state jurisdiction, but the Western Australian Government provides many services through agreements with Canberra.

The Australian government provides services through the Christmas Island Administration and the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development. Under the federal government's Christmas Island Act 1958, Western Australian laws are applied to Christmas Island; non-application or partial application of such laws is at the discretion of the federal government.[52] The act also gives Western Australian courts judicial power over Christmas Island. Christmas Island remains constitutionally distinct from Western Australia, however; the power of the state to legislate for the territory is delegated by the federal government. The kind of services typically provided by a state government elsewhere in Australia are provided by departments of the Western Australian government, and by contractors, with the costs met by the federal government. A unicameral Shire of Christmas Island with nine seats provides local government services and is elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. Elections are held every two years, with four or five of the members standing for election.

Federal politics

Christmas Island residents who are Australian citizens also vote in federal elections. Christmas Island residents are represented in the House of Representatives by the Division of Lingiari in the Northern Territory and in the Senate by Northern Territory senators.[55] At the 2016 federal election, the Labor Party received absolute majorities from Christmas Island electors in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. [53][54]

Residents' views

Residents find the system of administration frustrating, with the island run by bureaucrats in the federal government, but subject to the laws of Western Australia and enforced by federal police. There is a feeling of resignation that any progress on local issues is prolongated by the confusing governance system. A number of islanders support self-governance, including shire president Gordon Thompson, who also believes that a lack of news media to cover local affairs had contributed to political apathy among residents.[56]

Flag

In early 1986, the Christmas Island Assembly held a design competition for an island flag; the winning design was adopted as the informal flag of the territory for over a decade, and in 2002 it was made the official flag of Christmas Island.

Economy

Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian government closed the mine. In 1991, the mine was reopened by a consortium which included many of the former mine workers as shareholders. With the support of the government, the $34 million Christmas Island Casino and Resort opened in 1993 but was closed in 1998. As of 2011, the resort has re-opened without the casino.

The Australian government in 2001 agreed to support the creation of a commercial spaceport on the island, however, this has not yet been constructed and appears that it will not proceed. The Howard government built a temporary immigration detention centre on the island in 2001 and planned to replace it with a larger, modern facility at North West Point until Howard's defeat in the 2007 elections.

Culture

The culture of Christmas Island is unique, for people of many different ethnicities inhabit the area. Historically, the majority of Christmas Islanders were those of Chinese, Malay and Indian origins, the initial permanent settlers, and as a result, they have significantly influenced the local culture.[57] Today, the majority of residents are Chinese, with significant numbers of European Australians and Malays as well as smaller Indian and Eurasian communities too. The main languages of Christmas Island are English and Chinese. Dress is usually modest, and tourists should keep a wrap, such as a sarong or pareo, on hand to cover shorts, bathing suits, and tank tops. It is common to remove shoes when entering a house and to also avoid touching anyone's head.

Religion in Christmas Island[1]
Religion 2011 2016
Islam 14.8% 19.4%
Buddhism 16.8% 18.1%
Christianity 10.8% 8.9%
Not religious 9.2% 15.2%
Other religion 48.4% 38.4%

Religion

Religious beliefs are diverse, but people are very tolerant of each other's religions. The religions practised include Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Islam, and Christianity. There is a Mosque in Flying Fish Cove. With all of these religions, there are many religious festivals, such as Spring Festival, Hari Raya, Christmas and Easter.[58] Additionally, there is a Bahá'í centre on the island.[59]

Attractions

Christmas Island (5775114458)
Car moving across the backroads of Christmas Island

Christmas Island is well known for its biological diversity. There are many rare species of animals and plants on the island, making nature-walking a popular activity. Along with the diversity of species, many different types of caves exist, such as plateau caves, coastal caves, raised coastal caves and alcoves, sea caves, fissure caves, collapse caves, and basalt caves; most of these are near the sea and have been formed by the action of water. Altogether, there are approximately 30 caves on the island,[60] with Lost Lake Cave, Daniel Roux Cave, and Full Frontal Cave being the most well-known. The many freshwater springs include Hosnies Spring Ramsar, which also has a mangrove stand.

The Dales is a rainforest in the western part of the island and consists of seven deep valleys, all of which were formed by spring streams. Hugh's Dale waterfall is part of this area and is a popular attraction. The annual breeding migration of the Christmas Island red crabs is a popular event.

Fishing is another common activity. There are many distinct species of fish in the oceans surrounding Christmas Island. Snorkeling and swimming in the ocean are two other activities that are extremely popular. Walking trails are also very popular, for there are many beautiful trails surrounded by extravagant flora and fauna. 63% of the island is national park making it one of the main attractions to experience when visiting.

