Christ the Redeemer (statue)

Christ the Redeemer (Portuguese: Cristo Redentor, standard Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈkɾistu ʁedẽˈtoʁ], local pronunciation: [ˈkɾiɕtŭ̻ xe̞dẽ̞ˈtoɦ]) is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa, in collaboration with French engineer Albert Caquot. Romanian sculptor Gheorghe Leonida fashioned the face. Constructed between 1922 and 1931, the statue is 30 metres (98 ft) high, excluding its 8-metre (26 ft) pedestal. The arms stretch 28 metres (92 ft) wide.[1][2]

The statue weighs 635 metric tons (625 long, 700 short tons), and is located at the peak of the 700-metre (2,300 ft) Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city of Rio de Janeiro. A symbol of Christianity across the world, the statue has also become a cultural icon of both Rio de Janeiro and Brazil, and is listed as one of the New7Wonders of the World.[3] It is made of reinforced concrete and soapstone.[4][5][6]

Christ the Redeemer
Cristo Redentor - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Coordinates22°57′7″S 43°12′38″W / 22.95194°S 43.21056°WCoordinates: 22°57′7″S 43°12′38″W / 22.95194°S 43.21056°W
LocationCorcovado mountain,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
DesignerDesigned by sculptor Paul Landowski and built by engineer Heitor da Silva Costa in collaboration with Albert Caquot. Sculptor Gheorghe Leonida created the face
MaterialSoapstone
Height30 metres (98 ft) and 38 metres (125 ft) tall with its pedestal
Completion dateDedicated October 12, 1931
Consecrated October 12, 2006
New Seven Wonders of the World July 7, 2007
Designated2001
Reference no.1478

History

Corcovadoporferrez
A view of the Corcovado before the construction, 19th century
Aerial view of the Statue of Christ the Redeemer
Aerial view of the statue.

Vincentian priest, Pedro Maria Boss, first suggested placing a Christian monument on Mount Corcovado in the mid 1850s to honor Princess Isabel, regent of Brazil and the daughter of Emperor Pedro II, but the project was not approved.[1] In 1889 the country became a republic, and due to the separation of church and state, the proposed statue was dismissed.[7]

The Catholic Circle of Rio made a second proposal for a landmark statue on the mountain in 1920.[8] The group organized an event called Semana do Monumento ("Monument Week") to attract donations and collect signatures to support the building of the statue. The organization was motivated by what they perceived as 'Godlessness' in the society. The donations came mostly from Brazilian Catholics.[4] The designs considered for the "Statue of the Christ" included a representation of the Christian cross, a statue of Jesus with a globe in his hands, and a pedestal symbolizing the world.[9] The statue of Christ the Redeemer with open arms, a symbol of peace, was chosen.

Local engineer Heitor da Silva Costa designed the statue. French sculptor Paul Landowski created the work.[10]

In 1922, Landowski commissioned fellow Parisian Romanian sculptor Gheorghe Leonida, who studied sculpture at the Fine Arts Conservatory in Bucharest and in Italy.[11]

A group of engineers and technicians studied Landowski's submissions and felt building the structure of reinforced concrete (designed by Albert Caquot) instead of steel was more suitable for the cross-shaped statue. The concrete making up the base was supplied from Limhamn, Sweden.[12][13] The outer layers are soapstone, chosen for its enduring qualities and ease of use.[5] Construction took nine years, from 1922 to 1931 and cost the equivalent of US$250,000 (equivalent to $3,500,000 in 2018) and the monument opened on October 12, 1931.[5][6] During the opening ceremony, the statue was to be lit by a battery of floodlights turned on remotely by Italian shortwave radio inventor Guglielmo Marconi, stationed 9,200 kilometres (5,700 mi) away in Rome but because of bad weather, the lights were activated on-site.[8]

In October 2006, on the 75th anniversary of the statue's completion, Archbishop of Rio, Cardinal Eusebio Oscar Scheid, consecrated a chapel, named after Brazil's patron saint—Our Lady of the Apparition, under the statue, allowing Catholics to hold baptisms and weddings there.[6]

Lightning struck the statue during a violent thunderstorm on February 10, 2008, causing some damage to the fingers, head and eyebrows. The Rio de Janeiro state government initiated a restoration effort to replace some of the outer soapstone layers and repair the lightning rods on the statue. Lightning damaged it again, on January 17, 2014, dislodging a finger on the right hand.[14][15][16][17]

