The Christadelphians (/ˌkrɪstəˈdɛlfiənz/) are a millenarian Christian group who hold a view of Biblical Unitarianism. There are approximately 50,000 Christadelphians in around 120 countries. The movement developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century around the teachings of John Thomas, who coined the name Christadelphian from the Greek for "Brethren in Christ".
Claiming to base their beliefs solely on the Bible, Christadelphians differ from mainstream Christianity in a number of doctrinal areas. For example, they reject the Trinity and the immortality of the soul, believing these to be corruptions of original Christian teaching. They were initially found predominantly in the developed English-speaking world, but expanded in developing countries after the Second World War. Congregations are traditionally referred to as 'ecclesias' and would not use the word 'church' due to its association with mainstream Christianity, although today it is more acceptable.
The Christadelphian religious group traces its origins to John Thomas (1805–1871), who emigrated to North America from England in 1832. Following a near shipwreck he vowed to find out the truth about life and God through personal Biblical study. Initially he sought to avoid the kind of sectarianism he had seen in England. In this he found sympathy with the rapidly emerging Restoration Movement in the US at the time. This movement sought a reform based upon the Bible alone as a sufficient guide and rejected all creeds. However, this liberality eventually led to dissent as John Thomas developed his personal beliefs and began to question mainstream orthodox Christian beliefs. While the Restoration Movement accepted Thomas's right to have his own beliefs, when he started preaching that they were essential to salvation, it led to a fierce series of debates with a notable leader of the movement, Alexander Campbell. John Thomas believed that scripture, as God's word, did not support a multiplicity of differing beliefs, and challenged the leaders to continue with the process of restoring 1st-century Christian beliefs and correct interpretation through a process of debate. The history of this process appears in the book Dr. Thomas, His Life and Work (1873) by a Christadelphian, Robert Roberts.
During this period of formulating his ideas John Thomas was baptised twice, the second time after renouncing the beliefs he previously held. He based his new position on a new appreciation for the reign of Christ on David's throne. The abjuration of his former beliefs eventually led to the Restoration Movement disfellowshipping him when he toured England and they became aware of his abjuration in the United States of America.
The Christadelphian community in Britain effectively dates from Thomas's first lecturing tour (May 1848 – October 1850). His message was particularly welcomed in Scotland, and Campbellite, Unitarian and Adventist friends separated to form groups of "Baptised Believers". Two thirds of ecclesias, and members, in Britain before 1864 were in Scotland. In 1849, during his tour of Britain, he completed (a decade and a half before the name Christadelphian was conceived) Elpis Israel in which he laid out his understanding of the main doctrines of the Bible. Since his medium for bringing change was print and debate, it was natural for the origins of the Christadelphian body to be associated with books and journals, such as Thomas's Herald of the Kingdom.
In his desire to seek to establish Biblical truth and test orthodox Christian beliefs through independent scriptural study he was not alone. Among other churches, he had links with the Adventist movement and with Benjamin Wilson (who later set up the Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith in the 1860s). In terms of his rejection of the trinity, Thomas's views had certain similarities with Unitarianism which had developed in a formal way in Europe in the 16th century (although he formally described both Unitarianism and Socinianism as "works of the devil" for their failure to develop his doctrine of God-manifestation).
Although the Christadelphian movement originated through the activities of John Thomas, he never saw himself as making his own disciples. He believed rather that he had rediscovered 1st century beliefs from the Bible alone, and sought to prove that through a process of challenge and debate and writing journals. Through that process a number of people became convinced and set up various fellowships that had sympathy with that position. Groups associated with John Thomas met under various names, including Believers, Baptised Believers, the Royal Association of Believers, Baptised Believers in the Kingdom of God, Nazarines (or Nazarenes), and The Antipas until the time of the American Civil War (1861–1865). At that time, church affiliation was required in the United States and in the Confederacy in order to register for conscientious objector status, and in 1864 Thomas chose for registration purposes the name Christadelphian.
Through the teaching of John Thomas and the need in the American Civil War for a name, the Christadelphians emerged as a denomination, but they were formed into a lasting structure through a passionate follower of Thomas's interpretation of the Bible, Robert Roberts. In 1864, he began to publish The Ambassador of the Coming Age magazine. John Thomas, out of concern that someone else might start a publication and call it The Christadelphian, urged Robert Roberts to change the name of his magazine to The Christadelphian, which he did in 1869. His editorship of the magazine continued with some assistance until his death in 1898. In church matters, Roberts was prominent in the period following the death of John Thomas in 1871, and helped craft the structures of the Christadelphian body.
Initially, the denomination grew in the English-speaking world, particularly in the English Midlands and in parts of North America. In the early days after the death of John Thomas, the group could have moved in a number of directions. Doctrinal issues arose, debates took place, and statements of faith were created and amended as other issues arose. These attempts were felt necessary by many to both settle and define a doctrinal stance for the newly emerging denomination and to keep out error. As a result of these debates, several groups separated from the main body of Christadelphians, most notably the Suffolk Street fellowship and the Unamended fellowship.
The Christadelphian position on conscientious objection came to the fore with the introduction of conscription during the First World War. Varying degrees of exemption from military service were granted to Christadelphians in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. In the Second World War, this frequently required the person seeking exemption to undertake civilian work under the direction of the authorities.
During the Second World War, the Christadelphians in Britain assisted in the Kindertransport, helping to relocate several hundred Jewish children away from Nazi persecution by founding a hostel, Elpis Lodge, for that purpose. In Germany, the small Christadelphian community founded by Albert Maier went underground from 1940–1945, and a leading brother, Albert Merz, was imprisoned as a conscientious objector and later executed.
After the Second World War, moves were taken to try to reunite various of the earlier divisions. By the end of the 1950s, most Christadelphians had united into one community, but there are still a number of small groups of Christadelphians who remain separate.
The post-war and post-reunions periods saw an increase in co-operation and interaction between ecclesias, resulting in the establishment of a number of week-long Bible schools and the formation of national and international organisations such as the Christadelphian Bible Mission (for preaching and pastoral support overseas), the Christadelphian Support Network (for counselling), and the Christadelphian Meal-A-Day Fund (for charity and humanitarian work).
The period following the reunions was accompanied by expansion in the developing world, which now accounts for around 40% of Christadelphians.
In the absence of centralised organization, some differences exist amongst Christadelphians on matters of belief and practice. This is because each congregation (commonly styled 'ecclesias') is organized autonomously, typically following common practices which have altered little since the 19th century. Most ecclesias have a constitution, which includes a 'Statement of Faith', a list of 'Doctrines to be Rejected' and a formalized list of 'The Commandments of Christ'. With no central authority, individual congregations are responsible for maintaining orthodoxy in belief and practice, and the statement of faith is seen by many as useful to this end. The statement of faith acts as the official standard of most ecclesias to determine fellowship within and between ecclesias, and as the basis for co-operation between ecclesias. Congregational discipline and conflict resolution are applied using various forms of consultation, mediation, and discussion, with disfellowship (similar to excommunication) being the final response to those with unorthodox practices or beliefs.
The relative uniformity of organization and practice is undoubtedly due to the influence of a booklet, written early in Christadelphian history by Robert Roberts, called A Guide to the Formation and Conduct of Christadelphian Ecclesias. It recommends a basically democratic arrangement by which congregational members elect 'brothers' to arranging and serving duties, and includes guidelines for the organization of committees, as well as conflict resolution between congregational members and between congregations. Christadelphians do not have paid ministers. Male members are assessed by the congregation for their eligibility to teach and perform other duties, which are usually assigned on a rotation basis, as opposed to having a permanently appointed preacher. Congregational governance typically follows a democratic model, with an elected arranging committee for each individual ecclesia. This unpaid committee is responsible for the day-to-day running of the ecclesia and is answerable to the rest of the ecclesia's members.