Flora and fauna

Christmas Island was uninhabited until the late 19th century, allowing many species to evolve without human interference. Two-thirds of the island has been declared a National Park, which is managed by the Australian Department of Environment and Heritage through Parks Australia. Christmas Island contains unique species, both of flora and fauna, some of which are threatened with, or have become, extinct.

Flora

The dense rainforest has grown in the deep soils of the plateau and on the terraces. The forests are dominated by 25 tree species. Ferns, orchids and vines grow on the branches in the humid atmosphere beneath the canopy. The 135 plant species include at least 18 that are found nowhere else. The rainforest is in great condition despite the mining activities over the last 100 years. Areas that have been damaged by mining are now a part of an ongoing rehabilitation project. The island is small and covers 135 square kilometres of land which 63% of that land has been declared National park.[61]

Christmas Island's endemic plants include the trees Arenga listeri, Pandanus elatus and Dendrocnide peltata var. murrayana; the shrubs Abutilon listeri, Colubrina pedunculata, Grewia insularis and Pandanus christmatensis; the vines Hoya aldrichii and Zehneria alba; the herbs Asystasia alba, Dicliptera maclearii and Peperomia rossii; the grass Ischaemum nativitatis; the fern Asplenium listeri; and the orchids Brachypeza archytas, Flickingeria nativitatis, Phreatia listeri and Zeuxine exilis.[62]

Fauna

Two species of native rats, the Maclear's and bulldog rats, have become extinct since the island was settled, while the Javan rusa has been introduced. The endemic Christmas Island shrew has not been seen since the mid-1980s and may be already extinct, while the Christmas Island pipistrelle (a small bat) is presumed to be extinct.[63]

The fruit bat (flying fox) species Pteropus natalis is only found on Christmas Island, its epithet natalis is a reference to that name. The species is probably the last native mammal, and an important pollinator and rainforest seed-disperser; the population is also in decline and under increasing pressure from land clearing and introduced pest species. The flying fox's low rate of reproduction (one pup each year) and high infant mortality rate makes it especially vulnerable and the conservation status is as critically endangered.[64] Flying foxes are an 'umbrella' species helping forests regenerate and other species survive in stressed environments.

The land crabs and seabirds are the most noticeable fauna on the island. Christmas Island has been identified by BirdLife International as both an Endemic Bird Area and an Important Bird Area because it supports five endemic species and five subspecies as well as over one percent of the world populations of five other seabirds.[65]

Twenty terrestrial and intertidal species of crab have been described here, of which thirteen are regarded as true land crabs, being dependent on the ocean only for larval development. Robber crabs, known elsewhere as coconut crabs, also exist in large numbers on the island. The annual red crab mass migration (around 100 million animals) to the sea to spawn has been called one of the wonders of the natural world.[66] This takes place each year around November – after the start of the wet season and in synchronisation with the cycle of the moon. Once at the ocean, the mothers release the embryos where they can survive and grow until they are able to live on land.

The island is a focal point for seabirds of various species. Eight species or subspecies of seabirds nest on it. The most numerous is the red-footed booby, which nests in colonies, using trees on many parts of the shore terrace. The widespread brown booby nests on the ground near the edge of the seacliff and inland cliffs. Abbott's booby (listed as endangered) nests on tall emergent trees of the western, northern and southern plateau rainforest, the only remaining nesting habitat for this bird in the world.

Another endangered and endemic bird, the Christmas frigatebird, has nesting areas on the northeastern shore terraces. The more widespread great frigatebirds nest in semi-deciduous trees on the shore terrace, with the greatest concentrations being in the North West and South Point areas. The common noddy and two species of bosun or tropicbirds, with their brilliant gold or silver plumage and distinctive streamer tail feathers, also nest on the island.

Of the ten native land birds and shorebirds, seven are endemic species or subspecies. This includes the Christmas thrush and the Christmas imperial pigeon. Some 86 migrant bird species have been recorded as visitors to the island.

Six species of butterfly are known to occur on Christmas Island. These are the Christmas swallowtail (Papilio memnon), striped albatross (Appias olferna), Christmas emperor (Polyura andrewsi), king cerulean (Jamides bochus), lesser grass-blue (Zizina otis), and Papuan grass-yellow (Eurema blanda).[67]

Insect species include the yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), introduced to the island and since subjected to attempts to destroy the supercolonies that emerged with aerial spraying of the insecticide Fipronil.[68]

Media

Christmas Island has access to a range of modern communication services.

