Christian revival

Revivalism is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect. This should be distinguished from the use of the term "revival" to refer to an evangelistic meeting or series of meetings (see Revival meeting).

Revivals are seen as the restoration of the church itself to a vital and fervent relationship with God after a period of moral decline. Mass conversions of non-believers are viewed by church leaders as having positive moral effects.

Within Christian studies the concept of revival is derived from biblical narratives of national decline and restoration during the history of the Israelites. In particular, narrative accounts of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emphasise periods of national decline and revival associated with the rule of various righteous and wicked kings. Josiah is notable within this biblical narrative as a figure who reinstituted temple worship of Yahweh while destroying pagan worship. Within modern Church history, church historians have identified and debated the effects of various national revivals within the history of the USA and other countries. During the 18th and 19th centuries American society experienced a number of "Awakenings" around the years 1727, 1792, 1830, 1857 and 1882. More recent revivals in the 20th century include those of the 1904–1905 Welsh Revival, 1906 (Azusa Street Revival), 1930s (Balokole), 1970s (Jesus people), 1971 Bario Revival and 1909 Chile Revival which spread in the Americas, Africa, and Asia among Protestants and Catholics.

National revival within Jewish history

The Bible narrative records a number of revivals within the history of the Israelites. In particular, following the development of temple worship based in Jerusalem the Bible records periods of national decline and revival associated with the rule of righteous and wicked kings. Within this historical narrative the reign of Josiah epitomises the effect of revival on Israelite society in reinstituting temple worship of Yahweh and the rejection of pagan worship and idolatry. Other Jewish narratives such as the accounts of the Maccabean revolt in like manner record national revival characterised by the rejection of pagan worship practices and the military defeat and expulsion of idolatrous foreign powers.

17th century

Many Christian revivals drew inspiration from the missionary work of early monks, from the Protestant Reformation (and Catholic Reformation) and from the uncompromising stance of the Covenanters in 17th-century Scotland and Ulster, that came to Virginia and Pennsylvania with Presbyterians and other non-conformists. Its character formed part of the mental framework that led to the American War of Independence and the Civil War.

18th century

The 18th century Age of Enlightenment had two camps: those who identified humans as only intellectual beings, Rationalists, and those who believed humans to be only passionate beings, followers of Romanticism. The philosophy of Earl of Shaftesbury III led to a Proto-Romanticism that mixed with Christian worship to produce a tertium quid. The Methodist revival of John Wesley, Charles Wesley and George Whitefield in England and Daniel Rowland, Howel Harris and William Williams, Pantycelyn in Wales and the Great Awakening in America prior to the Revolution. A similar (but smaller scale) revival in Scotland took place at Cambuslang, then a village and is known as the Cambuslang Work.[1]

American colonies

In the American colonies the First Great Awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm among Protestants that swept the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion. It resulted from powerful preaching that deeply affected listeners (already church members) with a deep sense of personal guilt and salvation by Christ. Pulling away from ancient ritual and ceremony, the Great Awakening made religion intensely emotive to the average person by creating a deep sense of spiritual guilt and redemption. Historian Sydney E. Ahlstrom sees it as part of a "great international Protestant upheaval" that also created Pietism in Germany, the Evangelical Revival and Methodism in England.[2] It brought Christianity to the slaves and was an apocalyptic event in New England that challenged established authority. It incited rancor and division between the traditionalists who argued for ritual and doctrine and the revivalists who ignored or sometimes avidly contradicted doctrine, e.g. George Whitfield's being denied a pulpit in Anglican Churches after denying Anglican Doctrine. Its democratic features had a major impact in shaping the Congregational, Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed, and German Reformed denominations, and strengthened the small Baptist and Methodist denominations. It had little impact on Anglicans and Quakers. Unlike the Second Great Awakening that began about 1800 and which reached out to the unchurched, the First Great Awakening focused on people who were already church members. It changed their rituals, their piety, and their self-awareness.

19th century

Transylvania

The Hungarian Baptist church sprung out of revival with the perceived liberalism of the Hungarian reformed church during the late 1800s. Many thousands of people were baptized in a revival that was led primarily by uneducated laymen, the so-called "peasant prophets".[3]

Britain

During the 18th century, England saw a series of Methodist revivalist campaigns that stressed the tenets of faith set forth by John Wesley and that were conducted in accordance with a careful strategy. In addition to stressing the evangelist combination of "Bible, cross, conversion, and activism," the revivalist movement of the 19th century made efforts toward a universal appeal – rich and poor, urban and rural, and men and women. Special efforts were made to attract children and to generate literature to spread the revivalist message.

