Christian Egenolff

Christian Egenolff or Egenolph (26 July 1502 – 9 February 1555),[1] also known as Christian Egenolff, the Elder, was the first important printer and publisher operating from Frankfurt-am-Main, and best known for his Kräuterbuch [2] and re-issue of books by Adam Ries, Erasmus von Rotterdam and Ulrich von Hutten.[3]

Egenolff was born in Hadamar and studied humanities at the University of Mainz from 1516, but later took up the trade of bookprinting in Strasbourg, working for Wolfgang Küpfel and marrying Margarethe Karpf. He left Strasbourg in 1530 and started business as a printer/publisher and typecasting in Frankfurt-am-Main. Here he published more than 400 books over the next 25 years. His publications were often illustrated by the Nuremberg artist Hans Sebald Beham and Virgil Solis. Egenolff worked with Jacques Sabon in developing new fonts.

In October 1533 Egenolff was sued by Johann Schott, a noted Strasbourg publisher, for infringement of copyright on Herbarium Vivae Icones, illustrated by Hans Weiditz and compiled and annotated by Otto Brunfels. Egenolff in his defense, argued that nature could not be copyrighted and that plants stood as communal models for any artist.[4]

In 1535 he printed the German Bible and his own compilation of Chronica. In the following years Egenolff published works by prominent authors such as Hans Sachs, Johann Eichmann aka Johann Dryander (1500–1560), Sebastian Münster, Philipp Melanchthon and Sebastian Franck.

He died in Frankfurt-am-Main and was buried in the Peterskirchhof in Frankfurt. His daughter, Magdalena Egenolff, married Adam Lonicer, one of Egenolff's employees. Lonicer became a director of the firm after Egenolff's death, publishing no fewer than four editions of the Kräuterbuch between 1557 and 1577. Egenolff's widow, Margarethe, carried on the business until 1572 and afterwards his children until 1602.

Christian Egenolff00
Christian Egenolff
Christian Egenolff01
Plate from Herbarum, arborum, fruticum, frumentorum ac leguminem
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Printer's device used by Christian Egenolff
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Title page of Herbarum, arborum, fruticum, frumentorum ac leguminem


  • Christian Egenolff : 1502 - 1555 ; ein Frankfurter Meister des frühen Buchdrucks aus Hadamar, Hrsg. Kulturvereinigung Hadamar,

Limburg : Glaukos (2002) ISBN 3-930428-15-6


  1. ^ The Death of History
  2. ^ Digitale Bibliothek - Münchener Digitalisierungszentrum
  3. ^ Hessen
  4. ^ The Moment of Self-portraiture in German Renaissance Art

Year 1502 (MDII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1555 (MDLV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1555 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1555.

Adam Lonicer

Adam Lonicer, Adam Lonitzer or Adamus Lonicerus (10 October 1528 – 29 May 1586) was a German botanist, noted for his 1557 revised version of Eucharius Rösslin’s herbal.

Lonicer was born in Marburg, the son of a theologian and philologist. He studied at Marburg and the University of Mainz, and obtained his Magister degree at sixteen years of age. He became professor of Mathematics at the University of Marburg in 1553 and Doctor of Medicine in 1554, becoming the town physician in Frankfurt am Main. His true interest though was herbs and the study of botany. His first important work on herbs, the Kräuterbuch, was published in 1557, a large part dealing with distillation. Lonicer acknowledged his sources for the book, crediting Jean Ruelle, Valerius Cordus, Pietro Andrea Mattioli, Hieronymus Braunschweig and Conrad Gessner.

Lonicer married Magdalena Egenolff, the daughter of his Frankfurt publisher, Christian Egenolff. Christian Egenolff died in 1555, and Lonicer became a director of the firm, publishing no fewer than four editions of the Kräuterbuch between 1557 and 1577. He died at Frankfurt am Main.

The genus Lonicera in the family Caprifoliaceae is named in his honour.

EB Garamond

The EB Garamond is (as of 2018) the only free and open source implementation of Claude Garamont’s Antiqua typeface Garamond and the matching Italic, Greek and Cyrillic characters designed by Robert Granjon. Its name is an acronym for Egenolff-Berner-Garamond which refers to the fact that the letter forms are taken from the Egenolff-Berner specimen printed in 1592.


Hadamar is a small town in Limburg-Weilburg district in Hessen, Germany.

Hadamar is known for its Clinic for Forensic Psychiatry/Centre for Social Psychiatry, lying at the edge of town, in whose outlying buildings is also found the Hadamar Memorial. This memorializes the murder of people with handicaps and mental illnesses during National Socialist times at the NS-Tötungsanstalt Hadamar.