Radio broadcasts from Australia include ABC Radio National, ABC Kimberley, Triple J and Red FM. All services are provided by satellite links from the mainland. Broadband internet became available to subscribers in urban areas in mid-2005 through the local internet service provider, CIIA (formerly dotCX).

Christmas Island, due to its close proximity to Australia's northern neighbors, falls within many of the satellite footprints throughout the region. This results in ideal conditions for receiving various Asian broadcasts, which locals sometimes refer to those emanating from Western Australia. Additionally, ionospheric conditions are conducive to terrestrial radio transmissions, from HF through VHF and sometimes into UHF. The island plays home to a small array of radio equipment that spans a good chunk of the usable spectrum. A  a variety of government-owned and operated antenna systems are employed on the island to take advantage of this.

Television

Free-to-air digital television stations from Australia are broadcast in the same time zone as Perth, and are broadcast from three separate locations:[69]

Broadcaster Drumsite Phosphate Hill Rocky Point
ABC ABC 6 ABC 34 ABC 40
SBS SBS 7 SBS 35 SBS 41
WAW WAW 8 WAW 36 WAW 42
WOW WOW 10 WOW 36 WOW 43
WDW WDW 11 WDW 38 WDW 44

Cable television from Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and the United States commenced in January 2013.

Telecommunications

Telephone services are provided by Telstra and are a part of the Australian network with the same prefix as Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory (08). A GSM mobile telephone system on the 900 MHz band[70] replaced the old analogue network in February 2005.

Postage stamps

Stamp Christmas Island 1958 2c
Postage stamp with portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, 1958

A postal agency was opened on the island in 1901 and sold stamps of the Strait Settlements.[71]

After the Japanese occupation (1942–45), postage stamps of the British Military Administration in Malaya were in use, then stamps of Singapore.[72]

In 1958, the island received its own postage stamps after being put under Australian custody. It had a large philatelic and postal independence, managed first by the Phosphate Commission (1958–1969) and then by the island's administration (1969–93).[71] This ended on 2 March 1993 when Australia Post became the island's postal operator; Christmas Island stamps may be used in Australia and Australian stamps may be used on the island.[72]

Transport

A container port exists at Flying Fish Cove with an uncompleted alternative container-unloading point to the east of the island at Norris Point, intended for use during the December-to-March "swell season" of rough seas.

The standard gauge 18 km (11 mi) Christmas Island Phosphate Co.'s Railway from Flying Fish Cove to the phosphate mine was constructed in 1914. It was closed in December 1987, when the Australian government closed the mine, and since has been recovered as scrap, leaving only earthworks in places.

Virgin Australia Regional Airlines provides two weekly flights to Christmas Island Airport from Perth, Western Australia, Garuda Indonesia conduct weekly open-charter flights from/to Jakarta with bookings done through Christmas Island Travel Exchange and Malindo Air operate fortnightly open-charter flights from/to Kuala Lumpur with bookings done through Evercrown Air Services.

Hire cars are available from the airport however no franchised companies are represented. CI Taxi Service also operates most days.

The road network covers most of the island and is of generally good quality, although four-wheel drive vehicles are needed to reach some of the more distant parts of the rainforest or the more isolated beaches on the rough dirt roads.

Education

The island-operated crèche is in the Recreation Centre.[73] Christmas Island District High School, catering to students in grades P-12, is run by the Western Australian Education Department. There are no universities on Christmas Island.

The island has one public library.[74]

Sport

Rugby league is growing in the island: the first game was played in 2016, and a local committee, with the support of NRL Western Australia, is willing to organize matches with nearby Cocos Islands and to create a Rugby League Competition in the Indian Ocean area.[75]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ English does not have de jure status in Christmas Island and in Australia, but it is the de facto language of communication in government.

