Christian Cyclopedia

Christian Cyclopedia (originally Lutheran Cyclopedia) is a one-volume compendium of theological data, ranging from ancient figures to contemporary events. It is published by Concordia Publishing House as an update to the Concordia Cyclopedia of 1927, authored by Ludwig Fuerbringer. It should not be confused with The Lutheran Cyclopedia (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1898), edited by Henry Eyster Jacobs and Charles A. W. Haas, of the General Council and its Lutheran Theological Seminary at Philadelphia.

Ludwig Fuerbringer (back row, third from the left) with the faculty of the St. Louis Seminary in 1927–1929

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Baptismal font

A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for baptism.

C. F. W. Walther

Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther (October 25, 1811 – May 7, 1887) was the first President of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and its most influential theologian. He is commemorated by that church on its Calendar of Saints on May 7. He has been described as a man who sacrificed his homeland, his health, and nearly his life for the freedom to speak freely, to believe freely, and to live freely.

Confession (Lutheran Church)

In the Lutheran Church, Confession (also called Holy Absolution) is the method given by Christ to the Church by which individual men and women may receive the forgiveness of sins; according to the Large Catechism, the "third sacrament" of Holy Absolution is properly viewed as an extension of Holy Baptism.

Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio

The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio and Other States, commonly known as the Joint Synod of Ohio or the Ohio Synod, was a German-language Lutheran denomination whose congregations were originally located primarily in the U.S. state of Ohio, later expanding to most parts of the United States. The synod was formed on September 14, 1818, and adopted the name Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio and Other States by about 1850. It used that name or slight variants until it merged with the Iowa Synod and the Buffalo Synod in 1930 to form the first American Lutheran Church (ALC), 1930-1960.In 1929, just before its merger into the ALC, the Ohio Joint Synod had 768 pastors, 876 congregations, and 166,521 members.

Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa

The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa and Other States, commonly known as the Iowa Synod, was founded on August 24, 1854 at St. Sebald in Clayton County, Iowa. It adopted a constitution and its name (German: Die deutsche evangelishe lutheranish Synode von Iowa), in 1864. The synod was the result of disagreements, in Saginaw, Michigan, that had arisen with some of the pastors sent to America by Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe against the Missouri Synod. Some of these pastors joined the Missouri Synod, while pastors Georg M. Grossmann and Johannes Deindoerfer and a small group moved to Iowa.Most of the congregations of the First Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Texas joined the Iowa Synod as its Texas District in 1896. In 1930 the Iowa Synod merged with the Ohio Synod and the Buffalo Synod to form the American Lutheran Church (ALC). The latter body, after further mergers, became part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America in 1988.

In 1929, just before its merger into the ALC, the Iowa Synod had 637 pastors, 932 congregations, and 150,683 members.

Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America

The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America (German: Die Evangelisch-lutherischen Synodal-Conferenz von Nord-Amerika), often known as the Synodical Conference, was an association of Lutheran synods that professed a complete adherence to the Lutheran Confessions and doctrinal unity with each other. Founded in 1872, its membership fluctuated as various synods joined and left it. It was dissolved in 1967 after the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) and the Evangelical Lutheran Synod (ELS) left it due to doctrinal disagreements with one of the other two remaining members, the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS).

Formula missae

Formula missae et communionis pro ecclesia Vuittembergensi (1523) was a 16th-century Latin liturgy composed by Martin Luther for Lutheran churches in Wittenberg.

Formula missae was based on the medieval mass, only replacing the Canon of the Mass. It was not meant to become any rule for Lutheranism in general. Later it was followed by the Deutsche Messe, the German mass, but Luther's Latin mass was still used for some time after publication of Deutsche Messe.