Gobbett (1997) discusses the usefulness of historian Elie Halévy's thesis explaining why England did not undergo a social revolution in the period 1790–1832, a time that appeared ripe for violent social upheaval. Halévy suggested that a politically conservative Methodism forestalled revolution among the largely uneducated working class by redirecting its energies toward spiritual rather than temporal affairs. The thesis has engendered strong debate among historians, and several have adopted and modified Halévy's thesis. Some historians, such as Robert Wearmouth, suggest that evangelical revivalism directed working-class attention toward moral regeneration, not social radicalism. Others, including E. P. Thompson, claim that Methodism, though a small movement, had a politically regressive effect on efforts for reform. Some historians question the Halévy thesis. Eric Hobsbawm claims that Methodism was not a large enough movement to have been able to prevent revolution. Alan Gilbert suggests that Methodism's supposed antiradicalism has been misunderstood by historians, suggesting that it was seen as a socially deviant movement and the majority of Methodists were moderate radicals.[4]

Early in the 19th century the Scottish minister Thomas Chalmers had an important influence on the evangelical revival movement. Chalmers began life as a moderate in the Church of Scotland and an opponent of evangelicalism. During the winter of 1803–04, he presented a series of lectures that outlined a reconciliation of the apparent incompatibility between the Genesis account of creation and the findings of the developing science of geology. However, by 1810 he had become an evangelical and would eventually lead the Disruption of 1843 that resulted in the formation of the Free Church of Scotland.

The Plymouth Brethren started with John Nelson Darby at this time, a result of disillusionment with denominationalism and clerical hierarchy.

The established churches too, were influenced by the evangelical revival. In 1833 a group of Anglican clergymen led by John Henry Newman and John Keble began the Oxford Movement. However its objective was to renew the Church of England by reviving certain Roman Catholic doctrines and rituals, thus distancing themselves as far as possible from evangelical enthusiasm.

Australia

Many say that Australia has never been visited by a genuine religious revival as in other countries, but that is not entirely true. The effect of the Great Awakening of 1858–59 was also felt in Australia fostered mainly by the Methodist Church, one of the greatest forces for evangelism and missions the world has ever seen. Records show that the Methodist Church grew by a staggering 72% between 1857 and 1864, while the Baptists, Anglicans, Presbyterians and other evangelicals also benefited. Evangelical fervor was its height during the 1920s with visiting evangelists, R. A. Torrey, Wilbur J. Chapman, Charles M. Alexander and others winning many converts in their Crusades. The Crusades of American evangelist Billy Graham in the 1950s had significant impact on Australian Churches.[5] Stuart Piggin (1988) explores the development and tenacity of the evangelical movement in Australia, and its impact on Australian society. Evangelicalism arrived from Britain as an already mature movement characterized by commonly shared attitudes toward doctrine, spiritual life, and sacred history. Any attempt to periodize the history of the movement in Australia should examine the role of revivalism and the oscillations between emphases on personal holiness and social concerns.[6]

Scandinavia

Historians have examined the revival movements in Scandinavia, with special attention to the growth of organizations, church history, missionary history, social class and religion, women in religious movements, religious geography, the lay movements as counter culture, ethnology, and social force. Some historians approach it as a cult process since the revivalist movements tend to rise and fall. Others study it as minority discontent with the status quo or, after the revivalists gain wide acceptance, as a majority that tends to impose its own standards.[7][8] The Grundtvigian and Home Mission revival movements arose in Denmark after 1860 and reshaped religion in that country, and among immigrants to America.[9]

United States 1800–1850

In the U.S. the Second Great Awakening (1800–30s) was the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. Major leaders included Asahel Nettleton, James Brainerd Taylor, Charles Grandison Finney, Lyman Beecher, Barton Stone, Alexander Campbell, Peter Cartwright and James B. Finley.

Rev. Charles Finney (1792–1875) was a key leader of the evangelical revival movement in America. From 1821 onwards he conducted revival meetings across many north-eastern states and won many converts. For him, a revival was not a miracle but a change of mindset that was ultimately a matter for the individual's free will. His revival meetings created anxiety in a penitent's mind that one could only save his or her soul by submission to the will of God, as illustrated by Finney's quotations from the Bible. Finney also conducted revival meetings in England, first in 1849 and later to England and Scotland in 1858–59.

In New England, the renewed interest in religion inspired a wave of social activism, including abolitionism. It had been here, in upstate New York's 'Burned-over district,' in the 1810s and 20s, that the religious fervor acquired a fevered pitch, and this intense revivalism spawned an authentically new American sect – which ultimately would become a major worldwide religionMormonism, founded by a young seeker of Christian primitivism, Joseph Smith, Jr (1805–1844).

In the West (now Upper South) especially—at Cane Ridge, Kentucky and in Tennessee—the revival strengthened the Methodists and Baptists. The Churches of Christ and Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) arose from the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement. It also introduced into America a new form of religious expression—the Scottish camp meeting.

Europe: Le Réveil

A movement in Swiss, eastern French, German, and Dutch Protestant history known as le Réveil (German: die Erweckung, Dutch: Het Reveil).[10] Le Réveil was a revival of Protestant Christianity along conservative evangelical lines at a time when rationalism had taken a strong hold in the churches on the continent of Europe.