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Australian Government – Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development. "2016 Census: Christmas Island" (PDF). Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ Luscombe, Stephen (2019). "Christmas Island". The British Empire. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Save Christmas Island – Introduction". The Wilderness Society. 19 September 2002. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  4. ^ James, David J.; Mcallan, Ian A.W. (August 2014). "The birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: A review". ResearchGate. Australian Field Ornithology. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts – Christmas Island History". Australian Government. 8 July 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d e Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Christmas Island" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 294–295.
  7. ^ "Digital Collections – Maps – Goos, Pieter, ca. 1616–1675. Paskaerte Zynde t'Oosterdeel Van Oost Indien (cartographic material) : met alle de Eylanden deer ontrendt geleegen van C. Comorin tot aen Iapan". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  8. ^ Carney, Gerard (2006). The constitutional systems of the Australian states and territories. Cambridge University Press. p. 477. ISBN 0-521-86305-8. The uninhabited island was named on Christmas Day, 1643, by Captain William Mynors as he sailed past, leaving to William Dampier the honour of first landing ashore in 1688.
  9. ^ Dampier, Captain William (1703). A New Voyage Round The World. The Crown in St Paul's Church-yard, London, England: James Knapton. pp. Contemporary full panelled calf with raised bands to spine and crimson morocco title labels, crimson sprinkled edges, 8vo.
  10. ^ "Where is Christmas Island?". Hamilton Stamp Club. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  11. ^ "The early history of Christmas Island, in the Indian Ocean". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 22: 73–74. 1949.
  12. ^ a b "History". Christmas Island Tourism Association. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  13. ^ Walsh, William (1913). A Handy Book of Curious Information. London: Lippincott. p. 447.
  14. ^ Jupp, James (2001). "Christmas Islanders". The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 225. ISBN 9780521807890. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  15. ^ John Hunt. Eclipse on Christmas Island. newspaper article in 'The Canberra Times', 5 September 2012.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Mystery of Christmas Island, March 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
  17. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Allied Merchant Ship Losses in the Pacific and Southeast Asia". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
  18. ^ Cressman, Robert J. "The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II Chapter IV: 1942". Hyperwar/.
  19. ^ Public Record Office, England War Office and Colonial Office Correspondence/Straits Settlements.
  20. ^ J. Pettigrew. "Christmas Island in World War II". Australian Territories January 1962.
  21. ^ Interviews conducted by J G Hunt with Island residents, 1973–77.
  22. ^ Correspondence J G Hunt with former Island residents, 1973–79.
  23. ^ Department of External Affairs in Australia. (1957, May 16): Report from the Australian High Commission in Singapore to the Department of External Affairs in Australia. Singapore: National Archives of Singapore. (Microfilm: NAB 447)
  24. ^ "All set for transfer. (1958, May 16)". The Straits Times, p. 2.
  25. ^ "Kerr, A. (2009). A federation in these seas: An account of the acquisition by Australia of its external territories, with selected documents". Barton, A.C.T.: Attorney General's Dept, p. 329. (Call no.: R 325.394 KER).
  26. ^ "Mr D. E. Nickels and Mrs Nickels interviewed by Jan Adams in the Christmas Island life story oral history project". National Library of Australia.
  27. ^ "Christmas Island". World Statesmen.
  28. ^ "Island Life – Christmas Island – About". Archived from the original on 8 February 2002. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  29. ^ Main article: Countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
  30. ^ Fowler, Connie (2003). "Karsten Klepsuik, John Howard and the Tampa Crisis: Good Luck or Good Management?". Nordic Notes. Celsius Centre for Scandinavian Studies (Flinders University). ISSN 1442-5165. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  31. ^ http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/house/committee/pwc/christmasisland08/report/fullreport.pdf
  32. ^ "Detention on Christmas Island". Amnesty International. 10 March 2009. Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  33. ^ "Savings for Labor's Better Priorities: Close Nauru and Manus Island detention centres". Public release of costing. electioncostings.gov.au. 15 November 2007. Archived from the original (RTF download) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  34. ^ Needham, Kirsty; Stevenson, Andrew; Allard, Tom (16 December 2010). "Doomed asylum seekers' boat not being tracked by Customs: minister". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  35. ^ "Leaders pay tribute to asylum shipwreck victims". ABC. ABC/AAP. 9 February 2011.
  36. ^ Hume, David (25 November 2010). "Offshore processing: has the bar been lifted?". Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  37. ^ Rintoul, Stuart (19 July 2013). "Pre-election surge pushes island centres far beyond capacity". The Australian. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  38. ^ "After 10 years, the notorious Christmas Island detention centre has quietly closed". The Sydney Morning Herald. 4 October 2018.
