Christian II of Denmark

Christian II (1 July 1481 – 25 January 1559) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union. He reigned as King of Denmark and Norway from 1513 until 1523 and of Sweden from 1520 until 1521. From 1513 to 1523, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig and Holstein in joint rule with his uncle Frederick.

Christian was the oldest son of King John and belonged to the House of Oldenburg. Denmark was then an elective monarchy in which the nobility elected the new king (from among the sons or close male relatives of the previous monarch), who had to share his power with them. He came into conflict with the Danish nobility when he was forced to sign a charter, more strict than any previous, to ensure his access to the throne. Through domestic reforms he later sought to evade being restricted by the provisions of the charter. Internationally, he tried to maintain the Kalmar Union between the Scandinavian countries which brought him to war with Sweden, lasting between 1518 and 1523. Though he captured the country in 1520, his slaughter of leading Swedish nobility afterwards (known as the Stockholm Bloodbath) made him despised and after a short reign in Sweden, where to this day he is known as Christian the Tyrant (Kristian Tyrann), he was deposed in a rebellion led by the nobleman Gustav Vasa. His problems grew as he tried to limit the influence of foreign trading nations in Denmark. His reign in Denmark and Norway was cut short in 1523 when his uncle deposed him and took the thrones as Frederick I.

Christian was exiled to the Netherlands, ruled by his brother-in-law, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. After attempting to reclaim the thrones in 1531, he was arrested and held in captivity for the rest of his life, first in Sønderborg Castle and later at Kalundborg Castle. Supporters tried to restore him to power both during his exile and his imprisonment but they were defeated decisively during the Count's Feud in 1536.

In 1515, he married Isabella of Austria, granddaughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. However, he is most known for his relation with Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, a commoner of Dutch ancestry who became his mistress before his marriage and whose mother became his closest advisor. When Dyveke suddenly died in 1517, Christian had the nobleman Torben Oxe executed, on dubious grounds, for having poisoned her. Dyveke’s mother would follow Christian in exile but his in-laws forced him to break their friendship. As a captive, he was treated well and as he grew older he was gradually given more freedom. He died aged 77, outliving his uncle and his cousin, King Christian III. He was intelligent but irresolute (he could not decide between Protestantism and Catholicism for instance), which is also part of his legacy in literature.

His wife was invited to remain in Denmark rather than live in exile but declined and died in 1526, after which her family took Christian's children from him. Christian tried to have his son John recognized as heir to the throne; however, this was denied and John died a year later. His daughters, Dorothea and Christina, the children of his to survive childhood, also made claims to the throne on behalf of themselves or their children but likewise in vain.

Christian II
ChristianII of denmark
King Christian II by an unknown artist
Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
King of Denmark
Reign22 July 1513 – 20 January 1523
Coronation11 June 1514
Copenhagen Cathedral
SuccessorFrederick I
King of Norway
Reign22 July 1513 – 20 January 1523
Coronation20 July 1514
SuccessorFrederick I
King of Sweden
Reign1 November 1520 – 23 August 1521
Coronation4 November 1520
Storkyrkan, Stockholm
PredecessorJohn II
SuccessorGustav I
Born1 July 1481
Nyborg Castle
Died25 January 1559 (aged 77)
Kalundborg Castle (as prisoner)
SpouseIsabella of Austria
among others...
Dorothea, Electress Palatine
Christina, Duchess of Milan
FatherJohn, King of Denmark
MotherChristina of Saxony
Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism, converting to each back and forth
Christian II's signature

Early life

Christian was born at Nyborg Castle in 1481 as the son of King John and his wife, Christina of Saxony.[1] Christian descended, through Valdemar I of Sweden, from the House of Eric, and from Catherine, daughter of Inge I of Sweden, as well as from Ingrid Ylva, granddaughter of Sverker I of Sweden. His rival Gustav I of Sweden descended only from Sverker II of Sweden and the House of Sverker. Christian took part in his father's conquest of Sweden in 1497 and in the fighting of 1501 when Sweden revolted. He was appointed viceroy of Norway in 1506, and succeeded in maintaining control of this country. During his administration in Norway,[2] he attempted to deprive the Norwegian nobility of its traditional influence exercised through the Rigsraadet privy council, leading to controversy with the latter.