In 2010, a massive restoration of the statue began. Work included cleaning, replacing the mortar and soapstone on the exterior, restoring iron in the internal structure, and waterproofing the monument. Vandals attacked the statue during renovation, spraying paint along the arm. Mayor Eduardo Paes called the act "a crime against the nation". The culprits later apologized and presented themselves to the police.[18][19][20]

In reference to Brazil striker Ronaldo's usual goal celebration of both arms outstretched, the Pirelli tyre company ran a 1998 commercial in which he replaced the statue while in an Inter Milan strip.[21] The commercial was controversial with the Catholic Church.[22] In 2015 two Russian and Ukrainian urban explorers, Vadim Makhorov and Vitaly Raskalov from Ontheroofs, climbed the statue with captured video footage and photos.[23][24][25]

Restoration

Rio de Janeiro Helicoptero 47 Feb 2006
A panoramic view of the statue at the top of Corcovado Mountain with Sugarloaf Mountain (centre) and Guanabara Bay in the background.
Cristo Redentor iluminado
Christ the Redeemer at night as seen from Tijuca Forest

In 1990, several organizations, including the Archdiocese of Rio de Janeiro, media company Grupo Globo, oil company Shell do Brasil, environmental regulator IBAMA, National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage, and the city government of Rio de Janeiro entered an agreement to conduct restoration work.

More work on the statue and its environs was conducted in 2003 and early 2010. In 2003, a set of escalators, walkways, and elevators were installed to facilitate access to the platform surrounding the statue. The four-month restoration in 2010[26] focused on the statue itself. The statue's internal structure was renovated and its soapstone mosaic covering was restored by removing a crust of fungi and other microorganisms and repairing small cracks. The lightning rods located in the statue's head and arms were also repaired, and new lighting fixtures were installed at the foot of the statue.[27]

The restoration involved one hundred people and used more than 60,000 pieces of stone taken from the same quarry as the original statue.[26] During the unveiling of the restored statue, it was illuminated with green-and-yellow lighting in support of the Brazil national football team playing in the 2010 FIFA World Cup.[26]

Maintenance work needs to be conducted periodically due to the strong winds and erosion to which the statue is exposed, as well as lightning strikes.[28] The original pale stone is no longer available in sufficient quantities, and replacement stones are increasingly darker in hue.[29]

Similar structures

Gallery

Cristo Redentor Rio de Janeiro 4

The statue

Lascar O Cristo Redentor (Christ the Redeemer) - One of the New Seven Wonders of the World (4551129529)

Access escalators

O Cristo Redentor

Christ the Redeemer after restoration

Cristo Redentor Brasil

The statue illuminated in yellow and green, the colors of Brazil, during the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

Christ the Redeemer lit up in French colours after the November 2015 Paris attacks (2)

Christ the Redeemer lit in the colours of the French flag after the November 2015 Paris attacks

Morro do Pão de Açúcar RJ 04

The Corcovado and Christ the Redeemer as seen from Sugarloaf Mountain.

See also

Height comparison of notable statues (vector)
Approximate heights of various notable statues:
1. Statue of Unity 240 m (incl. 58 m base)
2. Spring Temple Buddha 153 m (incl. 25 m pedestal and 20 m throne)
3. Statue of Liberty 93 m (incl. 47 m pedestal)
4. The Motherland Calls 87 m (incl. 2 m pedestal)
5. Christ the Redeemer 38 m (incl. 8 m pedestal)
6. Michelangelo's David 5.17 m (excl. 2.5m plinth)