  39. ^ "Christmas Island: Australia to reopen controversial migrant detention camp". The Independent. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  40. ^ "Submission on Development Potential No. 37" (PDF). Northern Australia Land and Water Taskforce. 16 August 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  41. ^ "Christmas island". World Factbook. CIA. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  42. ^ Iliffe T, Humphreys W (2016). "Christmas Islands Hidden Secret". Advanced Diver Magazine. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  43. ^ II.—A Monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean: Physical Features and Geology). By C. W. Andrews. With descriptions of the fauna and flora by numerous contributors. 8vo; pp. xiii, 337, 22 plates, 1 map, text illustrated.(London : printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, 1900.)
  44. ^ Geoscience Australia. "Remote Offshore Territories". Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  45. ^ "Christmas Island Beaches". Christmas Island – A Natural Wonder. Christmas Island Tourism Association. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  46. ^ "Climate statistics for Christmas Island". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  47. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  48. ^ Dennis, Simone (2008). Christmas Island: An Anthropological Study. Cambria Press. pp. 91–. ISBN 9781604975109.
  49. ^ First Assistant Secretary, Territories Division (30 January 2008). "Territories of Australia". Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2008. The Federal Government, through the Attorney-General's Department administers Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Jervis Bay, and Norfolk Island as Territories.
  50. ^ First Assistant Secretary, Access to Justice Division (2 February 2011). "Territories of Australia". Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011. Under the Administrative Arrangements Order made on 14 September 2010, responsibility for services to Territories was transferred to the Department of Regional Australia, Regional Development and Local Government.
  51. ^ Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government. "Territories of Australia". Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2008. As part of the Machinery of Government Changes following the Federal Election on 29 November 2007, administrative responsibility for Territories has been transferred to the Attorney General's Department.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  52. ^ "Christmas Island Act 1958". www.legislation.gov.au. Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government. 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  53. ^ a b Senate polling places on Christmas Island:
  54. ^ a b House of Representatives polling places on Christmas Island:
  55. ^ "Profile of the electoral division of Lingiari (NT)". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  56. ^ Joyner, Tom (7 March 2019). "Apathy and disillusionment on Christmas Island as residents prepare for federal election". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  57. ^ Neville-Hadley, Peter (14 December 2017). "Christmas Island – the next big thing in travel? Home to Chinese, Indians and Malays, it's a fascinating mix of cultures". www.scmp.com. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  58. ^ Destination Specialist: South Pacific including Micronesia. Institute of Certified Travel Agents. 2001.
  59. ^ Christmas Island Tourism – Culture Archived 24 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Christmas.net.au. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  60. ^ Meek, Paul D. "The History of Christmas Island and the Management of its Karst Features" (PDF). Helictite. 37 (2): 31–36. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  61. ^ Tierney, Beth (2007). The Essential Christmas Island Travel Guide. Christmas Island Tourism Association.
  62. ^ Christmas Island National Park: Flora.
  63. ^ "Parks Australia".
  64. ^ "Pteropus natalis – Christmas Island Flying-fox, Christmas Island Fruit-bat". Species Profile and Threats Database. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  65. ^ BirdLife International. (2011). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Christmas Island. Downloaded from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 2013-05-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) on 23 December 2011.
  66. ^ "Geoscience Australia on Christmas Island". Archived from the original on 5 February 2007.
  67. ^ Braby, Michael F. (2008). The Complete Field Guide to Butterflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0 643 09027 4.
  68. ^ Beeton, Prof. Bob; Burbidge, Dr. Andrew. "Final report : Christmas Island Expert Working Group". National Parks. Department of the Environment and Energy. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  69. ^ "List of licensed broadcasting transmitters". ACMA. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  70. ^ "Christmas Island traveller information". Infrastructure and Regional Development.
  71. ^ a b Richard Breckon, "Christmas Island's Stamps and Postal History: 50 Years of Australian Administration", Gibbons Stamp Monthly, October 2008, pp. 81–85.
  72. ^ a b Commonwealth Stamp Catalogue Australia, Stanley Gibbons, 4th edition, 2007, pp. 104–112.
  73. ^ "Recreation Centre". Archived from the original on 15 September 2009.
  74. ^ "Public library". Archived from the original on 15 September 2009.
  75. ^ Hope, Ash (December 2018). "Christmas Time". Rugby League World (453): 74–75. ISSN 1466-0105.