In 1513, he succeeded his father as king of Denmark and Norway. Christian's succession to the throne[of Norway and Denmark?] was confirmed at the Herredag assembly of notables from the three northern kingdoms, which met at Copenhagen in 1513. The Swedish delegates said, "We have the choice between peace at home and strife here, or peace here and civil war at home, and we prefer the former." A decision as to the Swedish succession was therefore postponed.[3] During his reign, Christian concentrated on his attempts to maintain control of Sweden while attempting a concentration of power in the hands of the monarch, at the expense of both clergy and nobility. To further this attempt, he supported the creation of a strong class of burghers.[2]

Personal life

Isabella of Spain Denmark
Isabella of Austria, his wife

A peculiarity, more fatal to him in that aristocratic age than any other, was his fondness for the common people, which was increased by his passion for a pretty Norwegian girl of Dutch heritage, named Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, who became his mistress in 1507 or 1509. On 12 August 1515, Christian married Isabella of Austria, the granddaughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. But he would not give up his liaison with Dyveke, and it was only her death in 1517, under suspicious circumstances, that prevented serious complications with the emperor Charles V.[3]

Christian believed that the magnate Torben Oxe was guilty of Sigbritsdatter's death and, despite his having been acquitted of murder charges by Rigsraadet, had him executed. Oxe was brought to trial at Solbjerg outside Copenhagen in what amounted to a justice-of-the-peace court on vague offenses against his liege lord, Christian II. The verdict as directed by the king was guilty and the death sentence imposed with the comment, 'your deeds not your words have condemned you'. Over the strenuous opposition of Oxe's fellow peers he was executed at St. Clare's Hospital Cemetery in late 1517. Thereafter the king lost no opportunity to suppress the nobility and raise commoners to power.[3]

His chief counsellor was Dyveke's mother Sigbrit Willoms, who excelled in administrative and commercial affairs. Christian first appointed her controller of the Sound Dues of Øresund, and ultimately committed to her the whole charge of the finances. A bourgeoise herself, it was Sigbrit's constant policy to elevate and extend the influence of the middle classes. She soon formed a middle-class inner council centering on her, which competed for power with Rigsraadet itself. The patricians naturally resented their supersession and nearly every unpopular measure was attributed to the influence of "the foul-mouthed Dutch sorceress who hath bewitched the king."[3] However, Mogens Gøye, the leading man of the Council, supported the king as long as possible.

Reconquest of Sweden

Christian II og Elisabeth (altertavle)
King Christian and Queen Elizabeth on an altar in Elsinore.

Christian was meanwhile preparing for the inevitable war with Sweden, where the patriotic party, headed by the regent Sten Sture the Younger, stood face to face with the pro-Danish party under Archbishop Gustav Trolle. Christian, who had already taken measures to isolate Sweden politically, hastened to the relief of the archbishop, who was beleaguered in his fortress of Stäket, but was defeated by Sture and his peasant levies at Vedila and forced to return to Denmark. A second attempt to subdue Sweden in 1518 was also frustrated by Sture's victory at the Battle of Brännkyrka.[3]

A third attempt made in 1520 with a large army of French, German and Scottish mercenaries proved successful. Sture was mortally wounded at the Battle of Bogesund, on 19 January, and the Danish army, unopposed, was approaching Uppsala, where the members of the Swedish Privy Council, or Riksråd, had already assembled. The councillors consented to render homage to Christian on condition that he gave a full indemnity for the past and a guarantee that Sweden should be ruled according to Swedish laws and custom; and a convention to this effect was confirmed by the king and the Danish Privy Council on 31 March.[3]