References

  1. ^ a b Murray, Lorraine. "Christ the Redeemer (last updated 13 January 2014)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  2. ^ Giumbelli, Emerson (2014). Símbolos Religiosos em Controvérsia (in Portuguese). São Paulo. 244. ISBN 978-85-7816-137-8.
  3. ^ "The New Seven Wonders of the World". Hindustan Times. July 8, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2007.
  4. ^ a b "Christ the Redeemer". TIME. October 26, 1931. Retrieved July 11, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c "Brazil: Crocovado mountain – Statue of Christ". Travel Channel. Archived from the original on May 16, 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
  6. ^ a b c "Sanctuary Status for Rio landmark". BBC News. October 13, 2006. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
  7. ^ "Cristo Corcovado by Sergi Lla on Prezi". Prezi.com. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Cristo Redentor – Histórico da Construção" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on March 13, 2009.
  9. ^ Victor, Duilo. "Redentor, carioca até a alma" (in Portuguese). Jornal do Brasil. Retrieved July 17, 2008.
  10. ^ Phil, Damon (June 29, 1983). "Vote now for Phoneheng". The Sun. London.
  11. ^ "Cristo Redentor: santuário carioca que virou símbolo da cidade no mundo". Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. October 20, 2014. (in Portuguese)
  12. ^ https://www.realtid.se/skanska-vi-ar-oskyldiga-till-underverket
  13. ^ http://www.kristianstadsbladet.se/kultur/article1570427/Oppna-Kristusarmar-som-har-haft-skiftande-betydelse.html
  14. ^ "Cristo Redentor vai passar por restauração até junho ("Christ the Redeemer under restoration 'til June")". Estadão.
  15. ^ Moratelli, Valmir. "Cristo Redentor, castigado por raios, passa por ampla reforma (Christ the Redeemer, punished by lightnings, go by ample refit)". Último Segundo. Archived from the original on April 4, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  16. ^ "Cristo Redentor renovado para 2010" (PDF). Rio de Janeiro Government. December 2010.
  17. ^ "Lightning breaks finger off Rio's Christ". The Age. January 2014.
  18. ^ "Vandals cover Rio's Christ statue with graffiti". Reuters. April 16, 2010.
  19. ^ Tabak, Bernardo. "Estátua do Cristo Redentor é alvo de pichação". Globo.
  20. ^ Infosur hoy: Christ the Redeemer to get new outfit Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "Pirelli e le metamorfosi della pubblicità". Corriere Della Sera. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  22. ^ "World Cup 2014: Brazil furious over Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro in Italian football colours". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  23. ^ "Climbing Christ the Redeemer youtube video". Ontheroofs. December 10, 2015.
  24. ^ "Climbing Christ the Redeemer ontheroofs story with photos and video". Ontheroofs. December 10, 2015. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016.
  25. ^ Millward, David (December 12, 2015). "Watch the stunning footage taken by photographers who climbed Rio's 125-feet tall Christ the Redeemer Statue". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016.
  26. ^ a b c "Brazil's Christ state returns after renovation". BBC News. July 1, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
  27. ^ Christ the Redeemer se la come, YouTube video, accessed January 20, 2011.
  28. ^ "Reforma no cartão-postal". Veja Rio. May 18, 2010. Archived from the original on January 27, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
  29. ^ Bowater, Donna; Mulvey, Stephen; Misra, Tanvi (March 10, 2014). "Arms wide open". BBC Online. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
  30. ^ Kompas Cyber Media. "Presiden Resmikan Patung Yesus Kristus di Pulau Mansinam – Kompas.com Regional". Regional.kompas.com. Retrieved October 15, 2015.

Further reading

External links

Christ the King (Almada)

The Sanctuary of Christ the King (Portuguese: Santuário de Cristo Rei) is a Catholic monument and shrine dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ overlooking the city of Lisbon situated in Almada, in Portugal. It was inspired by the Christ the Redeemer statue of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, after the Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon visited that monument. The project was inaugurated on 17 May 1959, while Portugal was ruled by the authoritarian President of the Council of Ministers António de Oliveira Salazar who gave his final permission for the project. The giant statue in cement was erected to express gratitude because the Portuguese were spared the effects of World War II.

Christ the King (Lubango)

The Christ the King statue (Portuguese: Cristo Rei) is a Catholic monument and shrine overlooking the city of Lubango in the South of Angola. It was inspired by the Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), as one of only four in the world. This 30-metre-high (98 ft) white marble statue was built in 1957.The monument was designed in the 1950s by Portuguese engineer of Madeira Frazão Sardinha, and is listed as an Angolan World Heritage Site as of April 18, 2014.

Corcovado

Corcovado (Portuguese pronunciation: [koʁkoˈvadu]), means "hunchback" in Portuguese, is a mountain in central Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is a 710-metre (2,329 ft) granite peak located in the Tijuca Forest, a national park. It is sometimes confused with nearby Sugarloaf Mountain.

Corcovado hill lies just west of the city center but is wholly within the city limits and visible from great distances. It is known worldwide for the 38-metre (125 ft) statue of Jesus atop its peak, entitled Cristo Redentor or "Christ the Redeemer".

Cristo Luz

Christ Light (Portuguese: Cristo Luz) is a statue of Jesus Christ in the Brazilian seaside resort Balneário Camboriú.

Inspired in the world-famous Christ the Redeemer statue of Rio de Janeiro, it is a little smaller than Redeemer and it portrays Jesus with a "broad-brimmed hat" like circle on his left shoulder, symbolizing the Sun, which houses a spotlight that shines out to the entire city. The Cristo Luz is lit at night, also having colorful lights in its body that changes periodically.