In German-speaking Europe Lutheran Johann Georg Hamann (1730–88) was a leading light in the new wave of evangelicalism, the Erweckung, which spread across the land, cross-fertilizing with British movements

The movement began in the Francophone world in connection with a circle of pastors and seminarians at French-speaking Protestant theological seminaries in Geneva, Switzerland and Montauban, France, influenced inter alia by the visit of Scottish Christian Robert Haldane in 1816–17. The circle included such figures as Merle D'Aubigne, César Malan, Felix Neff, and the Monod brothers.

As these men travelled out, the movement spread to Lyon and Paris in France, to Berlin and Eberfeld in Germany and to the Netherlands. Several missionary societies were founded to support this work, such as the British-based Continental society and the indigenous Geneva Evangelical Society.

As well as supporting existing Protestant denominations, in France and Germany the movement led to the creation of Free Evangelical Church groupings: the Union des Églises évangéliques libres and Bund Freier evangelischer Gemeinden in Deutschland.

In the Netherlands the movement was taken forward by Willem Bilderdijk, with Isaäc da Costa, Abraham Capadose, Samuel Iperusz Wiselius, Willem de Clercq and Groen van Prinsterer as his pupils. The movement was politically influential and actively involved in improving society, and – at the end of the 19th century – brought about anti-revolutionary and Christian historical parties.[11]

At the same time in Britain figures such as William Wilberforce and Thomas Chalmers were active, although they are not considered to be part of the Le Reveil movement.

1850–1900

In North America the Third Great Awakening began from 1857 onwards in Canada and spread throughout the world including America and Australia. Significant names include Dwight L. Moody, Ira D. Sankey, William Booth and Catherine Booth (founders of the Salvation Army), Charles Spurgeon and James Caughey. Hudson Taylor began the China Inland Mission and Thomas John Barnardo founded his famous orphanages.

Representative was Rev. James Caughey, an American sent by the Wesleyan Methodist Church to Canada from the 1840s through 1864. He brought in the converts by the score, most notably in the revivals in Canada West 1851–53. His technique combined restrained emotionalism with a clear call for personal commitment, coupled with follow-up action to organize support from converts. It was a time when the Holiness Movement caught fire, with the revitalized interest of men and women in Christian perfection. Caughey successfully bridged the gap between the style of earlier camp meetings and the needs of more sophisticated Methodist congregations in the emerging cities.[12]

In England the Keswick Convention movement began out of the British Holiness movement, encouraging a lifestyle of holiness, unity and prayer.

1857–1860 revival in America

On 21 September 1857 Jeremiah Lanphier, a businessman, began a series of prayer meetings in New York. By the beginning of 1858 the congregation was crowded, often with a majority of businessmen. Newspapers reported that over 6,000 were attending various prayer meetings in New York, and 6,000 in Pittsburgh. Daily prayer meetings were held in Washington, D.C. at 5 different times to accommodate the crowds. Other cities followed the pattern. Soon, a common mid-day sign on business premises read, "We will re-open at the close of the prayer meeting". By May, 50,000 of New York's 800,000 people were new converts.

Finney wrote of this revival, "This winter of 1857–58 will be remembered as the time when a great revival prevailed. It swept across the land with such power that at the time it was estimated that not less than 50,000 conversions occurred weekly."[13]

Britain and Ireland

In 1857, four young Irishmen began a weekly prayer meeting in the village of Connor near Ballymena. See also Ahoghill. This meeting is generally regarded as the origin of the 1859 Ulster Revival that swept through most of the towns and villages throughout Ulster and in due course brought 100,000 converts into the churches. It was also ignited by a young preacher, Henry Grattan Guinness, who drew thousands at a time to hear his preaching. So great was the interest in the American movement that in 1858 the Presbyterian General Assembly meeting in Derry appointed two of their ministers, Dr. William Gibson and Rev. William McClure to visit North America. Upon their return the two deputies had many public opportunities to bear testimony to what they had witnessed of the remarkable outpouring of the Spirit across the Atlantic, and to fan the flames in their homeland yet further. Such was the strength of emotion generated by the preachers' oratory that many made spontaneous confessions seeking to be relieved of their burdens of sin. Others suffered complete nervous breakdown.

20th century

The most recent Great Awakening (1904 onwards) had its roots in the holiness movement which had developed in the late 19th century. The Pentecostal revival movement began, out of a passion for more power and a greater outpouring of the Holy Spirit. In 1902 the American evangelists Reuben Archer Torrey and Charles McCallon Alexander conducted meetings in Melbourne, Australia, resulting in more than 8,000 converts. News of this revival travelled fast, igniting a passion for prayer and an expectation that God would work in similar ways elsewhere.

Torrey and Alexander were involved in the beginnings of the great Welsh revival (1904).

In 1906 the modern Pentecostal movement was born in Azusa Street, in Los Angeles.

Melanesia

The rebaibal, as it is known in Tok Pisin, had begun in the Solomon Islands and reached the Urapmin people by 1977. The Urapmin were particularly zealous in rejecting their traditional beliefs, and adopted a form of Charismatic Christianity based on Baptist Christianity. The Urapmin innovated the practices of spirit possession (known as the "spirit disko") and ritualized confessions, the latter being especially atypical for Protestantism.