Sture's widow, Dame Christina Gyllenstierna, still held out stoutly at Stockholm, and the peasantry of central Sweden, roused by her patriotism, flew to arms, defeated the Danish invaders at Balundsås on 19 March, and were only with the utmost difficulty finally defeated at the bloody Battle of Uppsala, on Good Friday, 6 April 1520. In May the Danish fleet arrived, and Stockholm was invested by land and sea; but Dame Gyllenstierna resisted valiantly for four months longer and took care, when she surrendered on 7 September, to exact beforehand an amnesty of the most explicit and absolute character. On 1 November, the representatives of the nation swore fealty to Christian as hereditary king of Sweden, though the law of the land distinctly provided that Sweden should be an elective monarchy.[3]

Stockholm Bloodbath

Stockholm Bloodbath
The Stockholm bloodbath

On 4 November 1520, Christian was anointed by Gustav Trolle (leader of the pro-Danish party) in Stockholm Cathedral, and took the usual oath to rule the Realm of Sweden through native-born Swedes alone, according to prescription. The next three days were given up to banqueting, but on 7 November "an entertainment of another sort began." On the evening of that day Christian summoned his captains to a private conference at the palace, the result of which was quickly apparent, for at dusk a band of Danish soldiers, with lanterns and torches, broke into the great hall and carried off several carefully selected persons.[3]

By 10 o'clock the same evening the remainder of the king's guests were safely under lock and key. All these persons had previously been marked down on Archbishop Trolle's proscription list. On the following day a council, presided over by Trolle, solemnly pronounced judgment of death on the proscribed, as manifest heretics. At 12 o'clock that night the bishops of Skara and Strängnäs were led out into the great square and beheaded. Fourteen noblemen, three burgomasters, fourteen town councillors of Stockholm were then drowned or decapitated. All of them were known to be "strongly faithful to Sture and were condemned for heresy".[4] The executions continued throughout the following day; in all, about eighty-two people are said to have been executed.[3]

Moreover, Christian ordered that Sten Sture's body should be dug up and burnt, as well as the body of his little child. Dame Christina and many other noble Swedish ladies were sent as prisoners to Denmark. When it became necessary to make excuses for the massacre, Christian proclaimed to the Swedish people that it was a measure necessary to avoid a papal interdict, while in his apology to the pope for the decapitation of the innocent bishops he described it as an unauthorized act of vengeance on the part of his own people.[3] The massacre and deeds in the Old Town of Stockholm is the primary reason why Christian is remembered in Sweden, as Christian the Tyrant (Kristian Tyrann).[5]

Attempting reforms

Christian II returned to his native kingdom of Denmark. In principle he was as much a humanist as any of his most enlightened contemporaries. Deeply distrusting the Danish nobles with whom he shared his powers, he sought help from the wealthy and practical middle classes of Flanders. In June 1521, the Danish king paid a sudden visit to the Low Countries, and remained there for some months. He visited most of the large cities, took into his service many Flemish artisans, and made the personal acquaintance of Quentin Matsys and Albrecht Dürer; the latter painted his portrait. Christian also entertained Erasmus, with whom he discussed the Protestant Reformation, and let fall the characteristic expression: "Mild measures are of no use; the remedies that give the whole body a good shaking are the best and surest."[3]

Never had King Christian seemed so powerful as upon his return to Denmark on 5 September 1521, and, with the confidence of strength, he at once proceeded recklessly to inaugurate the most sweeping reforms. Soon after his return he issued his great Landelove, or Code of Laws. For the most part this is founded on Dutch models, and testifies in a high degree to the king's progressive aims. Provision was made for better education of the lower clergy, and the political influence of the higher clergy is restricted. There were stern prohibitions against wreckers and "the evil and unchristian practice of selling peasants as if they were brute beasts"; the old trade guilds were retained, but the rules of admittance thereto made easier, and trade combinations of the richer burghers, to the detriment of the smaller tradesmen, were sternly forbidden.[3]


Carl Bloch - Christian II i fængslet på Sønderborg Slot 1871
Christian II at Sønderborg Castle, artist concept 1871.
Christian II of Denmark, Norway & Sweden grave 2009
Christian's gravestone at Odense