Inter-ecclesial organizations co-ordinate the running of, among other things, Christadelphian schools and elderly care homes, the Christadelphian Isolation League (which cares for those prevented by distance or infirmity from attending an ecclesia regularly) and the publication of Christadelphian magazines.
No official membership figures are published, but the Columbia Encyclopedia gives an estimated figure of 50,000 Christadelphians. They are spread across approximately 120 countries; there are established churches (often referred to as ecclesias) in many of those countries, along with isolated members. Estimates for the main centers of Christadelphian population are as follows: United Kingdom (18,000), Australia (10,653), Mozambique (9,400), Malawi (7,000), United States (6,500), Canada (3,375), Kenya (2,700), New Zealand (1,785), India (1,750), Tanzania (1,000). and Pakistan (900). Combining the estimates from the Christadelphian Bible Mission with the figures above, the numbers for each continent are as follows: Africa (22,100), Americas (10,500), Asia (4,150), Australasia (12,600), Europe (18,950). This puts the total figure at around 67,000.
The Christadelphian body consists of a number of fellowships – groups of ecclesias which associate with one another, often to the exclusion of ecclesias outside their group. They are to some degree localised. The Unamended Fellowship, for example, exists only in North America. Christadelphian fellowships have often been named after ecclesias or magazines who took a lead in developing a particular stance.
The majority of Christadelphians today (around 60,000) belong to what is commonly known as the Central fellowship.  The term "Central" came into use around 1933 to distinguish those majority ecclesias worldwide who were in fellowship with the Birmingham (Central) Ecclesia, from those minority ecclesias of the "Suffolk Street fellowship" who had been collectively withdrawn from in 1885 over disagreements surrounding the inspiration of the Bible. This had begun when Robert Ashcroft, a leading member, wrote an article which challenged Christadelphian belief, stating that some parts of the Holy Scriptures were with error and therefore uninspired. Although he later left the community, this led to a division in the main body where his doctrinal influence remained. Robert Ashcroft's sympathisers in Birmingham, England formed a separate Ecclesia in local Suffolk Street and ecclesias which supported their position became known as the "Suffolk Street fellowship". Those in local Birmingham, who maintained that the Holy Scriptures were divinely inspired in all their parts and were without error except as may be due to errors of transcription or translation, formed a separate Ecclesia in nearby Temperance Hall and ecclesias throughout the world which supported their position became known as the "Temperance Hall Fellowship". Meanwhile in Australia, division had ensued surrounding the subject of the "Clean Flesh" of Jesus Christ. The minority who believed Christ's nature was immaculate and therefore his flesh did not have the potential to sin formed the "Shield Fellowship". These soon became closely associated with the "Suffolk Street Fellowship" as their sympathisers, and also those known as the Dowieite community who had been previously disfellowshipped from the main body over disagreement surrounding the Biblical devil and evil spirits. The majority who believed Christ was born with the same flesh as his Brethren and thus had the ability to sin in his flesh but chose not to continued as members of the "Temperance Hall Fellowship". By 1939 the "Temperance Hall" members in Birmingham had relocated and were increasingly known as the "Birmingham Central Christadelphians", but before long the word "Birmingham" was dropped and the term "Central Fellowship" began to be used with some regularity among the next generations of Christadelphians in the UK.  After the First and Second World Wars it was felt that a gradual relaxation of traditional fellowship practice needed to take place and the discussions of 1957-1958 resulted in a worldwide reunion between the majority Christadelphians of the "Temperance Hall Fellowship" and the minority "Suffolk Street Fellowship", closely followed in Australia by the minority "Shield Fellowship" and the Dowieite community. Birmingham Central Hall Christadelphians, where the formal meetings and unification papers were signed officially decreed the reunion as official, and the "Central Fellowship" was born. Reunion was also made official to the rest of the worldwide Christadelphians on the basis of the understanding of the atonement of Christ, expressed in a document called the Cooper-Carter Addendum (this was soon added to the BASF).
The Unamended fellowship, consisting of around 1,850 members, is found in the East Coast and Midwest USA and Ontario, Canada. This group separated in 1898 as a result of differing views on who would be raised to judgment at the return of Christ. The majority of Christadelphians believe that the judgment will include anyone who had sufficient knowledge of the gospel message, and is not limited to baptized believers. The majority in Britain, Australia and North America amended their statement of faith accordingly. Those who opposed the amendment became known as the "Unamended fellowship" and allowed the teaching that God either could not or would not raise those who had no covenant relationship with him. Opinions vary as to what the established position was on this subject prior to the controversy. Prominent in the formation of the Unamended fellowship was Thomas Williams, editor of the Christadelphian Advocate magazine. The majority of the Unamended Fellowship outside North America joined the Suffolk Street fellowship before its eventual incorporation into Central fellowship. There is also some co-operation between the Central (Amended) and Unamended Fellowships in North America – most recently in the Great Lakes region, where numerous Amended and Unamended ecclesias have opened fellowship to one another despite the failure of wider attempts at re-union under the North American Statement of Understanding (NASU). The "Central Fellowship" in North America is still often referred to today as the Amended fellowship.
The Berean Fellowship was formed in 1923 as a result of varying views on military service in Britain, and on the atonement in North America. The majority of the North American Bereans re-joined the main body of Christadelphians in 1952. A number continue as a separate community, numbering around 200 in Texas, 100 in Kenya and 30 in Wales. Most of the divisions still in existence within the Christadelphian community today stem from further divisions of the Berean fellowship.
The Dawn fellowship. are the result of an issue which arose in 1942 among the Berean fellowship regarding divorce and remarriage. The stricter party formed the Dawn Fellowship who, following re-union on the basis of unity of belief with the Lightstand fellowship in Australia in 2007 increased in number, . There are now thought to be around 800 members in the UK, Australia, Canada, India, Jamaica, Poland, the Philippines, Russia and Kenya.
The Old Paths fellowship was formed in 1957 by those in the "Temperance Hall Fellowship" who held that the reasons for separation from the "Suffolk Street fellowship" and its sympathising communities remained. They also strongly believed that the Biblical teaching of fellowship required full unity of belief on all fundamental principles of Bible Truth and thus the reunion should have been with the full agreement and understanding of all members rather than the result of the majority vote that prevailed. Ecclesias forming the Old Paths Fellowship arose in the UK, Australia, New Zealand and Canada numbering around 500 members in total. Due to a proportionally large number of members in the UK joining the Central Fellowship in and around 2014, their numbers have reduced to around 250 members in total (Around 100 members in the UK, and around 150 in Australasia).
Other Fellowships which openly identify themselves as Christadelphians will have various numbers ranging from as few as 10 to over 200 members. Examples are the Watchman Fellowship, the Companion Fellowship and the Pioneer Fellowship.
Fellowship groups which are considered by the larger communities to be part of the "wider Christadelphian Brotherhood" are also very much in existence, some for as few as 30 years, others for the best part of a century. Although being Christadelphian in origin and sharing many Christadelphian teachings, these Fellowship groups have renounced the popularly held name due to its public association with what they believe to be false teachings and/or practice within the Christadelphian community. These groups consider constituents of the One Body to be those within their own separate communities and therefore fellowship on that basis. Some examples are: The "Nazarene Fellowship" ; The "Ecclesia of Christ" Fellowship; The "Remnant of Christ's Ecclesia" Fellowship ; The "Apostolic Fellowship of Christ" Fellowship ; "The Apostolic Ecclesias" Fellowship . While quality of fellowship on biblical grounds are said to be emphasised rather than quantity, numbers of members may range from as few as two or three individuals in a fellowship, to a fellowship consisting of 50 or more spread over a number of Ecclesias. For example, the Apostolic Ecclesias  can be located in the UK (Dartford & Maidenhead, England; Cupar, Scotland); Southern Kenya (Mwangwei); and Western Kenya (Bungoma & Nalondo). Whereas the "Household of Christ" Fellowship, for example, can only be found in Nottingham, UK. While some of these groups may be considered exclusive in their approach, most openly continue their public witness in the locations they are found , even tailoring their advertising towards the popular Christadelphians in an endeavour to restore them to what they believe to be a correct understanding of Bible teaching and Biblical fellowship .
The Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith (CGAF) also has common origins with Christadelphians and shares Christadelphian beliefs. Numbering around 400 (primarily Ohio and Florida, USA), they are welcomed into fellowship by some "Central" Christadelphians and are currently involved in unity talks.
According to Bryan Wilson, functionally the definition of a "fellowship" within Christadelphian history has been mutual or unilateral exclusion of groupings of ecclesias from the breaking of bread. This functional definition still holds true in North America, where the Unamended fellowship and the Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith are not received by most North American Amended ecclesias. But outside North America this functional definition no longer holds. Many articles and books on the doctrine and practice of fellowship now reject the notion itself of separate "fellowships" among those who recognise the same baptism, viewing such separations as schismatic. Many ecclesias in the Central fellowship would not refuse a baptised Christadelphian from a minority fellowship from breaking bread; the exclusion is more usually the other way.
They tend to operate organisationally fairly similarly, although there are different emphases. Despite their differences, the Central, Old Paths, Dawn and Berean fellowships generally subscribe to the Birmingham Amended Statement of Faith (BASF), though the latter two have additional clauses or supporting documents to explain their position. Most Unamended ecclesias use the Birmingham Unamended Statement of Faith (BUSF) with one clause being different. Within the Central fellowship individual ecclesias also may have their own statement of faith, whilst still accepting the statement of faith of the larger community. Some ecclesias have statements around their positions, especially on divorce and re-marriage, making clear that offence would be caused by anyone in that position seeking to join them at the 'Breaking of Bread' service. Others tolerate a degree of divergence from commonly held Christadelphian views.
Minority Fellowship groups also recognised by the larger Fellowships to be part of the wider Christadelphian Brotherhood will likewise conform to the Birmingham Amended Statement of Faith with particular amendments in their Doctrines to be Rejected, which results in their separation from one another. Some have revised previous statements of faith to include clarity on controversies that have arisen over the last 170 years. While some communities of Christadelphian origin have viewed previous statements of faith as set in stone, others have felt it necessary to revise them in order to meet contemporary issues which challenge the Scriptures and may weaken what they believe to be the True Faith. Some communities have completely revised the statements of faith in language to be easily understood, supported by the references to the relevant quotations. An example can be found here: 
For each fellowship, anyone who publicly assents to the doctrines described in the statement and is in good standing in their "home ecclesia" is generally welcome to participate in the activities of any other ecclesia.
Due to the way the Christadelphian body is organised there is no central authority to establish and maintain a standardised set of beliefs and it depends upon what statement of faith is adhered to and how liberal the ecclesia is, but there are core doctrines most Christadelphians would accept. In the formal statements of faith a more complete list is found. For instance in the Central fellowship, the BASF, the standard statement of faith has 30 doctrines to be accepted and 35 to be rejected.
Christadelphians state that their beliefs are based wholly on the Bible, and they do not see other works as inspired by God. They regard the Bible as inspired by God and, therefore, believe that in its original form, it is error free and errors in later copies are due to errors of transcription or translation. Based on this, Christadelphians teach what they believe as true Bible teaching.
Christadelphians believe that God is the creator of all things and the father of true believers, that he is a separate being from his son, Jesus Christ, and that the Holy Spirit is the power of God used in creation and for salvation. They also believe that the phrase Holy Spirit sometimes refers to God's character/mind, depending on the context in which the phrase appears, but reject the view that people need strength, guidance and power from the Holy Spirit to live the Christian life, believing instead that the spirit a believer needs within themselves is the mind/character of God, which is developed in a believer by their reading of the Bible (which, they believe, contains words God gave by his Spirit) and trying to live by what it says during the events of their lives which God uses to help shape their character.
Christadelphians believe that Jesus is the promised Jewish Messiah, in whom the prophecies and promises of the Old Testament find their fulfilment. They believe he is the Son of Man, in that he inherited human nature (with its inclination to sin) from his mother, and the Son of God by virtue of his miraculous conception by the power of God. Christadelphians also reject the doctrine of Christ's pre-existence. They teach that he was part of God's plans from the beginning and was foreshadowed in the Old Testament, but was no independent creature prior to his earthly birth. Although he was tempted, Jesus committed no sin, and was therefore a perfect representative sacrifice to bring salvation to sinful humankind. They believe that God raised Jesus from death and gave him immortality, and he ascended to Heaven, God's dwelling place. Christadelphians believe that he will return to the earth in person to set up the Kingdom of God in fulfilment of the promises made to Abraham and David. This includes the belief that the coming Kingdom will be the restoration of God's first Kingdom of Israel, which was under David and Solomon. For Christadelphians, this is the focal point of the gospel taught by Jesus and the apostles.
Christadelphians believe that the Satan or Devil is not an independent spiritual being or fallen angel. Devil is viewed as the general principle of evil and inclination to sin which resides in humankind. They are convinced that, dependent on the context, the term Satan in Hebrew merely means "opponent" or "adversary" and is frequently applied to human beings. Accordingly, they do not define hell as a place of eternal torment for sinners, but as a state of eternal death respectively non-existence due to annihilation of body and mind.
Christadelphians believe that people are separated from God because of their sins but that humankind can be reconciled to him by becoming disciples of Jesus Christ. This is by belief in the gospel, through repentance, and through baptism by total immersion in water. They reject assurance of salvation, believing instead that salvation comes as a result of remaining "in Christ". After death, believers are in a state of non-existence, knowing nothing until the Resurrection at the return of Christ. Following the judgement at that time, the accepted receive the gift of immortality, and live with Christ on a restored Earth, assisting him to establish the Kingdom of God and to rule over the mortal population for a thousand years (the Millennium). Christadelphians believe that the Kingdom will be centred upon Palestine, but Jesus Christ will also reign over all the other nations on the earth. Some believe that the Kingdom itself is not worldwide but limited to the land of Palestine promised to Abraham and ruled over in the past by David, with a worldwide empire.
The historic Commandments of Christ demonstrates the community's recognition of the importance of Biblical teaching on morality. Marriage and family life are important. Christadelphians believe that sexual relationships should be limited to heterosexual marriage, ideally between baptised believers.
Christadelphians reject a number of doctrines held by many other Christians, notably the immortality of the soul (see also mortalism; conditionalism), trinitarianism, the personal pre-existence of Christ, the baptism of infants, the personhood of the Holy Spirit, the divinity of Jesus and the present-day possession of the gifts of the Holy Spirit (see cessationism). They believe that the word devil is a reference in the scriptures to sin and human nature in opposition to God, while the word satan is merely a reference to an adversary (be it good or bad). According to Christadelphians, these terms are used in reference to specific political systems or individuals in opposition or conflict. Hell (Hebrew: Sheol; Greek: Hades, Gehenna, Tartarus) is understood to refer exclusively to death and the grave, rather than being a place of everlasting torment (see also annihilationism). Christadelphians do not believe that anyone will "go to Heaven" upon death. Instead, they believe that only Christ Jesus went to Heaven, and when he comes back to the earth there will be a resurrection and God's kingdom will be established on earth, starting in the land of Israel. Christadelphians believe the doctrines they reject were introduced into Christendom after the 1st century in large part through exposure to pagan Greek philosophy, and cannot be substantiated from the Biblical texts.