Wales

The Welsh revival was not an isolated religious movement but very much a part of Britain's modernization. The revival began in the fall of 1904 under the leadership of Evan Roberts (1878–1951), a 26-year-old former collier and minister-in-training. The revival lasted less than a year, but in that period 100,000 converts were made. Begun as an effort to kindle nondenominational, nonsectarian spirituality, the Welsh revival of 1904–05 coincided with the rise of the labor movement, socialism, and a general disaffection with religion among the working class and youths. Placed in context, the short-lived revival appears as both a climax for Nonconformism and a flashpoint of change in Welsh religious life. The movement spread to Scotland and England, with estimates that a million people were converted in Britain. Missionaries subsequently carried the movement abroad; it was especially influential on the Pentecostal movement emerging in California.[14][15]

Unlike earlier religious revivals that pivoted on powerful preaching, the revival of 1904–05 relied primarily on music and on paranormal phenomena as exemplified by the visions of Evan Roberts. The intellectual emphasis of the earlier revivals had left a dearth of religious imagery that the visions supplied. They also challenged the denial of the spiritual and miraculous element of scripture by opponents of the revival, who held liberal and critical theological positions. The structure and content of the visions not only repeated those of Scripture and earlier Christian mystical tradition but also illuminated the personal and social tensions that the revival addressed by juxtaposing biblical images with scenes familiar to contemporary Welsh believers.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ A. Fawcett, The Cambuslang Revival: the Scottish Evangelical Revival of the eighteenth century (Banner of Truth Trust, London, 1971).
  2. ^ Sydney E. Armstrong, A Religious History of the American People (1972), p. 263.
  3. ^ Gergely, István, "Revival among Hungarian Baptists in Transylvania in the period of the 'peasant prophets'", Baptistic Theologies 1 no. 1, Spring 2009, pp. 54–70.
  4. ^ Brian W. Gobbett, "Inevitable Revolution and Methodism in Early Industrial England: Revisiting the Historiography of the Halevy Thesis," Fides et Historia, Winter 1997, Vol. 29, Issue 1, pp. 28–43.
  5. ^ J Edwin Orr, Evangelical Awakenings in the South Seas, 1976; Babbage/Siggins, Light Beneath the Cross, 1960.
  6. ^ Stuart Piggin, "Toward A Bicentennial History of Australian Evangelicalism," Journal of Religious History, February 1988, Vol. 15, Issue 1, pp. 20–37.
  7. ^ Bjorn Slettan, "Religious Movements in Norway. Attitudes and Trends in Recent Research," Scandinavian Journal of History, December 1986, Vol. 11, Issue 4, pp. 345–361.
  8. ^ Anders Gustavsson, "New Trends in Recent Swedish Research into Revivalism," Scandinavian Journal of History, December 1986, Vol. 11, Issue 4, pp. 301–307.
  9. ^ Vagn Wåhlin, "Popular Revivalism in Denmark: Recent Research Trends and Results," Scandinavian Journal of History, December 1986, Vol. 11, Issue 4, pp. 363–387.
  10. ^ d'Aubigne, Jean Henri Merle (2000), "Introduction", in Sidwell (ed.), For God and His People: Ulrich Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation, Greenville, SC: BJU Press.
  11. ^ "Groen van Prinsterer, Guillaume (Willem)". Dodenakkers.nl. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  12. ^ Peter Bush, "The Reverend James Caughey and Wesleyan Methodist Revivalism in Canada West, 1851–1856," Ontario History, September 1987, Vol. 79, Issue 3, pp. 231–250.
  13. ^ Memoirs of Rev. Charles G. Finney by Charles Finney, The Trustees of Oberlin College, 1876 (p. 446).
  14. ^ J. Gwynfor Jones, "Reflections on the Religious Revival in Wales 1904–05," Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society, October 2005, Vol. 7, Issue 7, pp. 427–445.
  15. ^ J Vyrnwy Morgan, "The Welsh Religious Revival 1904–05: A Restrospect and Critique (2004).
  16. ^ John Harvey, "Spiritual Emblems: The Visions of the 1904-5 Welsh Revival," Llafur: Journal of Welsh Labour History/Cylchgrawn Hanes Llafur Cymru, 1993, Vol. 6 Issue 2, pp. 75–93.