Christian's reforms, however, suggested the standpoint not of an elected ruler, but of a monarch by divine right. Some of them were even in direct contravention of the charter. Furthermore, the old Scandinavian spirit of independence was deeply wounded by the preference given to the Dutch. Sweden, too, was now in open revolt; and both Norway and Denmark were taxed to the utmost to raise an army for the subjection of their sister kingdom. Foreign complications were now added to these domestic troubles. With the laudable objective of releasing Danish trade from the grinding yoke of the Hanseatic League, and making Copenhagen the great emporium of the north, Christian had arbitrarily raised the Sound tolls and seized a number of Dutch ships that presumed to evade the tax. This strained relations with the Netherlands, while he was openly at war with Lübeck and her allies.[3]

Jutland finally rose against him, renounced its allegiance, and offered the Danish crown to Christian's uncle, Duke Frederick of Holstein, on 20 January 1523. So overwhelming did Christian's difficulties appear, that he embarked on a ship to seek help abroad. On 1 May he landed at Veere in Zeeland.[3] During the years of his exile, the king led a relatively humble life in the city of Lier in the Netherlands, waiting for military help from his reluctant imperial brother-in-law. In the meantime, some Danes (primarily peasants and commoners) came to remember him as a social saviour and wish for his restoration. Christian found consolation in his distress by corresponding with Martin Luther and he even became a Lutheran for some time. Christian and his family lived next to Lier, in Brabant. Elizabeth died in January 1526, after which the children were taken away from Christian, so as not to be raised as heretics. But in 1530, when both his opponents, Frederick I, and Gustav Vasa, joined the Reformation and became Lutherans, Christian reverted to Catholicism and thus reconciled with the Emperor. After eight years of exile, on 24 October 1531, he attempted to recover his kingdoms, but a tempest scattered his fleet off the Norwegian coast. On 1 July 1532, by the convention of Oslo, he surrendered to his uncle and rival, King Frederick,[3] in exchange for a promise of safe conduct.

Final years

King Frederick did not keep his promise, and King Christian was kept prisoner for the next 27 years, first in Sønderborg Castle until 1549, and afterwards at the castle of Kalundborg. Stories of solitary confinement in small dark chambers are inaccurate; King Christian was treated like a nobleman, particularly in his old age, and he was allowed to host parties, go hunting, and wander freely as long as he did not go beyond the Kalundborg town boundaries.

His cousin, King Christian III of Denmark, Frederick I's son, died in early 1559. Even then, with the old king nearing 80, people in Copenhagen looked warily towards Kalundborg. But King Christian II died peacefully just a few days later. The new king, Frederick II, ordered that a royal funeral be held in memory of his unhappy kinsman, who lies buried in Odense next to his wife, son and parents.


Christian II is one of the most discussed of all Danish kings. He has been regarded as both a hypocritical tyrant and a progressive despot, who wanted to create an absolute monarchy based upon “free citizens”. His psychological weaknesses have caught the interest of historians, especially his frequently mentioned irresolution, which as years passed seemed to dominate his acts. Theories of manic-depression have been mentioned, but like many others they are impossible to prove. Or power corrupted him, and he lacked the moral mettle to rule with integrity. Christian clearly made too many enemies. Furthermore, the Danish middle class was still not strong enough to support royal power. However some of his ambitions were fulfilled by the victory of absolutism in 1660.

The king’s life and career created many myths. One of the most famous is the story of the irresolute king crossing the Little Belt forwards and backwards during a whole night in February 1523, until he at last gave up. Another, probably just as unlikely, is the legend that the restless king wandered around a round table on Sønderborg making a groove in the table top with his finger. His life has also inspired modern Danish poets and authors. In Johannes Vilhelm Jensen's novel The Fall of the King (1900–1901), the king is regarded almost as a symbol of the Danish “illness of hesitation”.

Jean Sibelius composed in 1898 incidental music King Christian II to a play about the king, and derived from it a suite.