One criticism of the Christadelphian movement has been over the claim of John Thomas and Robert Roberts to have "rediscovered" scriptural truth. However one might argue that all Protestant groups make the same claims to some extent. Although both men believed that they had "recovered" the true doctrines for themselves and contemporaries, they also believed there had always existed a group of true believers throughout the ages, albeit marred by the apostasy.
The most notable Christadelphian attempts to find a continuity of those with doctrinal similarities since that point have been geographer Alan Eyre's two books The Protesters (1975) and Brethren in Christ (1982) in which he shows that many individual Christadelphian doctrines had been previously believed. Eyre focused in particular on the Radical Reformation, and also among the Socinians and other early Unitarians and the English Dissenters. In this way, Eyre was able to demonstrate substantial historical precedents for individual Christadelphian teachings and practices, and believed that the Christadelphian community was the 'inheritor of a noble tradition, by which elements of the Truth were from century to century hammered out on the anvil of controversy, affliction and even anguish'. Although noting in the introduction to 'The Protestors' that 'Some recorded herein perhaps did not have "all the truth" — so the writer has been reminded', Eyre nevertheless claimed that the purpose of the work was to 'tell how a number of little-known individuals, groups and religious communities strove to preserve or revive the original Christianity of apostolic times', and that 'In faith and outlook they were far closer to the early springing shoots of 1st-century Christianity and the penetrating spiritual challenge of Jesus himself than much that has passed for the religion of the Nazarene in the last nineteen centuries'.
Eyre's research has been criticized by some of his Christadelphian peers, and as a result Christadelphian commentary on the subject has subsequently been more cautious and circumspect, with caveats being issued concerning Eyre's claims, and the two books less used and publicized than in previous years.
Nevertheless, even with most source writings of those later considered "heretics" destroyed, evidence can be provided that since the 1st century CE there have been various groups and individuals who have held certain individual Christadelphian beliefs or similar ones. For example, all the distinctive Christadelphian doctrines (with the exception of the non-literal devil), down to interpretations of specific verses, can be found particularly among 16th century Socinian writers (e.g. the rejection of the doctrines of the trinity, pre-existence of Christ, immortal souls, a literal hell of fire, original sin). Early English Unitarian writings also correspond closely to those of Christadelphians. Also, recent discoveries and research have shown a large similarity between Christadelphian beliefs and those held by Isaac Newton who, among other things, rejected the doctrines of the trinity, immortal souls, a personal devil and literal demons. Further examples are as follows:
Organised worship in England for those whose beliefs anticipated those of Christadelphians only truly became possible in 1779 when the Act of Toleration 1689 was amended to permit denial of the Trinity, and only fully when property penalties were removed in the Doctrine of the Trinity Act 1813. This is only 35 years before John Thomas' 1849 lecture tour in Britain which attracted significant support from an existing non-Trinitarian Adventist base, particularly, initially, in Scotland where Arian, Socinian, and unitarian (with a small 'u' as distinct from the Unitarian Church of Theophilus Lindsey) views were prevalent.
Christadelphians are organised into local congregations, that commonly call themselves ecclesias, which is taken from usage in the New Testament and is Greek for gathering of those summoned. Congregational worship, which usually takes place on Sunday, centres on the remembrance of the death and celebration of the resurrection of Jesus Christ by the taking part in the "memorial service". Additional meetings are often organised for worship, prayer, preaching and Bible study.
Ecclesias are typically involved in preaching the gospel (evangelism) in the form of public lectures on Bible teaching, college-style seminars on reading the Bible, and Bible Reading Groups. Correspondence courses are also used widely, particularly in areas where there is no established Christadelphian presence. Some ecclesias, organisations or individuals also preach through other media like video, podcasts and internet forums. There are also a number of Bible Education/Learning Centres around the world.
Only baptised (by complete immersion in water) believers are considered members of the ecclesia. Ordinarily, baptism follows someone making a "good confession" (cf. 1 Tim. 6:12) of their faith before two or three nominated elders of the ecclesia they are seeking to join. The good confession has to demonstrate a basic understanding of the main elements – "first principles" – of the faith of the community. The children of members are encouraged to attend Christadelphian Sunday Schools and youth groups. Interaction between youth from different ecclesias is encouraged through regional and national youth gatherings. Many ecclesias organise holidays for young people, the most popular form in the UK being camping holidays and Youth Weekends such as Swanwick and others locally organised by different ecclesias.
Christadelphians understand the Bible to teach that male and female believers are equal in God's sight, and also that there is a distinction between the roles of male and female members. Women are typically not eligible to teach in formal gatherings of the ecclesia when male believers are present, are expected to cover their heads (using hat or scarf, etc.) during formal services, and do not sit on the main ecclesial arranging (organising) committees. They do, however: participate in other ecclesial and inter-ecclesial committees; participate in discussions; teach children in Sunday Schools as well as at home, teach other women and non-members; perform music; discuss and vote on business matters; and engage in the majority of other activities. Generally, at formal ecclesial and inter-ecclesial meetings the women wear head coverings when there are acts of worship and prayer.
There are ecclesially-accountable committees for co-ordinated preaching, youth and Sunday School work, conscientious objection issues, care of the elderly, and humanitarian work. These do not have any legislative authority, and are wholly dependent upon ecclesial support. Ecclesias in an area may regularly hold joint activities combining youth groups, fellowship, preaching, and Bible study.
Most Christadelphians do not vote in political elections, as they take direction from Romans 13:1–4, which they interpret as meaning that God puts into power those leaders He deems worthy. To vote for a candidate that does not win an election would be considered to vote against God's will. To avoid risk of such conflict, most Christadelphians abstain from voting.
Christadelphians are a non-liturgical denomination. Christadelphian ecclesias are autonomous and free to adopt whatever pattern of worship they choose. However, in the English-speaking world, there tends to be a great deal of uniformity in order of service and hymnody.
Christadelphian hymnody makes considerable use of the hymns of the Anglican and British Protestant traditions (even in US ecclesias the hymnody is typically more British than American). In many Christadelphian hymn books a sizeable proportion of hymns are drawn from the Scottish Psalter and non-Christadelphian hymn-writers including Isaac Watts, Charles Wesley, William Cowper and John Newton. Despite incorporating non-Christadelphian hymns however, Christadelphian hymnody preserves the essential teachings of the community.
The earliest hymn book published was the "Sacred Melodist" which was published by Benjamin Wilson in Geneva, Illinois in 1860. The next was the hymn book published for the use of Baptised Believers in the Kingdom of God (an early name for Christadelphians) by George Dowie in Edinburgh in 1864. In 1865 Robert Roberts published a collection of Scottish psalms and hymns called The Golden Harp (which was subtitled "Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs, compiled for the use of Immersed Believers in 'The Things concerning the Kingdom of God and the Name of Jesus Christ'"). This was replaced only five years later by the first "Christadelphian Hymn Book" (1869), compiled by J. J. and A. Andrew, and this was revised and expanded in 1874, 1932 and 1964. A thorough revision by the Christadelphian Magazine and Publishing Association resulted in the latest (2002) edition which is almost universally used by English-speaking Christadelphian ecclesias. In addition some Christadelphian fellowships have published their own hymn books.
Some ecclesias use the Praise the Lord songbook. It was produced with the aim of making contemporary songs which are consistent with Christadelphian theology more widely available. Another publication, the "Worship" book is a compilation of songs and hymns that have been composed only by members of the Christadelphian community. This book was produced with the aim of providing extra music for non-congregational music items within services (e.g. voluntaries, meditations, etc) but has been adopted by congregations worldwide and is now used to supplement congregational repertoire.