Sources

Further reading

  • Adams, Jan; Neale, Marg (1993). Christmas Island – The Early Years – 1888–1958. Bruce Neale. ISBN 0-646-14894-X. 96 pages, including many b&w photographs.
  • Allen, Gerald R.; Steene, Roger C. (1998). Fishes of Christmas Island (1 ed.). Christmas Island Natural History Association. ISBN 0-9591210-1-3. 197 pages including many photographs and plates.
  • Allen, Gerald R.; Steene, Roger C.; Orchard, Max (2007). Fishes of Christmas Island (2 ed.). Christmas Island Natural History Association. ISBN 978-0-9591210-8-7
  • Andrews, Charles W. (1899). "A Description of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)". Geographical Journal. 13 (1): 17–35. doi:10.2307/1774789
  • Andrews, Charles W. (1900). "A Monograph of Christmas Island". London
  • Anonymous, 1984, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean – a Unique Island. Published by a committee of present and former employees of the phosphate mining company. 60 pages including colour photographs.
  • Ayris, Cyril (1993). Tai Ko Seng – Gordon Bennett of Christmas Island. Gordon Bennett Educational Foundation. ISBN 0-646-15483-4. 263 pages including photographs.
  • Bosman, D, ed. (1993). Christmas Island Police – 1958–1983. D Bosman. 112 pages including many photographs.
  • "CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 2002
  • Gray, H.S. (1981). Christmas Island Naturally. H.S. Gray. ISBN 0-9594105-0-3. 133 pages including many colour photographs.
  • Hicks, John; Rumpff, Holger; Yorkston, Hugh (1984). Christmas Crabs. Christmas Island Natural History Association. ISBN 0-9591210-0-5. 76 pages including colour photographs.
  • Hunt, John (2011). Suffering Through Strength: The Men who Made Christmas Island. ISBN 9780646550114
  • The Indian Ocean: a select bibliography. National Library of Australia. 1979. ISBN 0-642-99150-2
  • Neale, Margaret (1988). We were the Christmas Islanders. Bruce Neale. ISBN 0-7316-4158-2. 207 pages including many b&w photographs.
  • Orchard, Max (2012). Crabs of Christmas Island. Christmas Island Natural History Association. ISBN 9780646576428 288 pages pictorial illustration of crabs.
  • Stokes, Tony (2012). Whatever Will Be, I'll See: Growing Up in the 1940s, 50s and 60s in the Northern Territory, Christmas and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. ISBN 9780646575643. 238 pages.
  • Wharton, W. J. L. (1888). "Account of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean". Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography. 10 (10): 613–624. doi:10.2307/1800848
  • Waters, Les (1992). "The Union of Christmas Island Workers" (2 ed.). St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin. 170 pages including b&w photographs.

External links

Coordinates: 10°29′S 105°38′E / 10.483°S 105.633°E

.cx

.cx is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Christmas Island. It is administered by the Christmas Island Internet Administration (CIIA), through the Christmas Island Domain Administration Limited (cxDA). CIIA is a community-owned non-profit company which also provides Internet service to the island's residents.

The TLD was formerly administered by Planet Three Limited, a company with offices in the United Kingdom and Australia, which went bankrupt and ceased operations, voluntarily transferring management to CIIA (called Dot CX Limited at the time). The local (shire) government of Christmas Island endorsed the transfer, but the Commonwealth of Australia (which has international authority over Christmas Island as an external territory) did not immediately approve it. Australia has since published a Memorandum of Understanding which recognizes CIIA as the legitimate manager of .cx.The domain achieved a certain degree of notoriety when it was used for the shock site goatse.cx, to the point the CIIA was forced to take down the website following complaints by Christmas Islanders.

Advance Australia Fair

"Advance Australia Fair" is the national anthem of Australia. Created by the Scottish-born composer Peter Dodds McCormick, the song was first performed in 1878 and sung in Australia as a patriotic song. It replaced "God Save the Queen" as the official national anthem in 1984, following a plebiscite to choose the national song in 1977. Other songs and marches have been influenced by "Advance Australia Fair", such as the Australian vice-regal salute.

Black-eared flying fox

The black-eared flying fox, species Pteropus melanotus, is a bat of the family Pteropodidae (megabats). Also known as Blyth's flying fox, it is found on the Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands (India), and in Sumatra (Indonesia). A population on Christmas Island, which is critically endangered, has been placed as a subspecies of this population. The conservation and taxonomic status of that population was later re-established as a distinct species, the Christmas Island fruit-bat Pteropus natalis.

Christmas Island (Tasmania)

The Christmas Island, part of the New Year Group, is a 63.49-hectare (156.9-acre) granite island located in the Great Australian Bight, lying off the north-west coast of Tasmania, Australia. According to the International Hydrographic Organization, the line separating Bass Strait from the Great Australian Bight runs through King Island, so Christmas Island lies in the Great Australian Bight.

The island forms part of the King Island Important Bird Area because of its importance for breeding seabirds and waders.

Christmas Island Airport

Christmas Island International Airport (IATA: XCH, ICAO: YPXM) is an airport located on Christmas Island, a territory of Australia in the Indian Ocean. The island is located 2,600 km (1,600 mi) northwest of the Western Australian city of Perth, 500 km (310 mi) south of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta, and 975 km (606 mi) east-northeast of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

Although located on Australian territory, the airport is classified as a Category 2 international airport for all arrivals, including those from Australia. It is owned by the Commonwealth through the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development and is operated under contract by Toll Remote Logistics.

Christmas Island pipistrelle

The Christmas Island pipistrelle (Pipistrellus murrayi) was a species of vesper bat found only on Christmas Island, Australia.