Christian II had six children by his wife, Isabella of Austria (1501–1526), only three of whom survived infancy and two reached adulthood. They were:

Name Birth Death Notes
John 21 February 1518 2 August 1532 Heir to the thrones of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Philip Ferdinand 4 July 1519 1520 Twin
Maximilian 4 July 1519 1519 Twin
Dorothea 10 November 1520 31 May 1580 Married in 1535, Frederick II, Elector Palatine and had no issue.
Christina c.1522 c.1590 Married in 1533, Francis II Sforza and had no issue, married secondly in 1541, Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and had issue.
Stillborn son January 1523 January 1523 Unnamed
Three children of King Christian II of Denmark by Jan Gossaert (1526)
Three children of Christian II (Dorothea, John and Christina), by Jan Mabuse, 1526.

His daughters, Electress Palatine Dorothea and Christina, Duchess of Milan, both in turn, for many years, demanded in vain the Danish and Norwegian thrones as their inheritance, although these kingdoms were nominally elective monarchies. However, Christian II's blood was not to return to the Swedish and Norwegian thrones until 1859, in the person of Charles XV of Sweden, whose grandmother Princess Augusta of Bavaria, was descended from Magdalene of Bavaria, the great-great granddaughter of Christian II.


Ancestors of Christian II of Denmark
16. Christian V, Count of Oldenburg
8. Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg
17. Agnes of Hohnstein-Heringen
4. Christian I of Denmark
18. Gerhard VI, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg
9. Helvig of Schauenburg
19. Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg
2. John of Denmark
20. Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg
10. John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
21. Elisabeth of Bavaria
5. Dorothea of Brandenburg
22. Rudolph III, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg
11. Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg
23. Barbara of Legnica
1. Christian II of Denmark
24. Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
12. Frederick II, Elector of Saxony
25. Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg
6. Ernest, Elector of Saxony
26. Ernest, Duke of Austria
13. Margaret of Austria
27. Cymburgis of Masovia
3. Christina of Saxony
28. Ernest, Duke of Bavaria
14. Albert III, Duke of Bavaria
29. Elisabetta Visconti
7. Elisabeth of Bavaria
30. Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
15. Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen-Einbeck
31. Elisabeth of Brunswick-Göttingen

Holy Roman Empire and southern Scandinavia around 1500

HRR-5 (1548) crop


  1. ^ Historie (in Danish), Stockholm: Royal Danish Embassy, archived from the original on 11 February 2007.
  2. ^ a b Store Danske Encyklopædi, entries "Hans" and "Christian 2.", Copenhagen: Gyldendal (in Danish)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainRobert Nisbet Bain (1911). "Christian II." . In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ Swedish Nationalecyclopdia 2000, article "Stockholms blodbad"
  5. ^ Kristian Tyrann by Paul J. Reiter, translated to Swedish by Gustaf Witting, Natur & Kultur, Stockholm, 1943

External links

Christian II
Born: 2 July 1481 Died: 25 January 1559
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Denmark and Norway
Succeeded by
Frederick I
Duke of Holstein and Schleswig
with Frederick I
Succeeded by
Frederick I
and Christian III
Title last held by
John II
King of Sweden
Title next held by
Gustav I
1520 in Sweden

Events from the year 1520 in Sweden

1522 in Sweden

Events from the year 1522 in Sweden


Year 1559 (MDLIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Christina Gyllenstierna

Christina Nilsdotter Gyllenstierna of Fogelvik (Swedish: Kristina or Kerstin: 1494 – January 1559, Hörningsholm Castle) was a Swedish noble and a heroine. She was married to the Swedish regent Sten Sture the Younger, and famously led the Swedish resistance against Christian II of Denmark after the death of her spouse. In her own lifetime she was simply referred to as Fru Kristina ('Lady Christina'), but she has become known in history as "Kristina Gyllenstierna" because of the house of nobility to which she belonged.

Christina of Denmark

Christina of Denmark (Danish: Christine af Danmark; November 1521 – 10 December 1590) was a Danish princess, the younger surviving daughter of King Christian II of Denmark and Norway and Isabella of Austria. She became the duchess-consort of Milan, then duchess-consort of Lorraine. She served as the regent of Lorraine from 1545 to 1552 during the minority of her son. She was also a claimant to the thrones of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1561-1590. Finally, she was sovereign Lady of Tortona in 1578-1584.