In the English-speaking world, worship is typically accompanied by organ or piano, though in recent years a few ecclesias have promoted the use of other instruments (e.g. strings, wind and brass as mentioned in the Psalms). This trend has also seen the emergence of some Christadelphian bands and the establishment of the Christadelphian Art Trust to support performing, visual and dramatic arts within the Christadelphian community.
In other countries, hymn books have been produced in local languages, sometimes resulting in styles of worship which reflect the local culture. It has been noted that Christadelphian hymnody has historically been a consistent witness to Christadelphian beliefs, and that hymnody occupies a significant role in the community.
• "Old Paths Fellowship (UK)". Christadelphians.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
• "Biblical Fellowship". Christadelphianbooks.org. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
• Perry, Andrew. Fellowship Matters, Willow publications, 2nd edition, 1996
• 'Barr is surely right to stress that the Genesis story as it now stands indicates that humans were not created immortal, but had (and lost) the chance to gain unending life.', Wright, 'The Resurrection of the Son of God', p. 92 (2003); Wright himself actually interprets some passages of Scripture as indicating alternative beliefs, 'The Bible offers a spectrum of belief about life after death', Wright, 'The Resurrection of the Son of God', p. 129 (2003)
• 'In contrast to the two enigmatic references to Enoch and Elijah, there are ample references to the fact that death is the ultimate destiny for all human beings, that God has no contact with or power over the dead, and that the dead do not have any relationship with God (see, inter alia, Ps. 6:6, 30:9–10, 39:13–14, 49:6–13, 115:16–18, 146:2–4). If there is a conceivable setting for the introduction of a doctrine of the afterlife, it would be in Job, since Job, although righteous, is harmed by God in the present life. But Job 10:20–22 and 14:1–10 affirm the opposite.', Gillman, 'Death and Afterlife, Judaic Doctrines Of', in Neusner, 'The Encyclopedia of Judaism', volume 1, p. 176 (2000)
• ' "Who knows whether the breath of human beings rises up and the breath of an animal sinks down to the earth?" (Eccles 3:21). In Qohelet's day there were perhaps people who were speculating that human beings would enjoy a positive afterlife, as animals would not. Qohelet points out that there is no evidence for this.', Goldingay, 'Old Testament Theology', volume 2, p. 644 (2006)
• 'The life of a human being came more directly from God, and it is also evident that when someone dies, the breath (rûaḥ, e.g., Ps 104:29) or the life (nepeš, e.g., Gen 35:18) disappears and returns to the God who is rûaḥ. And whereas the living may hope that the absence of God may give way again to God's presence, the dead are forever cut off from God's presence.241 Death means an end to fellowship with God and to fellowship with other people. It means an end to the activity of God and the activity of other people. Even more obviously, it means an end to my own activity. It means an end to awareness.', ibid., p. 640
• 'At the same time there have always been isolated voices raised in support of other views. There are hints of a belief in repentance after death, as well as conditional immortality and annihilationism.', Streeter, et al., 'Immortality: An Essay in Discovery, Co-Ordinating Scientific, Psychical, and Biblical Research', p. 204 (1917)
• 'Many biblical scholars down throughout history, looking at the issue through Hebrew rather than Greek eyes, have denied the teaching of innate immortality.', Knight, 'A brief history of Seventh-Day Adventists', p. 42 (1999)
• 'Various concepts of conditional immortality or annihilationism have appeared earlier in Baptist history as well. Several examples illustrate this claim. General as well as particular Baptists developed versions of annihilationism or conditional immortality.', Pool, 'Against returning to Egypt: Exposing and Resisting Credalism in the Southern Baptist Convention', p. 133 (1998)
• 'Psalms of Solomon 3:11–12; Sybilline Oracles 4:175–85; 4 Ezra 7:61; Pseudo-Philo 16:3. Other presumed annihilation texts may be found in Fudge, The Fire That Consumes, 125–54', Walvoord, 'The Metaphorical View', in Crockett & Hayes (eds.), 'Four Views on Hell', p. 64 (1997).
• 'Thus we have one Rabbi denying the very existence of hell. "There is no hell in the future world," says R. Simon ben Lakish.', Darmesteter, 'The Talmud', p. 52 (2007)
• 'The theory of annihilationism in which the wicked pass into nonexistence either at death or the resurrection was first advanced by Arnobius, a 4th-century "Christian" apologist, according to standard reference works such as Baker's Dictionary of Theology (p. 184).', Morey, 'Death and the Afterlife', p. 199 (1984)
• 'Already in the fourth century Arnobius taught the annihilation of the wicked.', Hoekama, 'The Bible and the Future', p. 266 (1994)
• 'It is unclear if Arabian thnetopsychism ['soul death'] is related to the Syriac tradition of the soul's dormition [sleep] espoused by writers like Aphrahat (d. ca. 345), Ephrem (d. 373), and Narsai (d. 502), according to whom the souls of the dead are largely inert, having lapsed into a state of sleep, in which they can only dream of their future reward or punishments.', Constas, '"To Sleep, Perchance to Dream": The Middle State of Souls in Patristic and Byzantine Literature', in Talbot (ed.), 'Dunbarton Oaks Papers', No. 55, p. 110 (2001)
• 'Gouillard notes that variations of thnetopsychism ['soul death'] and hypnopsychism ['soul sleep'] existed alongside the views of the official church until the 6th century when they were resoundingly denounced by Eustratios.', ibid., p. 111.
• 'Thnetopsychism ['soul death'] continued to challenge the patience and ingenuity of church officials, as evidenced by writers such as John the Deacon, Niketas Stethatos, Philip Monotropos (Dioptra, pp. 210, 220), and Michael Glykas, all of whom are keenly interested in the survival of consciousness and memory among the souls of the departed saints. John the Deacon, for example, attacks those who "dare to say that praying to the saints is like shouting in the ears of the deaf, as if they had drunk from the mythical waters of Oblivion" (line 174).', Murray, 'Symbols of church and kingdom: a study in early Syriac tradition', p. 111 (2006)
• 'The Syriac tradition of the soul's "sleep in the dust" (Job 21:26), with its links to the Old Testament and Jewish apocalyptic, stands as a corrective to overly Hellenized views of the afterlife, and was canonized at a Nestorian synod in the 8th century (786–787) presided over by Timothy I (d. 823), who rejected anything else as blatant Origenism.', ibid., p. 111.
• 'In virtually every period of Byzantine history, critical voices denied that the souls of the dead could involve themselves in the affairs of the living or intercede on their behalf in heaven. Based on a more unitive, materialist notion of the self as irreducibly embodied, some thinkers argued that the souls of the dead (sainted or otherwise) were largely inert, having lapsed into a state of cognitive oblivion and psychomotor lethargy, a condition sometimes described as a state of "sleep" in which the soul could only "dream" of its future punishment or heavenly reward. Still others argued for the outright death of the soul, which, they claimed, was mortal and perished with the body, and which would be recreated together with the body only on the day of resurrection.', Constas, '"To Sleep, Perchance to Dream": The Middle State of Souls in Patristic and Byzantine Literature', in Talbot (ed.), 'Dunbarton Oaks Papers', No. 55, p. 94 (2001)
• 'Till the end of the sixth century and beyond, Christians in Nisibis and Constantinople, Syria and Arabia adduced Leviticus 17:11 which states that "The soul of the whole flesh is the blood" to argue that the soul after death sank into non-existence, that it lost its sensibility and stayed inert in the grave together with the body.', Samellas, 'Death in the eastern Mediterranean (50–600 AD.): the Christianization of the East: An Interpretation', Studien Und Text Zu Antike Und Christentum, pp. 55–56 (2002)
• 'The wicked will be sent back to Sheol, the real of Death under the world (22.17.24; cf. 6.6), where they will be punished in the measure and the way that their sins deserve – some in "outer darkness," others in unquenchable fire, others by simple exclusion from the presence of God (22.18–22).', ibid., p. 73.
