Christian Social Union in Bavaria

The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern , CSU) is a Christian-democratic[2][3] and conservative[2][4][5][6] political party in Germany. The CSU operates only in Bavaria while its larger counterpart, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), operates in the other fifteen states of Germany. It differs from the CDU by being somewhat more conservative in social matters. The CSU is considered an effective successor of the Weimar-era Catholic Bavarian People's Party (BVP).[10]

At the federal level, the CSU forms a common faction in the Bundestag with the CDU, which is frequently referred to as the Union Faction (die Unionsfraktion). The CSU has had 46 seats in the Bundestag since the 2017 federal election,[11] making it the smallest of the seven parties represented. Until the 2013 federal election, the CDU/CSU formed federal government in coalition with the Free Democratic Party (FDP). The CSU is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and the International Democrat Union. The CSU currently has three ministers in the cabinet of Germany of the federal government in Berlin, including party leader Horst Seehofer who is Federal Minister of the Interior while party member Markus Söder serves as Minister-President of Bavaria, a position that CSU representatives have held from 1946 to 1954 and again since 1957.

Christian Social Union in Bavaria

Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
AbbreviationCSU
LeaderMarkus Söder
Secretary GeneralMarkus Blume
Founded1945
Preceded byBavarian People's Party
(not legal predecessor)
HeadquartersMunich, Germany
NewspaperBayernkurier
Youth wingYoung Union
Membership (December 2017)Decrease 141,000[1]
IdeologyBavarian regionalism[2]
Christian democracy[2][3]

Conservatism[2][4][5][6]
Political positionCentre-right[7][8][9]
National affiliationCDU/CSU
European affiliationEuropean People's Party
International affiliationInternational Democrat Union
European Parliament groupEuropean People's Party
Colours     Blue
Bundestag
46 / 709
Bundesrat
6 / 69
Landtag of Bavaria
85 / 205
European Parliament
5 / 96
Ministers-president of states
1 / 16
Website
csu.de

History

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F049272-0002, München, CSU-Bundestagswahlkampf, Strauß
Chairman Franz Josef Strauß in 1976

Franz Josef Strauß (1915–1988) had left behind the strongest legacy as a leader of the party, having led the party from 1961 until his death in 1988. His political career in the federal cabinet was unique in that he had served four ministerial posts in the years between 1953 and 1969. From 1978 until his death in 1988, Strauß served as the Minister-President of Bavaria. Strauß was the first leader of the CSU to be a candidate for the German chancellery in 1980. In the 1980 federal election, Strauß ran against the incumbent Helmut Schmidt of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), but lost thereafter as the SPD and the Free Democratic Party (FDP) managed to secure an absolute majority together, forming a social-liberal coalition.

The CSU has led the Bavarian state government since it came into existence in 1946, save from 1954 to 1957 when the SPD formed a state government in coalition with the Bavaria Party and the state branches of the GB/BHE and FDP. Before the 2008 elections in Bavaria, the CSU perennially achieved absolute majorities at the state level by itself. This level of dominance is unique among Germany's 16 states. Edmund Stoiber took over the CSU leadership in 1999. He ran for Chancellor of Germany in 2002, but his preferred CDU/CSU–FDP coalition lost against the SPD candidate Gerhard Schröder's SPD–Green alliance.

In the 2003 Bavarian state election, the CSU won 60.7% of the vote and 124 of 180 seats in the state parliament. This was the first time any party had won a two thirds majority in a German state parliament.[12] The Economist later suggested that this exceptional result was due to a backlash against Schröder's government in Berlin.[13] The CSU's popularity declined in subsequent years. Stoiber stepped down from the posts of Minister-President and CSU chairman in September 2007. A year later, the CSU lost its majority in the 2008 Bavarian state election, with its vote share dropping from 60.7% to 43.4%. The CSU remained in power by forming a coalition with the FDP. In the 2009 general election, the CSU received only 42.5% of the vote in Bavaria in the 2009 election, which constitutes its weakest showing in the party's history.

The CSU made gains in the 2013 Bavarian state election and the 2013 federal election, which were held a week apart in September 2013. The CSU regained their majority in the Bavarian Landtag and remained in government in Berlin. They have three ministers in Angela Merkel's current cabinet, namely Horst Seehofer (Minister of the Interior, Building and Community), Andreas Scheuer (Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure) and Gerd Müller (Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development).