The species is now considered to be extinct, with the last individual bat seen in August 2009 with no further sightings despite intensive efforts to locate the species.

Christmas Island shrew

The Christmas Island shrew (Crocidura trichura), also known as the Christmas Island musk-shrew is an extremely rare or possibly extinct shrew from Christmas Island. It was variously placed as subspecies of the Asian gray shrew (Crocidura attenuata) or the Southeast Asian shrew (Crocidura fuliginosa), but morphological differences and the large distance between the species indicate that it is an entirely distinct species.

Christmas frigatebird

The Christmas frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi), or Christmas Island frigatebird, is a seabird of the frigatebird family Fregatidae which is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The Christmas frigatebird is a large lightly built seabird with brownish-black plumage, long narrow wings and a deeply forked tail. It has a wingspan of around 2.15 m (7.1 ft). The male has an egg shaped white patch on its belly and a striking red gular sac which it inflates to attract a mate. The female is slightly larger than the male and has a white breast and belly. They feed on fish taken in flight from the ocean's surface (mostly flying fish), and sometimes indulge in kleptoparasitism, harassing other birds to force them to regurgitate their food. The species is listed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Flag of Christmas Island

The flag of Christmas Island was unofficially adopted in 1986 after being chosen the winner in a competition for a flag for the territory. It was designed by Tony Couch of Sydney, Australia. The flag was made official on Australia Day, 2002 when the administrator of the territory, Bill Taylor, presented the flag to the Christmas Island Shire.

Flying Fish Cove

Flying Fish Cove (Chinese: 飛魚灣 (Fēiyú wān), Malay: Pantai Ikan Terbang) is the capital city and main settlement of Australia's Christmas Island. Although it was originally named after British survey-ship Flying-Fish, many maps simply label it “The Settlement”. It was the first British settlement on the island, established in 1888.

About a third of the territory's total population of 1,600 lives in Flying Fish Cove, which lies near the north-eastern tip of the island. There is a small harbour which serves tourists with yachts. It is possible to carry out recreational diving at the settlement's beach.

Kiritimati

Kiritimati, or Christmas Island, is a Pacific Ocean raised coral atoll in the northern Line Islands. It is part of the Republic of Kiribati.

The name "Kiritimati" is a respelling of the English word "Christmas" in the Kiribati language, in which due to the Gilbertese language's use of the Latin script, the combination ti is pronounced s, and the name is thus pronounced .

The island has the greatest land area of any coral atoll in the world, about 388 square kilometres (150 square miles); its lagoon is roughly the same size. The atoll is about 150 km (93 mi) in perimeter, while the lagoon shoreline extends for over 48 km (30 mi). Kiritimati comprises over 70% of the total land area of Kiribati, a country encompassing 33 Pacific atolls and islands.It lies 232 km (144 mi) north of the Equator, 2,160 km (1,340 mi) south of Honolulu, and 5,360 km (3,330 mi) from San Francisco. Kiritimati Island is in the world's farthest forward time zone, UTC+14, and is one of the first inhabited places on Earth to experience the New Year (see also Caroline Atoll, Kiribati). Despite being 2,460 km (1,530 mi) east of the 180 meridian, a 1995 realignment of the International Date Line by the Republic of Kiribati moved Kiritimati to west of the dateline.

Nuclear tests were conducted on and around Kiritimati by the United Kingdom in the late 1950s, and by the United States in 1962. During these tests the island was not evacuated. Subsequently, British, New Zealand, and Fijian servicemen as well as local islanders have suffered from exposure to the radiation from these blasts.

The entire island is a Wildlife Sanctuary; access to five particularly sensitive areas (see below) is restricted.

LGBT rights in Oceania

Oceania is, like other regions, quite diverse in its laws regarding homosexuality. This ranges from significant rights granted to the LGBT community in New Zealand, Australia, Guam, Hawaii, the Northern Mariana Islands, Wallis and Futuna, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands to remaining criminal penalties for homosexual activity in 6 countries and one territory. Although acceptance is growing across the Pacific, violence and social stigma remain issues for LGBTI communities. This also leads to problems with healthcare, including access to HIV treatment in countries such as Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands where homosexuality is criminalised.The British Empire introduced conservative social attitudes and anti-LGBT laws throughout its colonies, including those located in the Pacific Ocean. Opponents of LGBT rights in Oceania have justified their stance by arguing it is supported by tradition and that homosexuality is a "Western vice", despite anti-LGBT laws themselves being a colonial British legacy. Several Pacific countries have ancient traditions predating colonisation that reflect a unique local perspective of sexuality and gender, such as the fa'afafine in Samoa and fakaleiti in Tonga.