• 'Because of his insistence on the positive role of the body in human life and its necessity for a full human existence (e.g., CN 47.4), Ephrem sees eschatological reward and punishment as delayed until the resurrection of the dead. Resurrection will begin when souls are "awakened" from their sleep by the angel's trumpet and the commanding voice of God (CN 49.16f.).', ibid., p. 75
• 'Ephrem's picture of Gehenna is less detailed and more traditional than his picture of heaven. The damned there seem to suffer most from their awareness that they have lost all hope sharing in beauty and happiness (HP 2.3f.; 7.29).', ibid., p. 76
• 'The Nestorian Narsai described the soul and the body as a pair of inseparable lovers who could not live the one without the other. From the moment that her lover deserted her, he recounts, nephesh lost her speech and fell into a deep slumber. In spite of this, even in this state of forced inertia, she maintained her essential characteristics: her galloping intellect, her acute judgement, the emotions that open up a view in the world. The reason that all her faculties had ceased to function is that they had no more any purpose to serve, since the body for the sake of which they operated was no longer there. Nephesh recovered her sentience and her speech at the end of time when, together with the body, she rose to give an account for her deeds. Till then she felt no pain or joy. The vague knowledge she had of what was in store for her scarcely disturbed her peaceful sleep.', Samellas, 'Death in the eastern Mediterranean (50–600 AD.): the Christianization of the East: An Interpretation', Studien Und Text Zu Antike Und Christentum, pp. 56–57 (2002)
• 'On the influence of hypnopsychism on the theology of Jacob of Sarug see M. D. Guinan, "Where are the dead? Purgatory and Immediate Retribution in James of Sargu," in Symposium Syriacum 1972, pp. 546–549.', Samellas, 'Death in the eastern Mediterranean (50–600 AD.): the Christianization of the East: An Interpretation', Studien Und Text Zu Antike Und Christentum, p. 56 (2002)
• 'It appears that Sattler came to hold the doctrine of psychopannychism, or sleep of the soul', Snyder, The life and thought of Michael Sattler', p. 130 (1984)
• 'Christadelphian devotion centers on daily Bible study and weekly meetings', page 421, Fahlbusch, Erwin and Bromiley, Geoffrey W, 'The Encyclopedia of Christianity', USA:Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999)
• 'Christadelphians are devoted students of the Bible, which they believe to be the infallible and inerrant word of God', Edwards, Linda, 'A Brief Guide to Beliefs', page 421, USA:Westminster John Knox Press (2001)
• 'Daily Bible study is enjoined', Powles, Lilian V, 'The Faith and Practice of Heretical Sects', page 23, Michigan:Mothers' Union (1962)
Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.
The name refers to belief in the imminent Second Coming (or "Second Advent") of Jesus Christ. William Miller started the Adventist movement in the 1830s. His followers became known as Millerites. After the Great Disappointment, the Millerite movement split up and was continued by a number of groups that held different views from one another. These groups, stemming from a common Millerite ancestor, became known collectively as the Adventist movement.
Although the Adventist churches hold much in common, their theologies differ on whether the intermediate state of the dead is unconscious sleep or consciousness, whether the ultimate punishment of the wicked is annihilation or eternal torment, the nature of immortality, whether the wicked are resurrected after the millennium, and whether the sanctuary of Daniel 8 refers to the one in heaven or one on earth. The movement has encouraged the examination of the whole Bible, leading Seventh-day Adventists and some smaller Adventist groups to observe the Sabbath. The General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists has compiled that church's core beliefs in the 28 Fundamental Beliefs (1980 and 2005), which use Biblical references as justification.
In 2010, Adventism claimed some 22 million believers scattered in various independent churches. The largest church within the movement—the Seventh-day Adventist Church—had more than 19 million baptized members in 2015.Alan Hayward
Alan Hayward (1923–2008) was a British engineer and physicist who was also active as an old-earth Creationist writer, and Christadelphian.
Hayward's primary field of research was fluid density and flowmeters, writing a textbook on the subject, and presenting to the Institute of Physics in 1981.As a Christadelphian lay preacher Hayward had commenced writing on general religious topics for the Christadelphian Auxiliary Lecturing Society during the early 1970s. In particular his booklet on the characteristic (Socinian) belief of Christadelphians against the personal pre-existence of Christ remains that church's most widely circulated publication on that topic. Other publications included The Real Devil against belief in supernatural evil.As a Christian, and a scientist, though not a biologist, he was soon involved in the subject of creation. In New Scientist (11 March 1992 issue) Hayward is cited speaking of "the quiet majority of Bible-believing creationists" who accept the "evidence of physics and geology that the Universe and our planet are billions of years old".Despite being a nontrinitarian Hayward's moderate old-earth creationist stand led to him being invited to write for mainstream publishers Thomas Nelson. He published three books: God is (1980) God's truth (1983) – a work dealing with textual defence of the Bible, and Creation and Evolution for SPCK (1985), which was widely cited and was re-published in America by Bethany House, Minneapolis (1995). Hayward's old-earth views were not welcomed by young earth or flood geology creationists, and his nontrinitarian views were often pointed out in criticism. His three main books have since been reprinted in India. God is was translated into German and Bengali, and God's Truth into Chinese.Albert Maier
Albert Maier (Reutlingen - Kornwestheim 1944) was the founder of the German Christadelphians.As a young man he had travelled to America, where he was converted to the Christadelphian faith and taught by A. H. Zilmer, a German-speaking Christadelphian of Waterloo, Iowa. Maier returned to Obertürkheim in Stuttgart in the mid-1890s with the intention of preaching there, but found little interest so sold his house and prepared with his mother to emigrate permanently. He left two converts: 27-year-old Friedrich Weber (30 April 1899) and, in Schmalkalden near Kassel, Henriette Britzius, who with her husband emigrated to Birmingham, England and remained a bridge between British and German Christadelphians into her old age.
Following the death of his mother in the USA, Maier returned to Germany, carrying his own translations of booklets by John Thomas and Robert Roberts, and Thomas Williams' book „Der Welt Erlösung” translated by A. H. Zilmer and Johann G. Miller.
With materials in German, and the help of Weber, Maier was more successful. He founded the first Urchristen Gemeinde in Kornwestheim and in Stuttgart-Gaisburg. After the First World War in 1922 Maier met Johannes Reich a preacher of the Neuapostolische Gemeinde, and Reich and most of his congregation were rebaptised. New Gemeinde appeared in Nufringen, Reutlingen, Pfullingen, Ludwigsburg und Kirchheim am Neckar.At the same time Ludwig von Gerdtell, who had made direct contact with Professor Thomas Turner of the English Fraternal Visitor magazine, was leading a Gemeinde in Berlin with the Christadelphian Ludwig Knupfer. Gerdtell was originally with the Baptists, and for a time would be with the Christadelphians, though following his outspoken engagement in politics - and the reporting of a statement made in a local grocer's shop in 1934 that "Hitler is synonymous with war", he had to flee via Spain to America.