Dorothea of Lorraine

Dorothea of Lorraine (24 May 1545 – 2 June 1621), was by birth a member of the House of Lorraine and by marriage to Eric II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Calenburg.

Born at the Château de Deneuvre, she was the third child and second daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark. Her paternal grandparents were Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier and her maternal grandparents were Christian II of Denmark and Isabella of Austria.

Dyveke Sigbritsdatter

Dyveke Sigbritsdatter or Dyveke Willomsdatter, (1490 – 21 September 1517), in Denmark normally known as "Dyveke" ; in modern Dutch "duifje" means "little dove"), was known as the mistress to Christian II of Denmark.

Dyveke was a "commoner", the daughter of the Dutch merchant Sigbrit Willoms, who lived in Bergen in Norway. Dyveke became the mistress to Christian II of Denmark in 1507 or 1509. They met in Bergen, and Christian took Dyveke with him to Oslo, where he was regent, and to Copenhagen, when he became king in 1513. Their relationship has been the inspiration of many poets but in fact little is known about it. The mother of Dyveke, Sigbrit, acted as an advisor to the king, which was much disliked, especially by the nobility, and every effort was therefore made to separate Dyveke and Christian, which would ensure the departure also of Sigbrit from the court. Whether Dyveke herself had any political influence is unknown.

Though Christian married Isabella of Austria and had her crowned in 1515, he refused to end his relationship with Dyveke. This created tension between him and his brother-in-law, the future Emperor Charles V. In 1516, the Emperor demanded that Dyveke and her mother would be sent away, but Christian refused.

Dyveke died in the summer of 1517, possibly because of a poisoning. She was suspected to have been poisoned by cherries. This death led to the execution of the nobleman Torben Oxe, but his guilt has never been proven and both an initiative by the court of the Emperor Maximilian I or even an accidental poisoning have been suggested as an explanation. Her mother Sigbrit went on to become Christian II's financial advisor. Nothing is recorded for Sigbrit after 1523, one assumption has her imprisoned for witchcraft, dying in 1532.

Francesco II Sforza

Francesco II Sforza (February 4, 1495 – October 24, 1535) was Duke of Milan from 1521 until his death. He was the last member of the Sforza family to rule Milan.

He was the second son of Ludovico Sforza and Beatrice d'Este. When Ludovico was ousted from Milan in the course of the Italian Wars, he brought Francesco with him to the court of the Emperor Maximilian I, who had married a Sforza, Francesco's cousin Bianca Maria. Francesco was assigned to an ecclesiastical career. His father was imprisoned in Loches by Louis XII of France, and died in 1508, but when Charles V re-conquered Milan from the French in 1521, Francesco was appointed its duke, the last of the family to hold that title. His sovereignty, however, remained circumscribed by the military occupation of Milan by Spanish troops.He returned to his state, depleted by twenty years of combat, promoting a cultural and economic recovery. Francesco fought at the Battle of Bicocca, on the side of the emperor, in 1522. In 1526 he switched sides, joining the League of Cognac, together with Francis I of France, Pope Clement VII and the Republic of Florence, and was besieged in the Castello Sforzesco.

On May 4, 1534 he married the 12-year-old niece of Charles V, Christina of Denmark, the daughter of Christian II of Denmark and Norway and Isabella of Burgundy. The union remained childless. His death in 1535 sparked the Italian War of 1535. His half-brother Giovanni Paolo reclaimed briefly the Duchy of Milan after his death, but died in the same year under mysterious circumstances.

Gustav Trolle

Gustav Eriksson Trolle (1488–1535) was Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden, in two sessions, during the turbulent Reformation events.