Hans Weiditz

Hans Weiditz the Younger, Hans Weiditz der Jüngere, Hans Weiditz II (1495 Freiburg im Breisgau - c1537 Bern), was a German Renaissance artist, also known as The Petrarch Master for his woodcuts illustrating Petrarch's De remediis utriusque fortunae, or Remedies for Both Good and Bad Fortune, or Phisicke Against Fortune. He is best known today for his very lively scenes and caricatures of working life and people, many created to illustrate the abstract philosophical maxims of Cicero and Petrarch.Like most artists in woodcut he only designed the woodcuts, leaving the block-cutting to a specialist "Formschneider" (sometimes Jost de Negker in his Augsburg period) who pasted the design to the wood and chiselled the white areas away. The quality of the final woodcuts, which varies considerably, depended on the skill of the cutter as well as the artist. Weiditz was unfortunate in that his publishers went bankrupt part way through the production of his two longest series of woodcuts, and the cutting was later completed by cutters of lower skill.

Hieronymus Andreae

Hieronymus Andreae, or Andreä, or Hieronymus Formschneider, (died 7 May 1556) was a German woodblock cutter ("formschneider"), printer, publisher and typographer closely associated with Albrecht Dürer. Andreae's best known achievements include the enormous, 192-block Triumphal Arch woodcut, designed by Dürer for Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his design of the characteristic German "blackletter" Fraktur typeface ("Gothic" to most English-speakers), on which German typefaces were based for several centuries. He was also significant as a printer of music.

In the opinion of Adam von Bartsch, although Andreae never designed woodcuts (as opposed to designing typefaces), the quality of his work was such that he, along with Hans Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, should be considered an artist.

Jacques Sabon

Jacques Sabon (born in Lyon, 1535; died in Frankfurt-am-Main, ca.1580-1590) was a French typefounder. He worked with Christian Egenolff in Frankfurt in 1555 and Christophe Plantin of Antwerp in 1565. He is associated with the forms of roman type which were being developed by Claude Garamond and others. On Garamond's death, Plantin and Sabon acquired much of his collection of type, and it is sometimes unclear which were Sabon's own design, and which Garamond's.

After Sabon's death, his widow married Frankfurt printer Konrad Berner. The Sabon typeface, designed in the 1960s by Jan Tschichold, is based on a specimen printed by Berner.

July 26

July 26 is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 158 days remaining until the end of the year.

Justus Velsius

Justus Velsius, Haganus, or Joost Welsens in Dutch (c. 1510, The Hague, Low Countries – after 1581 at an unknown location), was a Dutch humanist, physician, and mathematician.

Velsius started his career as a highly respected professor of liberal arts in Leuven, Strasbourg, and Cologne. Later on he portrayed himself as a prophet, and promoted his own particular view of Christianity, outlined in a pamphlet "Christiani Hominis Norma" which he wrote in London. He came into conflict with civil and ecclesiastical authorities all over Europe, and spent his final years as a preacher and faith healer in his native Holland. While in Cologne Velsius was married to Beatrix van Steenhoven, and later on, in Groningen, to Grete Cassens.

List of florilegia and botanical codices

A timeline of illustrated botanical works to 1900.

Martial arts manual

Martial arts manuals are instructions, with or without illustrations, specifically designed to be learnt from a book. Many books detailing specific techniques of martial arts are often erroneously called manuals but were written as treatises.

Prose descriptions of martial arts techniques appear late within the history of literature, due to the inherent difficulties of describing a technique rather than just demonstrating it.

The earliest extant manuscript on armed combat (as opposed to unarmed wrestling) is Royal Armouries Ms. I.33 ("I.33"), written in Franconia around 1300.

Not within the scope of this article are books on military strategy such as Sun Tzu's The Art of War (before 100 BC) or Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus' De Re Militari (4th century), or military technology, such as De rebus bellicis (4th to 5th century).


Paracelsus (; 1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.He was a pioneer in several aspects of the "medical revolution" of the Renaissance, emphasizing the value of observation in combination with received wisdom. He is credited as the "father of toxicology".He also had a substantial impact as a prophet or diviner, his "Prognostications" being studied by Rosicrucians in the 1700s. Paracelsianism is the early modern medical movement inspired by the study of his works.


Theuerdank (Teuerdank, Tewerdanck, Teuerdannckh) is a poetic work composed by the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, (1486-1519) in German which tells the fictionalised and romanticised story of his journey to marry Mary of Burgundy in 1477. The published poem was accompanied by 118 woodcuts designed by the artists Leonhard Beck, Hans Burgkmair, Hans Schäufelein and others.

Its newly designed blackletter typeface was influential.

The full title in the first (1517) edition is Die geverlicheiten vnd einsteils der geschichten des loblichen streytparen vnd hochberümbten helds vnd ritters herr Tewrdannckhs ("The adventures and part of the stories of the praiseworthy, valiant and most famous hero and knight, lord Teuerdank").

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