Maier was more circumspect. Although the Christadelphians were suspect for their pacifism, and pro-Jewish interpretations of prophecy, Maier maintained a "strangers and pilgrims" attitude to Germany's politics, with the result that most of the Christadelphians avoided arrest until war broke out and conscription was introduced; several were imprisoned and Albert Merz was executed in April 1941.Maier died peacefully on 3 April 1944.Amended Christadelphians
This article refers to a distinction that is today only directly relevant in North America. For more complete information on Christadelphians please see the main article
The term Amended Christadelphians is a name given in North American publications to Christadelphian fellowships who adhere to the Birmingham Amended Statement of Faith (BASF).Berean Christadelphians
The Berean Christadelphians are a Christian denomination.Bereans
In ancient times, the Bereans were the inhabitants of the city of Berea, also known in the Bible as Beroea, and now known as Veria in what is today Greek Macedonia, northern Greece. The name has been taken up by certain Protestant groups.Bibliography of Christadelphians
The following is a bibliography of books in the English language relating to the general topic of Christadelphians.
Alfs, Matthew - Concepts of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit : a classification and description of the Trinitarian and non-Trinitarian theologies existent within Christendom
Andrew, J. J. - Baptismal-Belief
Andrew, J. J. - The Blood of the Covenant
Andrew, J. J. - The Doctrine of Atonement
Arnstein, Walter L. - Protestant Versus Catholic in Mid-Victorian England
Bacon, Graham - The Revelation at a Glance
Blore, Charles B. - Dr John Thomas: his family and the background of his times
Booker, George - Biblical Fellowship
Booker, George - A New Creation
Boulton, William Henry - Paul the Apostle
Brady, Madalaine Margaret - Christadelphians and conscientious objection to military service in Britain in World War One
Bricknell, John - Do all to the glory of God : a brief account of the formation of the first Christadelphian Ecclesia at Goolwa in South Australia and of the Victor Harbor Christadelphian Ecclesia
Burrell, Maurice C. & John S. Wright - Some modern faiths : (Jehovah's Witnesses, Christadelphians, Christian Scientists, Theosophicalsystems, Mormons, Spiritualists)
Clark, Elmer T. - The Small Sects of America
Collyer, W. Islip - Conviction and Conduct
Collyer, W. Islip - The Guiding Light
Collyer, W. Islip - Robert Roberts: A Study in Life and Character
Cooper, Amy F. - Reframing, regrouping, and empowering : the Christadelphians as a test case for theories about conservative christian women
Encountering new religious movements: a holistic evangelical approach.
Evans, E. R. - Test Case for Canada '3314545'
Evans, E. R. - "Ye are strangers and sojourners with me": a study of the Christadelphian teaching concerning a Christian's relationship to the state
Fadelle, Norman - John Thomas and His Rediscovery of Bible Truth
Gibson, Arthur - Evolution versus creation
Govett, Robert - Christadelphians, not Christians
Hayward, Allan - Creation and Evolution
Hayward, Alan - Great news for the world
Hayward, Allan - God's Truth
Heaster, Duncan - Bible basics
Hopkins, Branson - Unmasking Christadelphianism : the hopelessness of the hope
House, H. Wayne - Charts of cults, sects & religious movements
Hutchins, Leta - Christadelphians
Jannaway, A. T. - The Ground of Resurrectional Responsibility
Jannaway, A. T. - The Inspiration Division, 1884-1921
Jannaway, Frank G. - The Bible and How It Came to Us
Jannaway, Frank G. - The Bible Divine
Jannaway, Frank G. - The Bible Student in Many Lands
Jannaway, Frank G. - Bible Times and Seasons
Jannaway, Frank G. - British Museum - Bible in Hand
Jannaway, Frank G. - Brother Roberts on Copyright
Jannaway, Frank G. - Christ Our Passover
Jannaway, Frank G. - Christadelphian Answers on all sorts of Difficulties
Jannaway, Frank G., comp. - Christadelphian Facts Concerning Christendeom ... by Dr. J. Thomas ... and other ...Christadelphians
Jannaway, Frank G., comp. - Christadelphian Key to the Prophecies
Jannaway, Frank G., comp. - Christadelphian Treasury
Jannaway, Frank G., comp. - Christadelphians and Fellowship
Jannaway, Frank G. - Christadelphians and Military Service
Jannaway, Frank G. - Christadelphians on the Great War
Jannaway, Frank G. - Christadelphians Then and Now
Jannaway, Frank G. - Christians not Christians
Jannaway, Frank G. - A Godless Socialism
Jannaway, Frank G. - A Happy World
Jannaway, Frank G., comp. - How Long?
Jannaway, Frank G. - Lest We Forget or Have Forgotten
Jannaway, Frank G. - Our New Bible
Jannaway, Frank G. - Ought Christians to Be Socialists?
Jannaway, Frank G. - Palestine and the Jews
Jannaway, Frank G. - Palestine and the Powers
Jannaway, Frank G. - Palestine and the World
Jannaway, Frank G. - The Salvation Army and the Bible
Jannaway, Frank G. - Solemn Warning Concerning Christadelphian Apostasy
Jannaway, Frank G. - Tears of Gratitude
Jannaway, Frank G. - The Triune God of the Church of England
Jannaway, Frank G. - Which Is the Remedy - Socialism or the Reign of Christ?
Jannaway, Frank G. - Without the camp : being the story of why and how the Christadelphians were exempted from military service
Jannaway, Frank G. - The Worst Enemies of the Bible
Keele, G. T. - Truth and Error
Lea, John W. - The Life and Writings of Dr. Thomas
Lippy, Charles H. - The Christadelphians in North America
Lo Bello, Kristin Anne - The Christadelphians: the true fundamentalists
MacGregor, Lorri - Christadelphians and Christianity
McHaffie, Averil and Iam McHaffie - 150 years : a very brief history of Edinburgh Christadelphian Ecclesia (1853-2003)
McHaffie, Ruth - Brethren indeed?: Christadelphians and "outsiders" (16th-21st century)
McHaffie, Ruth - Finding founders and facing facts
McHaffie, Ruth - Timewatching - and Israel. Volume 1. Expectations
Mitchell, Thomas S. - I am a conscientious objector : explaining the position of those who by reason of their religious training and belief, support the tenets of the Christadelphian faith
Morgan, James Logan - Christadelphians in Arkansas, 1968.
Nicholls, Alfred - Remember the days of old: twelve editorial articles from the Christadelphian
Norris, A. D. - The Apocalypse for Every Man
Norris, A. D. - The Things We Stand For
Norris, A. D. - Understanding the Bible
Norris, E. - The courts of the women
One Hundred Years of the Christadelphian
Panton, D. M. - Satanic Counterfeits
Pollock. A. J. - Christadelphianism Astray from the Bible
Pollock, A. J. - Christadelphianism: briefly tested by scritpture
Powell, J. W. - The historical record of the Sydney Central Christadelphian Ecclesia, 1864 to 1990 : compiled by J.W. Powell
Poynter, J. W. - Christadelphiansism
Proctor, Don - The Christadelphians : are they of the household of faith?
Roberts, Robert - Christendom Astray from the Bible
Roberts, Robert - Christ's Doctrine of Eternal Life
Roberts, Robert - Coming Events in the East
Roberts, Robert - A Declaration of First Principles of the Oracles of the Deity
Roberts, Robert - Dr. Thomas: His Life and work
Roberts, Robert - England and Egypt
Roberts, Robert - England's Ruin
Roberts, Robert - Epitome of the Commandments of Christ
Roberts, Robert - Everlasting Punishments Not Eternal Torments
Roberts, Robert - The Kingdom of God
Roberts, Robert - The Law of Moses
Roberts, Robert - Robert Roberts, Born 1839 - Died 1898
Roberts, Robert - The Sect Everywhere Spoken About
Roberts, Robert - The Slain Lamb
Roberts, Robert - The Trial
Roberts, Robert - The Truth in the Nineteenth Century
Roberts, Robert - Was Jesus of Nazareth the Messiah?