He was the son of Eric Arvidsson Trolle, a former regent of Sweden during the era of the Kalmar Union. After returning from studies abroad, in Cologne and Rome, he was in 1513 elected vicar in Linköping. One year later he became Archbishop of Uppsala. In 1515 he got into an argument with the Swedish regent Sten Sture the Younger, who spread the rumour that he was allied with the King Christian II of Denmark. True or not, it resulted in Trolle being removed from his office and put under siege in the archbishops mansion Almarestäket at lake Mälaren. In the winter of 1517, Almarestäket was demolished by orders from the Swedish government.

The Danish threat grew stronger, and Trolle was among those who spoke in favour of the Danish King. In 1520, Christian II of Denmark entered Sweden, and Trolle was rewarded by being reappointed Archbishop of Uppsala. He crowned Christian King of Sweden on November 4, 1520. This, and subsequent events, supports the notion of the two having made a deal previous to Christian's conquest of Sweden.

Jan Gossaert

Jan Gossaert (c. 1478 – 1 October 1532) was a French-speaking painter from the Low Countries also known as Jan Mabuse (the name he adopted from his birthplace, Maubeuge) or Jennyn van Hennegouwe (Hainaut), as he called himself when he matriculated in the Guild of Saint Luke, at Antwerp, in 1503. He was one of the first painters of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting to visit Italy and Rome, which he did in 1508–09, and a leader of the style known as Romanism, which brought elements of Italian Renaissance painting to the north, sometimes with a rather awkward effect. He achieved fame across at least northern Europe, and painted religious subjects, including large altarpieces, but also portraits and mythological subjects, including some nudity.

From at least 1508 he was apparently continuous employed, or at least retained, by quasi-royal patrons, mostly members of the extended Habsburg family, heirs to the Valois Duchy of Burgundy. These were Philip of Burgundy, Adolf of Burgundy, Christian II of Denmark when in exile, and Mencía de Mendoza, Countess of Nassau, third wife of Henry III of Nassau-Breda.He was a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer and the rather younger Lucas van Leyden, whom he knew, but he has tended to be less highly regarded in modern times than they were. Unlike them, he was not a printmaker, though his surviving drawings are very fine, and are preferred by some to his paintings.

Johan Weze

Johan Weze (1490–13 June 1548), also known as Johan von Weeze, was a secretary of King Christian II of Denmark and a diplomat at the service of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In 1522, he was appointed Archbishop of Lund. He followed Christian II into exile but resigned as his secretary when Christian refused to follow the policies of his brother-in-law the Emperor Charles V. In 1527 Weze joined the service of the Emperor as a diplomat and participated in numerous missions in the Holy Roman Empire. He was appointed Prince Bishop of Constance in 1537, a post he held until his death in 1548.

List of Norwegian monarchs' mottos

The Royal mottos or valgspråk/valspråk of the Norwegian monarchs are an old tradition, permanent since the reign of Christian II of Denmark and Norway. The latest three kings have adopted the same motto as their personal motto, Alt for Norge, that has a particularly high standing as it became one of the main symbols of the Norwegian struggle during the German occupation of Norway in World War II.


Nyborg is a city in central Denmark, located in Nyborg Municipality on the island of Funen and with a population of 16,528 (as of 1 January 2014). Nyborg is one of the 14 large municipalities created on 1 January 2007. This change boosted the population of Nyborg Municipality from around 18,000 to 31,009.

Queen Isabella

Queen Isabella may refer to:

Isabella of Hainaut (1170–1190), queen consort of Philip II of France

Isabella I of Jerusalem (1172–1205), queen regnant

Isabella of Angoulême (1188–1246), queen consort of John of England

Isabella II of Jerusalem (1212–1228), queen regnant, also known as Yolande

Isabella of England (1214–1241), Holy Roman Empress to Frederick II and his queen consort of Germany and of Sicily