Cristo del Pacífico

Cristo del Pacífico, "the Christ of the Pacific", is a 37 metre high statue of Jesus erected in Lima, Peru, in 2011. Its erection was a gift from a consortium of Brazilian companies to the city of Lima, under former President Alan García, and described as a parting gift to the nation on occasion of his leaving office after the 2011 presidential election. It was inspired by the Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro.

Foreigners' Street

Foreigners' Street or Yangren Jie (sometimes just Foreigner Street; Chinese: 美心洋人街) is an amusement park and entertainment area in Chongqing, China. It combines various styles of architecture, food, and attractions from around the world. It is northwest of Jiefangbei on the other side of the Yangtze River.

The theme park was established in 2006 and covers 3.5 km2. Initially the site was seen as a European-style pedestrian street. The park includes recreations of well-known landmarks such as a 10-meter Christ the Redeemer statue from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil and a 150-meter section of the Great Wall of China. The site is open 24 hours a day, with free entry, and has been described as "overly kitschy".Foreigners have been encouraged to set up shops, hence the name. Buildings include a church, an upside-down house, and the world's largest public toilet (the "Porcelain Palace"). Foreigners' Street is located near Danzishi in the Nan'an District of Chongqing. The attraction was initiated by the manager of Meixin Group. It covers an area of over two square kilometers.

The Love Land sex theme park attraction would have been near Foreigners' Street. This was due to be opened in 2009, but was demolished by the Chinese authorities before it actually opened. The Porcelain Palace was itself purged of artworks and facilities seen as vulgar by the authorities. Signs for Love Land in Foreigners' Street were removed by the authorities.Laowai Street in Shanghai literally means "Foreigner's Street".

Gheorghe Leonida

Gheorghe Leonida (1892/93–1942) was a Romanian sculptor known for creating the head of Christ the Redeemer, the statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Glória, Rio de Janeiro

Glória is a middle-class neighborhood of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is located between the neighbourhoods of Centro and Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro.

Heitor da Silva Costa

Heitor da Silva Costa (25 July 1873 – 21 April 1947, in Rio de Janeiro) was a Brazilian civil engineer, designer and constructor of the Christ the Redeemer monument in Rio de Janeiro. In 1924, Heitor won a completion for the construction of monumental Christ the Saviour statue Monumento Cristo Redentor on Corcovado in Rio de Janeiro organized by the Catholic Church. The reason for the competition was the one hundred year anniversary of the independence of Brazil (1822). The monument was inaugurated on 12 October 1931.

Jeb Corliss

Jeb Corliss (born March 25, 1976) is an American professional skydiver and BASE jumper. He has jumped from sites including Paris' Eiffel Tower, Seattle's Space Needle, the Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro and the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He lives in Venice, California.

Outline of Rio de Janeiro

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Rio de Janeiro:

Rio de Janeiro – capital and most populous city of Rio de Janeiro state, and the second most populous city in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro was founded in 1565 by the Portuguese as part of the Portuguese Empire. It was the capital and political center of Brazil, where events like the Proclamation of the Republic took place. Brasília overtook Rio de Janeiro as the new capital of Brazil in 1960. Rio de Janeiro is known for its cultural riches, such as Carnival, samba and bossa nova, beaches such as Copacabana and Ipanema, and also for the Christ the Redeemer statue overlooking the city. Major education institutions include the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, the Rio de Janeiro State University, and Colégio Pedro II.

Paritala Anjaneya Temple

Paritala Anjaneya Temple is a temple residing statue of Lord Hanuman. The statue is the tallest one dedicated to Lord Hanuman in the world. It is located in the village of Paritala on NH-9, approximately 30 km from the city of Vijayawada, in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The statue was installed in the year 2003 and stands 135 feet (41 metres) tall.

The statue is taller than Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (38 m, including 8 m pedestal) and attracts many devotees, both foreign and domestic.

The tallest Lord Hanuman statue outside India is at Carapichaima, Trinidad and Tobago, which is 85 ft tall.

Paul Landowski

Paul Maximilien Landowski (1 June 1875 – 31 March 1961) was a French monument sculptor of Polish descent. His best-known work is Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Pix4D

Pix4D is a Swiss company that develops a suite of software products that use photogrammetry and computer vision algorithms to transform RGB, thermal and multispectral images into 3D maps and models. This software is developed and supplied by the company Pix4D SA, which started in 2011 as a spinoff of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Computer Vision Lab in Switzerland.Pix4D suite of products include Pix4Dmapper, Pix4Dfields, Pix4Dbim, Pix4Dmodel and Pix4Dcapture.