Further reading

United States

  • Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People (1972) the standard history
  • Birdsall Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order." Church History 39 (1970): 345–64. in JSTOR
  • Bruce, Dickson D., Jr. And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845 (1974).
  • Bumsted, J. M. "What Must I Do to Be Saved?": The Great Awakening in Colonial America (1976)
  • Butler, Jon. "Enthusiasm Described and Decried: The Great Awakening as Interpretative Fiction." Journal of American History 69 (1982): 305–25. in JSTOR, influential article
  • Butler, Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. (1990). excerpt and text search
  • Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism (1999), thorough history 1930-1990s excerpt and text search
  • Carwardine, Richard J. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures,'" Journal of American History 59 (1972): 327–340. in JSTOR
  • Coalter, Milton J. Gilbert Tennent, Son of Thunder: A Case Study of Continental Pietism's Impact on the First Great Awakening in the Middle Colonies 1986) excerpt and text search
  • Cross, Whitney, R. The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850 (1950).
  • Dieter, Melvin Easterday. The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (1980).
  • Dorsett, Lyle W. Billy Sunday and the Redemption of Urban America (1991).
  • Dorsett, Lyle W. A Passion for Souls: The Life of D. L. Moody. (1997).
  • Edwards, David. The Call for Revivalists: Raising Up a Supernatural Generation (2012)

excerpt and text search

  • Eslinger, Ellen. Citizens of Zion: The Social Origins of Camp Meeting Revivalism. (1999). 306pp.
  • Evensen; Bruce J. God's Man for the Gilded Age: D.L. Moody and the Rise of Modern Mass Evangelism (2003) online edition
  • Finke, Roger, and Rodney Stark. The Churching of America, 1776–1990: Winners and Losers in Our Religious Economy (1992).
  • Gaustad, Edwin S. "The Theological Effects of the Great Awakening in New England," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 40, No. 4. (Mar. 1954), pp. 681–706. in JSTOR
  • Hatch, Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity (1989). excerpt and text search
  • Kidd, Thomas S. The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America (2007), 412pp exxcerpt and text search
  • Kyle III, I. Francis. An Uncommon Christian: James Brainerd Taylor, Forgotten Evangelist in America's Second Great Awakening (2008). See Uncommon Christian Ministries
  • Lambert, Frank. Pedlar in Divinity: George Whitefield and the Transatlantic Revivals (1994)
  • Lloyd-Jones, Martyn. Revival (1987).
  • McLoughlin William G. Modern Revivalism 1959.
  • McLoughlin William G. Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607–1977 1978.
  • McClymond, Michael, ed. Encyclopedia of Religious Revivals in America. (2007. Vol. 1, A–Z: xxxii, 515 pp. Vol. 2, Primary Documents: xx, 663 pp. ISBN 0-313-32828-5/set.)
  • Murray, Iain H., The Invitation System (1967)
  • Murray, Iain H., Pentecost Today: The Biblical Basis for Understanding Revival (1998)
  • Murray, Iain H., Revival and Revivalism: The Making and Marring of American Evangelicalism, 1750–1858 (1994)
  • Ravenhill, Leonard. Revival God's Way (1986).
  • Ravenhill, Leonard. Why Revival Tarries (1979).
  • Shiels, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation." Church History 49#4 (1980): 401–15. online edition
  • Sizer, Sandra. Gospel Hymns and Social Religion: The Rhetoric of Nineteenth-Century Revivalism. (1978).
  • Stout, Harry. The Divine Dramatist: George Whitefield and the Rise of Modern Evangelicalism (1991).
  • Thornbury, John F. God Sent Revival: The Story of Asahel Nettleton and the Second Great Awakening (1993)
  • Weisberger, Bernard A. They Gathered at the River: The Story of the Great Revivalists and Their Impact upon Religion in America (1958).
  • Wigger, John H. Taking Heaven by Storm: Methodism and the Rise of Popular Christianity in America (1998) excerpt and text search

Opponents

  • Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America." Journal of the Early Republic (2004) 24(1): 65–106. ISSN 0275-1275 Fulltext: in Ebsco. Examines oppositional literature of the antirevivalists, namely, the doubters and critics. The article includes an appendix of selected revivalist critiques.
  • Reeves, Russ Patrick. "Countering Revivalism and Revitalizing Protestantism: High Church, Confessional, and Romantic Critiques of Second Great Awakening Revivalism, 1835 to 1852." PhD dissertation U. of Iowa 2005. 290 pp. DAI 2005 66(4): 1393-A. DA3172430

Europe

  • Carwardine, Richard. Transatlantic Revivalism: Popular Evangelicalism in Britain and America, 1790–1865 (2008)
  • Coalter, Milton J. Gilbert Tennent, Son of Thunder: A Case Study of Continental Pietism's Impact on the First Great Awakening in the Middle Colonies 1986) excerpt and text search
  • Kovács, Zoltán. "Methodism in Hungary," Methodist History, April 2009, Vol. 47 Issue 3, pp 62–178
  • Lambert, Frank. Pedlar in Divinity: George Whitefield and the Transatlantic Revivals (1994)
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of Christianity, Volume 2: 1500 to 1975. (1975). ISBN 0-06-064953-4
  • Luker, David. "Revivalism in Theory and Practice: The Case of Cornish Methodism," Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Oct 1986, Vol. 37 Issue 4, pp 603–619, Cornwall, England, 1780–1870
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid. Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years (2010)
  • Schmidt, Leigh Eric. Holy Fairs: Scotland and the Making of American Revivalism (2001)
  • Strom, Jonathan et al., eds. Pietism in Germany and North America, 1680–1820 (2009)
  • Wolffe, John. The Expansion of Evangelicalism: The Age of Wilberforce, More, Chalmers and Finney (2007)