Isabella, Queen of Armenia (died 1252), queen regnant

Isabella of Aragon (1247–1271), queen consort of Philip III of France

Isabella of Ibelin (1241–1324), queen consort of Hugh III of Cyprus

Isabella of Ibelin (1252–1282), queen consort of Hugh II of Cyprus

Elizabeth of Aragon (1271–1336), queen consort of Denis of Portugal

Isabella of France (1295–1358), queen consort of Edward II of England

Isabella of Majorca (1337–1406), titular queen consort

Isabeau of Bavaria (1369–1435), queen consort of Charles VI of France

Isabella of Valois (1389–1409), queen consort of Richard II of England

Isabella of Portugal, Queen of Castile (1428–1496), queen consort of John II of Castile

Isabella I of Castile (1451–1504), Queen of Spain and wife of Ferdinand II of Aragon

Isabella, Princess of Asturias (1470–1498), queen consort of Manuel I of Portugal

Isabella of Austria (1501–1526), queen consort of Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Isabella of Portugal (1503–1539), Holy Roman Empress to Charles V and his queen consort of Aragon and Castile

Isabella Jagiellon (1519–1559), queen consort of János Szapolyai of Hungary

Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (1566–1633), co-sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands

Isabella II of Spain (1830–1904), queen regnant

Renata of Lorraine

Renata of Lorraine (20 April 1544 – 22 May 1602), was by birth a member of the House of Lorraine and by marriage Duchess of Bavaria.

Born in Nancy, France, she was the second child and eldest daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark. Her paternal grandparents were Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier and her maternal grandparents were Christian II of Denmark and Isabella of Austria.

Sigbrit Willoms

Sigbrit Villoms (also spelled Villums), (possible date of death 1532), was a Danish-Norwegian politician from Amsterdam, mother to the mistress of King Christian II of Denmark, Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, and advisor and de facto minister of finance for the king between 1519 and 1523.

Stygge Krumpen

Stygge Krumpen (c. 1485 – 21 January 1551) was a Danish clergyman and bureaucrat, who was the secretary of king Christian II of Denmark and the last catholic bishop of the Diocese of Børglum from 1533 to 1536, having been coadjutor bishop since 1519. He was the brother of Danish marshal Otte Krumpen. With them, the Krumpen family died out.

The Fall of the King

The Fall of the King (Danish: Kongens Fald) is a novel by Danish author Johannes V. Jensen, published in three parts from 1900 to 1901. It tells the story of Mikkel Thøgersen and the social entanglements which bring him into the service of king Christian II of Denmark.

Torben Oxe

Torben Oxe (died 29 November 1517) was a Danish nobleman and a member of an aristocratic family.Oxe was the son of Johan Oxe of Tordsø and Inger Torbensdatter Bille. Both his father and grandfather had served as Danish Councillors (dansk rigsråd). His nephew Peder Oxe, would become the future Danish finance minister and Steward of the Realm. Torben Oxe served as a liege man of King Christian II of Denmark, under whom from 1514, he was governor of Copenhagen Castle. He also inherited a fief in Kronborg from his father who died in 1490.

During the summer of 1517, Torben Oxe was accused of murdering Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, King Christian II's mistress, with some poisoned cherries. Dyveke's mother Sigbrit Willoms, the widow of a Dutch merchant, acted as an advisor to the king, to the displeasure of much of the Danish nobility.Torben Oxe was first tried and acquitted by the State Council. King Christian II did not accept the judgment and had Oxe indicted by a court consisting of a jury from Solbjerg outside Copenhagen. Oxe was charged in what amounted to a justice-of-the-peace court with vague offences against his liege lord, Christian II. The verdict as directed by the king was guilty and the death sentence imposed. He was condemned to death, traditionally in the words: "Vi dømmer ham ikke, men hans gerninger dømmer ham" (We do not condemn him - his deeds condemn him) beheaded and buried in the graveyard of St. Gertrude's Hospital (St Gertruds Kloster) in Copenhagen.

Members of the Royal Council of the State (Rigsraadet) disapproved of the execution of Oxe, who was a popular figure. The execution further alienated Christian II from the nobles and the people of Copenhagen. Thereafter the king lost no opportunity to suppress the nobility and raise commoners to power.

A famous painting by Eilif Peterssen titled Christian II Signing the Death Warrant of Torben Oxe is present in the National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design in Oslo, Norway.

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