The CSU forms after Bavarian state election, 2018 on October 14, 2018 a new government with partner Free Voters of Bavaria.

Relationship with the CDU

The CSU is the sister party of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU).[14] Together, they are called The Union.[14] The CSU operates only within Bavaria and the CDU operates in all other states, but not Bavaria. While virtually independent,[15] at the federal level the parties form a common CDU/CSU faction. No Chancellor has ever come from the CSU, although Strauß and Edmund Stoiber were CDU/CSU candidates for Chancellor in the 1980 federal election and the 2002 federal election, respectively, which were both won by the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Below the federal level, the parties are entirely independent.[16]

Since its formation, the CSU has been more conservative than the CDU.[4] The CSU and the state of Bavaria decided not to sign the Grundgesetz of the Federal Republic of Germany as they could not agree with the division of Germany into two states after World War II. Although Bavaria like all German states has a separate police and justice system (distinctive and non-federal), the CSU has actively participated in all political affairs of the German Parliament, the German government, the German Bundesrat, the parliamentary elections of the German President, the European Parliament and meetings with Mikhail Gorbachev in Russia.

Leaders

Party chairmen

Chairman From To
1st Josef Müller 17 December 1945 28 May 1949
2nd Hans Ehard 28 May 1949 22 January 1955
3rd Hanns Seidel 22 January 1955 16 February 1961
4th Franz Josef Strauß 18 March 1961 3 October 1988
5th Theodor Waigel 16 November 1988 16 January 1999
6th Edmund Stoiber 16 January 1999 29 September 2007
7th Erwin Huber 29 September 2007 25 October 2008
8th Horst Seehofer 25 October 2008 19 January 2019
9th Markus Söder 19 January 2019 Present day

Ministers-President

The CSU has contributed eleven of the twelve Ministers-President of Bavaria since 1945, with only Wilhelm Hoegner (1945–1946, 1954–1957) of the SPD also holding the office.

Minister-President From To
Fritz Schäffer 28 May 1945 28 September 1945
Hans Ehard (first time) 21 December 1946 14 December 1954
Hanns Seidel 16 October 1957 22 January 1960
Hans Ehard (second time) 26 January 1960 11 December 1962
Alfons Goppel 11 December 1962 6 November 1978
Franz Josef Strauss 6 November 1978 3 October 1988
Max Streibl 19 October 1988 27 May 1993
Edmund Stoiber 28 May 1993 30 September 2007
Günther Beckstein 9 October 2007 27 October 2008
Horst Seehofer 27 October 2008 13 March 2018
Markus Söder 16 March 2018 Present day

Election results

Federal parliament (Bundestag)

Election year No. of
constituency votes
No. of
party list votes
% of
party list votes
No. of
overall seats won
+/–
1949 1,380,448 5.8
24 / 402
1953 2,450,286 2,427,387 8.8
52 / 509
Increase 28
1957 3,186,150 3,133,060 10.5
55 / 519
Increase 3
1961 3,104,742 3,014,471 9.6
50 / 521
Decrease 5
1965 3,204,648 3,136,506 9.6
49 / 518
Increase 1
1969 3,094,176 3,115,652 9.5
49 / 518
Steady 0
1972 3,620,625 3,615,183 9.72
48 / 518
Decrease 1
1976 4,008,514 4,027,499 10.6
53 / 518
Increase 5
1980 3,941,365 3,908,459 10.3
52 / 519
Decrease 1
1983 4,318,800 4,140,865 10.6
53 / 520
Increase 1
1987 3,859,244 3,715,827 9.8
49 / 519
Decrease 4
1990 3,423,904 3,302,980 7.1
51 / 662
Increase 2
1994 3,657,627 3,427,196 7.3
50 / 672
Decrease 1
1998 3,602,472 3,324,480 6.8
47 / 669
Decrease 3
2002 4,311,178 4,315,080 9.0
58 / 603
Increase 11
2005 3,889,990 3,494,309 7.4
46 / 614
Decrease 12
2009 3,191,000 2,830,238 6.5
45 / 622
Decrease 1
2013 3,544,079 3,243,569 7.4
56 / 631
Increase 11
2017 3,255,604 2,869,744 6.2
46 / 709
Decrease 10