World

  • Aubert, Roger, ed. Church History: Progress and Decline in the History of Church Renewal, in series, Concilium, Theology in the Age of Renewal, vol. 27. New York: Paulist Press, 1967. viii, 183 p.
  • Freston, Paul, ed.. Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Latin America (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Lee, Timothy Sanghoon. "Born-Again in Korea: The Rise and Character of Revivalism in (South) Korea, 1885–1988" (PhD dissertation U. of Chicago 1996, 292pp.) Dissertation Abstracts International, 1996, Vol. 57 Issue 5, p 2089
  • Lumsdaine, David Halloran, ed. Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Asia (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Ranger, Terence O., ed. Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa (2008) excerpt and text search

Primary sources

  • Bratt, James D., ed. Antirevivalism in Antebellum America: A Collection of Religious Voices (2006) 278 pp. ISBN 0-8135-3693-6
  • Edwards, Jonathan. (C. Goen, editor), The Great-Awakening: A Faithful Narrative Collected contemporary comments and letters; 1972, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-01437-6.
  • Heimert, Alan, and Perry Miller ed.; The Great Awakening: Documents Illustrating the Crisis and Its Consequences (1967)
  • McClymond, Michael, ed. Encyclopedia of Religious Revivals in America (2007. Vol. 1, A–Z: xxxii, 515 pp. Vol. 2, Primary Documents: xx, 663 pp. ISBN 0-313-32828-5/set.)
  • Rice, John Holt and Benjamin Holt Rice. Memoir of James Brainerd Taylor, Second Edition (American Tract Society, 1833). online edition
  • Taylor, Fitch W. A New Tribute to the Memory of James Brainerd Taylor (1838). online edition
  • Tyler, Bennet. Remains of the Late Rev. Asahel Nettleton, D.D. (1845). online edition
1859 Welsh revival

The 1859 Welsh revival was a Christian revival in Wales. It was led by two ministers: Humphrey Jones and David Morgan. The revival had its roots in the 1857–59 revival in the United States. Jones, a Methodist minister, had experienced the revival in New York. On his return to Tre'r Ddôl, he recruited Morgan, a Presbyterian, to the cause. It is estimated that the revival produced 100,000 converts.Some writers, such as Martyn Lloyd-Jones, also view the revival as connected to the revival in Ulster during the same year.

1904–1905 Welsh revival

The 1904–1905 Welsh Revival was the largest Christian revival in Wales during the 20th century. While by no means the best known of revivals, it was one of the most dramatic in terms of its effect on the population, and triggered revivals in several other countries. "The movement kept the churches of Wales filled for many years to come, seats being placed in the aisles in Mount Pleasant Baptist Church in Swansea for twenty years or so, for example. Meanwhile, the Awakening swept the rest of Britain, Scandinavia, parts of Europe, North America, the mission fields of India and the Orient, Africa and Latin America."

Brahmavar (Goan) Orthodox Church

Brahmavar (Konkani) Orthodox Church is a split faction from the Catholic Church formed under the leadership of Bishop Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares in 1889.

The territory of Goa was then Portuguese colony. Antonio Alvarez who was a Roman Catholic priest at the time, opposed the Vatican policies and interference of the Government in Church administration. His pro-Independence periodicals which were also critical of the Roman Catholic Church were banned. He was excommunicated, stripped naked and paraded through the streets. He left the Church with some hundreds of Goan Catholic families and joined the Malankara Orthodox Church and the Brahmavar (Konkani) community has come into existence since then as a part of the Indian Orthodox Church.Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares was ordained as the first Metropolitan of Goa-Ceylon in 1889 A. D. by Paulose Mar Athanasius and Geevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala at the Orthodox Thelogical Seminary, Kottayam, state of Kerala.

Presently, they are under the Brahmavar diocese of Malankara (Indian) Orthodox Church.

Brownsville Revival

The Brownsville Revival (also known as the Pensacola Outpouring) was a widely reported Christian revival within the Pentecostal movement that began on Father's Day June 18, 1995, at Brownsville Assembly of God in Pensacola, Florida. Characteristics of the Brownsville Revival movement, as with other Christian religious revivals, included acts of repentance by parishioners and a call to holiness, inspired by the manifestation of the Holy Spirit. Some of the occurrences in this revival fit the description of moments of religious ecstasy. More than four million people are reported to have attended the revival meetings from its beginnings in 1995 to around 2000.