Its software solution lines operate on desktop, cloud, and mobile platforms.

Pix4Dmapper has been used to map both the Matterhorn mountain in Switzerland and the Christ the Redeemer statue in Brazil.

Redeemer (Christianity)

In Christian theology, Jesus is sometimes referred to as a Redeemer. This refers to the salvation he is believed to have accomplished, and is based on the metaphor of redemption, or "buying back". Although the Gospels do not use the title "Redeemer", the word "redemption" is used in several of Paul's letters. Leon Morris says that "Paul uses the concept of redemption primarily to speak of the saving significance of the death of Christ." The English word redemption means "repurchase" or "buy back", and in the Old Testament referred to the ransom of slaves (Exodus 21:8). In the New Testament the redemption word group is used to refer both to deliverance from sin and freedom from captivity.The concept of the redeemer is used in the Book of Ruth to refer to the kinsman-redeemer, and in the Book of Isaiah to refer to God, the "Redeemer of Israel".

Many Christian churches are named "Redeemer", such as Redeemer Presbyterian Church (New York City) and the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem. Other institutions which carry the name are the Roman Catholic Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer and Redeemer University College in Ancaster, Ontario. The Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro is a famous landmark.

In Job 19:25, Job makes the statement, "I know that my Redeemer liveth." This has been used in Christian hymnody, such as Charles Wesley's I Know That My Redeemer Lives, and the first words to the song "Antioch 277" in the shape note song book The Sacred Harp are "I know that my Redeemer lives, Glory Hallelujah!". It also appears as an aria, I know that my Redeemer liveth, in Handel's Messiah.

Temple of Solomon (São Paulo)

The Temple of Solomon (Portuguese: Templo de Salomão, IPA: [ˈtẽplu dʒi saloˈmɐ̃w̃]) is a replica of the Temple of Solomon built by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in São Paulo.

According to Brazilian press reports, the new temple is an "exact replica" of the ancient Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. According to the church's leader, "The outside is exactly the same as that which was built in Jerusalem", but with increased dimensions.

Bishop Edir Macedo, the founder and leader of the neo-pentecostal church, at the time of construction explained that "We are preparing ourselves to build the temple, in the same mold as Solomon's. Solomon's Temple … used tonnes of gold, pure gold … We are not going to build a temple of gold, but we will spend tonnes of money, without a shadow of doubt." Bishop Macedo has said that the temple is twice the height of Rio de Janeiro's Catholic-sponsored Christ the Redeemer statue. Inside the temple there is a replica of the Ark of the Covenant constructed according to "biblical orientations".

Virgin of El Panecillo

The Virgin of El Panecillo (in Spanish: Virgen de El Panecillo), also known as the Virgin of Quito by the name of the sculpture in which she is inspired, is a monument of the city of Quito, in Ecuador. It is located on the top of the hill of El Panecillo, a hill in the shape of a small bread that is located in the heart of the city and serves as a backdrop to the Historic Center of Quito.

With a total height of 135 feet (41 meters) including the base, it's the highest statue in Ecuador and one of the highest in South America (taller than the Christ the Redeemer statue in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro). It's also the tallest aluminum statue in the world.

Wonders (album)

Wonders is the fifth studio album by American musical group The Piano Guys. It was released on October 7, 2014 by Portrait Records. The album reached number 12 on the US Billboard 200, making it their highest charting album to date.

The album also features the beginning of their "Wonders of the World" quest, beginning at the Great Wall of China for their video "Kung Fu Piano: Cello Ascends" and the "Christ the Redeemer" statue in Rio for their video "The Mission/ How Great Thou Art".

Wonders of the World (disambiguation)

7 Wonders of the World are lists compiled over the ages that catalogue remarkable natural and man made constructions.The New7Wonders campaigns aim to contribute to the process of uplifting the well being and mutual respect of citizens around the world, through encouraging interaction, expression opinion and direct participation by voting and polling on popular global issues which are understandable to everyone.

Wonders of the World may also refer to:The following list of seven winners is presented without ranking, and aims to represent global heritage.

Great Wall of China (China) ...

Christ the Redeemer Statue (Rio de Janeiro)

Machu Picchu (Peru)

Chichen Itza (Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico)

The Roman Colosseum (Rome)

Taj Mahal (Agra, India)

The Taj Mahal is built on a parcel of land to the south of the walled city of Agra.

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