Gnesio-Lutherans (from Greek γνήσιος [gnesios]: genuine, authentic) is a modern name for a theological party in the Lutheran churches, in opposition to the Philippists after the death of Martin Luther and before the Formula of Concord. In their own day they were called Flacians by their opponents and simply Lutherans by themselves. Later Flacian became to mean an adherent of Matthias Flacius' view of original sin, rejected by the Formula of Concord. In a broader meaning, the term Gnesio-Lutheran is associated mostly with the defence of the doctrine of Real Presence.

Hans Paludan Smith Schreuder

Hans Paludan Smith Schreuder (18 June 1817 - 27 June 1882) was a 19th-century Norwegian missionary who developed a close relationship with both the Zulu and British authorities.

John Campanius

John Campanius (Swedish: Johannes Jonæ Holmiensis Campanius; August 15, 1601 – September 17, 1683), also known as John Campanius Holm, was a Swedish Lutheran priest assigned to the New Sweden colony.

Lapsi (Christianity)

Lapsi were apostates in the early Christian Church, who renounced their faith under persecution by Roman authorities. The term as refers to those who have lapsed or fallen away from their faith to return later in life.

List of Danish Americans

This is a list of notable Danish Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American-born descendants.

To be included in this list, the person must have a Wikipedia article showing they are Danish American or must have references showing they are Danish American and are notable.

List of Lutheran clergy

This is a listing of the major offices within the Lutheran churches, as well as significant individual Lutheran clergy.

Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod

The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), often referred to simply as the Missouri Synod, is a traditional, confessional Lutheran denomination in the United States. With 2.0 million members, it is the second-largest Lutheran body in the U.S., the largest being Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. The LCMS was organized in 1847 at a meeting in Chicago, Illinois, as the German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States (German: Die Deutsche Evangelisch-Lutherische Synode von Missouri, Ohio und andern Staaten), a name which reflected the geographic locations of the founding congregations.

The LCMS has congregations in all 50 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, but over half of its members are located in the Midwest. It is a member of the International Lutheran Council and is in altar and pulpit fellowship with most of that group's members. The LCMS is headquartered in Kirkwood, Missouri, and is divided into 35 districts—33 of which are geographic and two (the English and the SELC) non-geographic. The current president is Matthew C. Harrison, who took office on September 1, 2010.

Lutheran Synod of Buffalo

The Lutheran Synod of Buffalo, founded in 1845 as the Synod of Lutheran Emigrants from Prussia (German: Synode der aus Preussen ausgewanderten lutherischen Kirche), was commonly known from early in its history as the Buffalo Synod. The synod resulted from the efforts of pastor J. A. A. Grabau and members of his Erfurt and other congregations to escape the forced union of Lutheran and Reformed churches in Prussia by immigrating, in 1839, to New York City and Buffalo, New York, and to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with Grabau and the largest group settling in Buffalo. Internal disputes regarding theology and practice led to a major schism in the 1880s. In 1930 it merged with the Ohio Synod and the Iowa Synod to form the first instance of the American Lutheran Church (ALC). The latter body, after further mergers, became part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America in 1988.

In 1929, just before its merger into the ALC, the Buffalo Synod had 45 pastors, 54 congregations, and 7,981 members.

Lutheran orthodoxy

Lutheran orthodoxy was an era in the history of Lutheranism, which began in 1580 from the writing of the Book of Concord and ended at the Age of Enlightenment. Lutheran orthodoxy was paralleled by similar eras in Calvinism and tridentine Roman Catholicism after the Counter-Reformation.

Paul Olaf Bodding

Paul Olaf Bodding ( 2 November 1865- 25 September 1938) was a Norwegian missionary, linguist and folklorist.

Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches

The Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (SELC) was an American Lutheran denomination that existed from 1902 to 1971. In 1971 it merged with the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), and it now operates as the non-geographic SELC District of that body.

Wilhelm Sihler

Wilhelm Sihler (November 12, 1801 – October 27, 1885) was a German American Lutheran minister. A proponent for Christian education, Wilhelm Sihler founded Concordia Theological Seminary, in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

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