CRC Churches International

CRC Churches International, formerly known as the Christian Revival Crusade, is a Pentecostal Protestant Christian denomination founded in New Zealand and Australia by Thomas Foster (Melbourne) and Leo Harris (Adelaide) .Converted under the itinerant ministry of South African, Frederick Van Eyck, Harris' father became an Apostolic Church pastor before they both assumed ministry within the Assemblies of God. Harris was influenced by the British-Israel views of Thomas Foster, whose identification of Anglo-Saxon nations with the ten lost tribes of Israel prompted him to adopt a historicist eschatology. With the subsequent cancellation of his ministry credential and the increasing post-war popularity of his pro-British views throughout parts of Australia and New Zealand, the 'National Revival Crusade' was launched organisationally in Adelaide in 1945 and was active in Melbourne.The movement later became known as the Christian Revival Crusade before finally taking its current name.With a strong focus on classical Pentecostal distinctives such as Baptism in the Holy Spirit, faith healing and deliverance ministry, the CRC grew and sought to establish a new constitution in 1958 which triggered the departure of churches forming the Revival Centres International (who viewed Spirit Baptism with the evidence of speaking in tongues as essential for salvation). Nevertheless, growth continued including a significant influence in Tasmania. Later departures of churches, some of which saw new movements emerge, were all unrelated to the declining popularity of the British-Israel teaching which has not appeared in official publications since the early 1970s.

International growth (principally in Papua New Guinea and in South-East Asia under Barry Silverback, recognised with an Order of Australia medal for his services.) has seen some 600 churches globally and 120 in Australia under the leadership of Bill Vasilakis with the stated goal of having a presence in every nation by the CRC's centenary in 2045. The CRC reports that it has a presence in some 50 nations. Other influential ministers in the CRC include Ken Chant, founder of Vision International College in Sydney, and Barry Chant, a popular author and the founder of Tabor College Australia which has campuses in most capital cities.

Cane Ridge Meeting House

Cane Ridge Meeting House is a historic church building on Cane Ridge in Paris, Kentucky built in 1791. It is one of the oldest church buildings in Kentucky and the largest one room log structure. The church was the site of a large frontier Christian revival in 1801 hosted by the local Presbyterian congregation that met in the building. Nearly 10,000 people attending. According to the museum "[i]n 1804, a small group of Presbyterian ministers from Kentucky and Ohio... penned and signed a document, "The Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery", at Cane Ridge that resulted in the birth of a movement seeking unity among Christians along non-sectarian lines. They would call themselves simply "Christians. The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Churches of Christ (non-instrumental), and the Christian Churches (independent) of the Stone-Campbell movement trace their origins here. This movement is often noted as the first one indigenous to American soil."

In the 1930s a stone building was constructed around the original log structure. The church is still used for worship.

Christian Revival Church

The Christian Revival Church (CRC) is of Charismatic, Pentecostal & Holistic Evangelical Movement group. The CRC emphasize and practice charismatic praise & worship and anointing prayer in triple ways as first confessions, 2nd casting out of Satan & blessing or anointing and 3 times praise as Praise The Lord- before & after any prayers. And Fasting, healing & deliverance prayers.

The CRC movement was started from Nagaland, India on 9 January 1962. It spread to Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikim, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Maharastra, Bihar, Utrakand, Odisha and to other countries- Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand & China.

This church believes in baptism by immersion, tithing for prosperity, speaking in other tongues as evidence of baptism in the Holy Spirit, casting out demons, praising Jehovah like angels, fasting, divine healing, rapture of the church, millennialism.

Christianity in Nagaland

The predominant religion of Nagaland is Christianity. The state's population is 1.988 million, out of which 90.02% are Christians. More than 98% of the Naga people identify themselves as Christian. The 2001 census recorded the state's Christian population at 1,790,350, making it, with Meghalaya and Mizoram, one of the three Christian-majority states in India and the only state where Christians form 90% of the population. The state has a very high church attendance rate in both urban and rural areas. Huge churches dominate the skylines of Kohima, Dimapur, and Mokokchung.

It was in the early part of October 1871, Supongmeren from Molungkimong village was baptised at Sibsagar and enrolled as an American Baptist Church member. He became the bridge between the American Baptist Missionary E.W. Clark, Evangelist Godhula and the headhunting Ao Nagas.

Kosasanger Council of Molungkimong Village (Dekahaimong)dispatched 60 warriors to escort Dr. E.W. Clark to escort him. It took almost three days from Sibsagar to reach Molungkimong. Clark arrived on 18 December (Wednesday) and baptized 15 new converts on 22nd (Sunday) December 1872 at a Village drinking well called 'Chungli Tzubu' which was permitted by the Village council. Another miracle for Clark after which they had a worship service and celebrated the first Lord's supper. Thus, on this day, the first Naga Church was founded with 28 Baptized members. They were Dr. Clark, Godhula and his wife, Supongmeren, 9 converts baptized on 10 November at Sibsagar, and 15 converts baptized at Molungkimong on 22 December 1872.

Nagaland was one of several regions of north East India that experienced Christian revival movements in the 1950s and 1960s. The "Nagaland Christian Revival Church", formed in 1962, grew out of the initial phase of this movement. It had its origin in a village in Kohima district where, in 1962, an event known as "The Great Awakening" started.