== Legislation by country or territory ==

==== Australasia ====

==== Melanesia ====

==== Micronesia ====

==== Polynesia ====

List of airlines of Australia

The airline industry in Australia began in the early 1920s with Western Australian Airways on the west coast, and Australian Aircraft and Engineering Company on the east coast. In 1921, Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services (QANTAS) was formed, and continues to operate.

This is a list of airlines that have a current air operator's certificate issued by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority.

List of political parties in Australia

This article lists political parties in Australia.

The Australian federal parliament has a number of distinctive features including compulsory voting, with full-preference instant-runoff voting in single-member seats to elect the lower house, the Australian House of Representatives, and the use of the single transferable vote to elect the upper house, the Australian Senate.

Australia has a mild two-party system, with two dominant political groupings in the Australian political system, the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal/National Coalition. Federally, 6 of the 150 members of the lower house (Members of Parliament, or MPs) are not members of major parties, as are 19 of the 76 members of the upper house (senators).

Other parties tend to perform better in the upper houses of the various federal and state parliament since these typically use a form of proportional representation.

List of settlements on Christmas Island

The following are settlements on Christmas Island; there are no cities on the island.

Drumsite

Flying Fish Cove (largest settlement)

Poon Saan

Silver City

Shire of Christmas Island

The Shire of Christmas Island is a local government area of the Australian external territory of Christmas Island (10°29′S 105°37′E; post code: 6798). The island is grouped with Western Australia but is administered by the Attorney-General's Department and an Administrator.

It covers an area of 136.7 km2 in the Indian Ocean about 2,360 km north-west of Perth and 500 km south of Java in Indonesia. It has a population of 1,448 (ABS 2001).

Time in Australia

Australia uses four main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time (AWST; UTC+08:00) Australian Western Central Standard Time (AWCST; UTC+08:45), Australian Central Standard Time (ACST; UTC+09:30), and Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST; UTC+10:00). Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

Standard time was introduced in the 1890s when all of the Australian colonies adopted it. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time. Now, Western Australia uses Western Standard Time; South Australia and the Northern Territory use Central Standard Time; while New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria, and the Australian Capital Territory use Eastern Standard Time.

Daylight saving time (+1 hour) is used in states in the south and south-east - South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and the ACT. It is not currently not observed in Western Australia, the Northern Territory or Queensland.

Women in Christmas Island

This article is about the women living in the Australian Territory of Christmas Island. Not to be confused with women living in Christmas Island, Nova Scotia, Christmas Island (Tasmania), Kiritimati of Kiribati (Pacific Ocean) which is also called "Christmas Island", and Little Christmas Island (Schouten Island Group).The Women in Christmas Island or Christmas Island Women are the women living in Australia's external territory of Christmas Island. They are of Malay, Chinese, and Anglo ancestry. In March 2011, International Women's Day was celebrated on Christmas Island for the honor of its female residents. The event was held to convey the theme of "what it means to be a woman living on Christmas Island".The main local organization that promotes and supports the "status and interests" of Australia's female Christmas Islanders is the Christmas Island Women's Association, a group that was established in 1989.

Climate data for Christmas Island Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.7
(87.3)
31.5
(88.7)
31.5
(88.7)
31.4
(88.5)
30.5
(86.9)
29.8
(85.6)
29.3
(84.7)
29.5
(85.1)
30.9
(87.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31.8
(89.2)
31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
Average high °C (°F) 28.0
(82.4)
28.0
(82.4)
28.3
(82.9)
28.3
(82.9)
27.8
(82.0)
27.1
(80.8)
26.3
(79.3)
26.1
(79.0)
26.3
(79.3)
26.9
(80.4)
27.3
(81.1)
27.8
(82.0)
27.4
(81.3)
Average low °C (°F) 22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
23.1
(73.6)
23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
23.3
(73.9)
22.6
(72.7)
22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
22.7
(72.9)
22.9
(73.2)
22.6
(72.7)
22.9
(73.2)
Record low °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
18.4
(65.1)
18.6
(65.5)
18.3
(64.9)
19.3
(66.7)
14.1
(57.4)
16.2
(61.2)
17.7
(63.9)
16.7
(62.1)
18.2
(64.8)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
14.1
(57.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 297.2
(11.70)
344.5
(13.56)
302.7
(11.92)
227.5
(8.96)
186.7
(7.35)
172.3
(6.78)
99.7
(3.93)
42.3
(1.67)
57.4
(2.26)
78.5
(3.09)
156.8
(6.17)
222.1
(8.74)
2,183
(85.94)
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology[46]
Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean
Africa
Asia
Other

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.