Roberts, Robert - Ways of Providence
Roberts, Robert & J. Andrew - Resurrectional Responsibilities Debate
Roberts, Robert and C. C. Walker - The Ministry of the Prophets
Rumble, Leslie - The anti-immortals : a reply to the Rationalists, Jehovah Witnesses, Adventists and Christadelphians
Tennant, Harry - The Christadelphians: what they believe and preach
Thomas, John - The Apostasy Unveiled
Thomas, John - The Book Unsealed
Thomas, John - Catechesis
Thomas, John - "The Destiny of Human Governments in the Light of Scripute
Thomas, John - The Destiny of the British Empire as revealed in the Scriptures
Thomas, John - Elpis Israel
Thomas, John - Eureka
Thomas, John - The Faith in the Last Days
Thomas, John - The Holy Spirit Not a Present Possession
Thomas, John - Odology: An Antidote to Spiritualism
Thomas, John - Phanerosis - Exosition of the doctrine of the Old Testament
Thomas, John - The Revealed Mystery
Thomas, John - The Roman Question or the Fall of the Papacy
Thomas, John - What Is the Truth?
Thomas, John - Who Are the Christadelphians?
Thompson, William Lester - A study of the theology of Dr. John Thomas, founder of the Christadelphians
Turner, F. W. - The Exclusiveness of Christianity
Turney, Edward - Ereuna: being an answer to R. Govett's "Christadelphians not Christians."
Walker, C. C. - Rome and the Christadelphians
Walker, C. C. - The Word of God
Walker, Joseph Viccars - The Christadelphians and their doctrine
Whittaker, Harry - Letters to George and Jenny : a book for young Christadelphians
Williams, Thomas - Life and Work of Thomas Williams
Wilson, Andrew R. - The history of the Christadelphians, 1864-1885 : the emergence of a denomination
Wilson, Bryan R. - Sects and society: a sociological study of the Elim Tabernacle, Christian Science, and Christadelphians
Yearsley, W. R. - Working with the grain : chips and sawdust at the bench and the cross grain of life : reflections on secular and spiritual values, a family recordCharles Curwen Walker
Charles Curwen Walker (1856–1940) was a Christadelphian writer and editor of The Christadelphian Magazine from 1898 to 1937.Church of the Blessed Hope
The Church of the Blessed Hope (or Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith) is a small first-day Adventist Christian body. The churches¹ have common roots with the Christadelphians and the Church of God General Conference (Abrahamic Faith).Elpis Israel
Elpis Israel - An Exposition of the Kingdom of God (commonly called Elpis Israel (English transliteration of Greek for "the hope of Israel", taken from Acts 28:20)) is a theological book written by John Thomas, founder of the Christadelphians, in 1848-1849 and published in 1849.
The book was based on a series of lectures given by Thomas in 1848 and is written in three parts, The Rudiments Of The World, The Things Of The Kingdom Of God And Of Jesus Christ and The Kingdoms Of The World In Their Relation To The Kingdom Of God. Thomas did not see, nor do the Christadelphians see, the book as inspired by God, but rather a deep and accurate study of The Bible. It is nevertheless widely read amongst Christadelphian believers and whilst not being the foundation for, does contains some of their core beliefs.
There have been fifteen editions of the book, although most were revisions. Four editions were published during the lifetime of Thomas: in 2000 by The Christadelphian Magazine & Publishing Association Ltd.; a reprinting by Logos Publications in January 2000; a reprint in April 2009 of the Fourth Edition--the latter was the last edited by John Thomas just prior to his death.John Carter (Christadelphian)
John Carter (1889–1962) was editor of The Christadelphian from 1937 to 1962.Carter was the third editor of the Christadelphian after the founding editor Robert Roberts and his successor Charles Curwen Walker. He was the first editor of the magazine to be an employee of the Christadelphian Magazine and Publishing Association (CMPA), which Walker had established before his death to ensure a stable continuation. For most of the period 1937 to 1962 Carter worked to promote a broader range of content in the magazine, more outreach publications, and set in motion a series of New Testament Commentaries of which he himself wrote several volumes. In 1938 he was the representative of the church in front of military tribunals.John Thomas (Christadelphian)
Dr. John Thomas (April 12, 1805 – March 5, 1871) was an English religious leader, the founder of the Christadelphian movement. He was a Restorationist, with doctrines similar in part to some 16th-century Antitrinitarian Socinians and the 16th-century Swiss-German pacifist Anabaptists.Peace churches
Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism or Biblical nonresistance. The term historic peace churches refers specifically only to three church groups among pacifist churches—Church of the Brethren; Religious Society of Friends (Quakers); and Mennonites, including the Amish, Old Order Mennonite, and Conservative Mennonites—and has been used since the first conference of the peace churches in Kansas in 1935.The definition of "peace churches" is sometimes expanded to include Christadelphians (from 1863) and others who did not participate in the conference of the "historic peace churches" in Kansas in 1935. The peace churches agree that Jesus advocated nonviolence. Whether physical force can ever be justified, either in defending oneself or others, remains controversial. Many believers adhere strictly to a moral attitude of nonresistance in the face of violence. However, these churches generally do concur that violence on behalf of nations and their governments is contrary to Christian morality.Reginald Carr (librarian)
Reginald Philip Carr (born 20 February 1946) is an English librarian, who was Bodley's Librarian (head of the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford) from 1997 until his retirement in 2006. He is a member of the Christadelphian church.Robert Roberts (Christadelphian)
Robert Roberts (April 8, 1839 – September 23, 1898) is the man generally considered to have continued the work of organising and establishing the Christadelphian movement founded by Dr. John Thomas. He was a prolific author and the editor of The Christadelphian Magazine from 1864–1898.Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr.
Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. (November 12, 1838 – February 25, 1915) was an American businessman, politician, cattleman, and soldier. He was the paternal grandfather of future US President Lyndon B. Johnson.The Christadelphian Tidings of the Kingdom of God
The Christadelphian Tidings of the Kingdom of God (The Tidings) is a Bible magazine published monthly by the Christadelphians (Brethren in Christ).
The Tidings intended readership is Christadelphians in North America and provides news on Christadelphian events in that area, but also provides general articles of Biblical exposition and exhortation. Although the readership is mostly North American the magazine is circulated more widely.
Current and back issues can be viewed on the Internet.Thomas Williams (Christadelphian)
Thomas Williams (1847–1913) was a Welsh Christadelphian who emigrated to America in 1872, and eventually became editor of The Christadelphian Advocate magazine and author of The Great Salvation and The World's Redemption, reserving him a place alongside Christadelphian founders Dr. John Thomas and Robert Roberts. When his appeals to English brethren went unheeded, he became the most prominent of the brethren who avoided these divisive factions, and later became known as Unamended Christadelphians because they never adopted a particular amendment to the Christadelphian statement of faith.Unamended Christadelphians
The Unamended Christadelphians are a "fellowship" within the broader Christadelphian movement worldwide, found only in the United States and Canada. They are, like all Christadelphians, millennialist and non-Trinitarian. The term Unamended Christadelphians is not the formal name of this community but is used informally to identify the grouping since a statement of faith traditionally used by many in this community is the "Unamended Statement of Faith". Similarly, most of the much larger grouping of Amended Christadelphians traditionally use a statement of faith that has been amended and therefore, in North America is known by the prefix "Amended". Nevertheless, Christadelphians worldwide and both Amended and Unamended Christadelphians in North America share fundamentally the same doctrines, with a few exceptions.
The name Christadelphian derives from the Koine Greek meaning “Brethren of Christ”. Like all Christadelphians, The Unamended Christadelphians’ have neither formal, ordained, or paid clergy.