The revival emphasised believers having a "personal encounter with Christ", the witnessing of "signs and wonders" (such as miraculous healings), and having a missionary outreach to non-believing or nominally-Christian Nagas. The result was that Nagaland became an overwhelmingly Christian state, known as "the only predominantly Baptist state in the world." Among Christians, Baptists are the predominant group, constituting more than 75% of the state's population, thus making it more Baptist (on a percentage basis) than Mississippi in the southern United States, where 55% of the population is Baptist. Roman Catholics, Revivalists, and Pentecostals are the other Christian denomination numbers. Catholics are found in significant numbers in parts of Wokha district and Kohima district as well as in the urban areas of Kohima and Dimapur.

Hinduism and Islam practiced by the non-Naga community are minority religions in the state, at 7.7% and 1.8% of the population respectively.

An ancient indigenous religion known as the Heraka is followed by a few people (4,168) belonging to the Zeliangrong tribe living in Nagaland. Rani Gaidinliu was an Indian freedom fighter who struggled for the revival of Heraka, the traditional animist religion of the Naga people.

Franklin Graham

William Franklin Graham III (born July 14, 1952) is a Christian evangelist and missionary. Graham frequently engages in Christian revival tours and political commentary. He is currently president and CEO of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association (BGEA) and of Samaritan's Purse, an international Christian relief organization. Graham became a "committed Christian" in 1974 and was ordained in 1982, and has since become a public speaker and author. He is also known for being a son of the American evangelist Billy Graham.

Healing Revival

The Healing Revival is a term used by many American Charismatics in reference to a Christian revival movement that began in June 1946 and continued through the 1950s. The period of revival gave rise to the modern evangelical and charismatic movement.

List of Christian denominations in Northeast India

The following shows the Christian denominations present in North East India, along with number of churches and approximate number of Church members.

Lothar König

Lothar König (1906-1946) was a German Jesuit priest and member of the Kreisau Circle of the German Resistance during the Nazi period. Though multi-denominational, the Kreisau group's opposition to the Hitler regime had a strongly Christian orientation, and looked for a general Christian revival, and reawakening of awareness of the transcendental. Its outlook was rooted both in German romantic and idealist tradition and in the Catholic doctrine of natural law. König would become an important intermediary between the Circle and bishops Grober of Freiberg and Preysing of Berlin. After the failure of the 1944 July Plot to assassinate Hitler, König was pursued by the Gestapo and sought refuge in a coal cellar, where he lived in hiding until the end of the war. König died shortly after the war from the effects of his time in hiding.

Malabar Independent Syrian Church

The Malabar Independent Syrian Church, also known as the Thozhiyur Church, is a Independent Oriental Orthodox Christian church centred in Kerala, India. It is one of the churches of the Saint Thomas Christian community, which traces its origins to the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.

The church split from the main body of India's Malankara Church in 1772. The church obtained its current name after a court verdict in 1862; although the church is independent under the Malankara umbrella, the church faith and traditions are strictly Oriental Orthodox, adhering to the West Syriac Rite and consistently using western Syriac and Malayalam during the Holy Qurbana (Qurbono Qadisho).

Today the church remains small, with about 35,000 members, and maintains good relations with the other Malankara churches.

Religion in Antarctica

Antarctica has various places of worship and an increasing demand for religious services and construction of sacred architecture on the continent. In spite of the famous saying "below 40 degrees south there is no law; below 50 degrees south there is no God" the exploration of the continent was in fact closely connected to religious activities with contributions from many adherents (e.g. Jesuit geophysicists). Some of the early religious buildings are now protected as important historical monuments.

Christian buildings are the only religious buildings on the continent.

Religious revival

Religious revival may refer to:

Christian revival

Revival meeting

Islamic revival

Revival meeting

A revival meeting is a series of Christian religious services held to inspire active members of a church body to gain new converts. Nineteenth-century Baptist preacher Charles Spurgeon said, "Many blessings may come to the unconverted in consequence of a revival among Christians, but the revival itself has to do only with those who already possess spiritual life." These meetings are usually conducted by churches or missionary organizations throughout the world. Notable historic revival meetings were conducted in the US by evangelist Billy Sunday and in Wales by evangelist Evan Roberts.

Revivalist

Revivalist may refer to:

a person involved in language revitalization

Revivalist (person) involved in a movement of Christian revival

Revivalism (architecture)

Revivalist artist, a performer dedicated to reviving a musical or cultural form from an earlier era

The Revivalists, an American rock band

Samoa

Samoa (), officially the Independent State of Samoa (Samoan: Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Samoan: Sāmoa, IPA: [ˈsaːmoa]) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a country consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, and four smaller islands. The capital city is Apia. The Lapita people discovered and settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed a unique Samoan language and Samoan cultural identity.

Samoa is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions. The country is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976. The entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called "Navigator Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills.

Thomas Robb (activist)

Thomas Robb (born 1946) is an American far-right activist, Ku Klux Klan leader, and Christian Identity pastor. He is national director of The Knights Party, also known as the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, taking control of the organization after David Duke.

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