European Parliament

Election year No. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall seats won
+/–
1979 2,817,120 10.1 (3rd)
8 / 81
1984 2,109,130 8.5 (3rd)
7 / 81
Decrease 1
1989 2,326,277 8.2 (4th)
7 / 81
Steady 0
1994 2,393,374 6.8 (4th)
8 / 99
Increase 1
1999 2,540,007 9.4 (4th)
10 / 99
Increase 2
2004 2,063,900 8.0 (4th)
9 / 99
Decrease 1
2009 1,896,762 7.2 (6th)
8 / 99
Decrease 1
2014 1,567,258 5.3 (6th)
5 / 96
Decrease 3

Landtag of Bavaria

Election year No. of
constituency votes
No. of
party list votes
% of
overall votes
No. of
overall seats won
+/– Government
1946 1,593,908 52.2
104 / 180
CSU–SPD
1950 1,264,993 1,262,377 27.4
64 / 204
Decrease 40 CSU–SPD
1954 1,855,995 1,835,959 37.9
83 / 204
Increase 19 SPD–BP–FDP–BHE
1958 2,101,645 2,091,259 45.5
101 / 204
Increase 18 CSU–FDP–BHE
1962 2,343,169 2,320,359 47.5
108 / 204
Increase 7 CSU–BP
1966 2,549,610 2,524,732 48.1
110 / 204
Increase 2 CSU majority
1970 3,205,170 3,139,429 56.4
124 / 204
Increase 14 CSU majority
1974 3,520,065 3,481,486 62.0
132 / 204
Increase 8 CSU majority
1978 3,394,096 3,387,995 59.1
129 / 204
Decrease 3 CSU majority
1982 3,557,068 3,534,375 58.2
133 / 204
Increase 4 CSU majority
1986 3,142,094 3,191,640 55.7
128 / 204
Decrease 5 CSU majority
1990 3,007,566 3,085,948 54.9
127 / 204
Decrease 1 CSU majority
1994 3,063,635 3,100,253 52.8
120 / 204
Decrease 7 CSU majority
1998 3,168,996 3,278,768 52.9
123 / 204
Increase 3 CSU majority
2003 3,050,456 3,167,408 60.6
124 / 180
Increase 1 CSU majority
2008 2,267,521 2,336,439 43.4
92 / 187
Decrease 32 CSU–FDP
2013 2,754,256 2,882,169 47.7
101 / 180
Increase 9 CSU majority
2018 2,495,960 2,551,046 37.2
85 / 180
Decrease 16 CSU–FW

See also

Further reading

Alf Mintzel (1975). Die CSU. Anatomie einer konservativen Partei 1945-1972. Opladen (in German).

Notes and references

  1. ^ "CSU: Mitgliederzahlen sinken weiter". Augsburger Allgemeine. 24 December 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "Germany". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  3. ^ a b Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-313-39181-1.
  4. ^ a b c Budge, Ian; Robertson, David; Hearl, Derek (1987). Ideology, Strategy, and Party Change: Spatial Analyses of Post-war Election Programmes in 19 Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 296. ISBN 9780521306485.
  5. ^ a b Paul Statham; Hans-Jörg Trenz (2012). The Politicization of Europe: Contesting the Constitution in the Mass Media. Routledge. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-415-58466-1.
  6. ^ a b Antje Ellermann (2009). States Against Migrants: Deportation in Germany and the United States. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-521-51568-9.
  7. ^ Christina Boswell; Dan Hough (2009). Politicizing migration: Opportunity or liability for the centre-right in Germany. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Centre-Right – matter. Routledge. pp. 18, 21.
  8. ^ Klaus Detterbeck (2012). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105.
  9. ^ Margret Hornsteiner; Thomas Saalfeld (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.
  10. ^ Biesinger, Joseph A. (2006). Germany: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. Infobase Publishing. p. 310. ISBN 9780816074716.
  11. ^ "Results - The Federal Returning Officer". bundeswahlleiter.de. The Federal Returning Officer.
  12. ^ Clayton Clemens. "Stoiber – Dominant But Not Omnipotent". Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine American Institute for Contemporary German Studies. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
  13. ^ "The Economist: Old soldiers march into the unknown".
  14. ^ a b "A Quick Guide to Germany's Political Parties". Der Spiegel. 25 September 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  15. ^ The Economist (1983). Political Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-27793-8.
  16. ^ Solsten, Eric (1999). Germany: A Country Study. Quezon: DANE Publishing. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-521-27793-8.

External links

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