Chris Dodd

Christopher John Dodd (born May 27, 1944) is an American lobbyist, lawyer, and Democratic Party politician who served as a United States Senator from Connecticut for a thirty-year period from 1981 to 2011.

Dodd is a Connecticut native and a graduate of Georgetown Preparatory School in Bethesda, Maryland, and Providence College. His father, Thomas J. Dodd, was also a United States Senator from 1959 to 1971. Chris Dodd served in the Peace Corps for two years prior to entering the University of Louisville School of Law, and during law school concurrently served in the United States Army Reserve.

Dodd returned to Connecticut, winning election in 1974 to the United States House of Representatives from Connecticut's 2nd congressional district and was reelected in 1976 and 1978. He was elected United States Senator in the elections of 1980, and is the longest-serving senator in Connecticut's history.

Dodd served as general chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1995 to 1997. He served as Chairman of the Senate Banking Committee until his retirement from politics.[1] In 2006, Dodd decided to run for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States, but eventually withdrew after running behind several other competitors.

In January 2010, Dodd announced that he would not run for re-election.[2] Dodd was succeeded by fellow Democrat Richard Blumenthal. Dodd then served as chairman and chief lobbyist for the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) during 2011–2017.[3][4] In 2018, Dodd returned to the practice of law, joining the firm Arnold & Porter.

Chris Dodd
Christopher Dodd official portrait 2
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Motion Picture Association of America
In office
March 17, 2011 – September 5, 2017
Preceded byDan Glickman
Succeeded byCharles Rivkin
Chair of the Senate Banking Committee
In office
January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2011
Preceded byRichard Shelby
Succeeded byTim Johnson
Chair of the Senate Rules Committee
In office
June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003
Preceded byMitch McConnell
Succeeded byTrent Lott
General Chair of the Democratic National Committee
In office
January 21, 1995 – January 21, 1997
Served with Donald Fowler (National Chair)
Preceded byDebra DeLee (Chair)
Succeeded byRoy Romer
United States Senator
from Connecticut
In office
January 3, 1981 – January 3, 2011
Preceded byAbraham Ribicoff
Succeeded byRichard Blumenthal
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Connecticut's 2nd district
In office
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1981
Preceded byRobert Steele
Succeeded bySam Gejdenson
Personal details
Born
Christopher John Dodd

May 27, 1944 (age 74)
Willimantic, Connecticut, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Susan Mooney (1970–1982)
Jackie Clegg (1999–present)
Children2
EducationProvidence College (BA)
University of Louisville (JD)
Signature
Chris Dodd's signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1969–1975
UnitSeal of the United States Army Reserve.svg United States Army Reserve

Early life, education, and early political career

Dodd was born in Willimantic, Connecticut. His parents were Grace Mary Dodd (née Murphy) and U.S. Senator Thomas Joseph Dodd; all eight of his great-grandparents were born in Ireland.[5] He is the fifth of six children;[6] his eldest brother, Thomas J. Dodd, Jr., is a professor emeritus of the School of Foreign Service of Georgetown University, and served as the U.S. ambassador to Uruguay and Costa Rica under President Bill Clinton.

Dodd attended Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit boys' school in Bethesda, Maryland. He graduated with a bachelor's degree in English literature from Providence College in 1966. He served as a Peace Corps volunteer in a small rural town in the Dominican Republic from 1966 to 1968. While there, he became fluent in Spanish.[7] (Later, while in Congress, his support for language study resulted in his being awarded the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Advocacy Award in 1986.[8]) Dodd then pursued his law degree and was awarded his Juris Doctor from the University of Louisville in 1972. He also joined the United States Army Reserve, serving until 1975.

Dodd was part of the "Watergate class of '74" which CNN pundit David Gergen credited with bringing "a fresh burst of liberal energy to the Capitol."[9] Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Connecticut's 2nd congressional district and reelected twice, he served from January 4, 1975 to January 3, 1981. During his tenure in the House, he served on the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations.[10]

U.S. Senate (1981–2011)

Elections

Dodd was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1980, and was subsequently reelected in 1986, 1992, 1998, and 2004. He is the first senator from Connecticut to serve five consecutive terms.

Facing a competitive reelection bid for his Senate seat in 2010 and trailing against both of his likely Republican challengers in public opinion polling,[11] Dodd announced in January 2010 that he would not seek re-election for a sixth term in the Senate. Polls of Connecticut voters in 2008 and 2009 had consistently suggested Dodd would have difficulty winning re-election, with 46% viewing his job performance as fair or poor and a majority stating they would vote to replace Dodd in the 2010 election.[12]

Tenure

During the 1994 elections, the Republicans won the majority in both houses of Congress. Dodd therefore entered the minority for the second time in his Senate career. He ran for the now vacant position of Senate Minority Leader, but was defeated by South Dakota Senator Tom Daschle by one vote. The vote was tied 23–23, and it was Colorado Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell who cast the deciding vote by absentee ballot in favor of Daschle.

From 1995 to 1997, he served as General Chairman of the Democratic National Committee. As General Chairman, Dodd was the DNC's spokesman. Donald Fowler served as National Chairman, running the party's day-to-day operations. Dodd has also involved himself in children's and family issues, founding the first Senate Children's Caucus[13] and authoring the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA),[14] which requires larger employers to provide employees unpaid leave in the event of illness, a sick family member, or the birth or adoption of a child. To date, more than 50 million employees have taken advantage of FMLA mandates. He is working to support a bill that would require employers to provide paid family and medical leave. For his work on behalf of children and families, the National Head Start association named him "Senator of the Decade" in 1990.[14]

Dodd briefly considered running for President in 2004, but ultimately decided against such a campaign and endorsed fellow Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman. He then was considered as a likely running mate for his friend, eventual Democratic nominee John Kerry. He was also considered a possible candidate for replacing Daschle as Senate Minority Leader in the 109th Congress, but he declined, and that position was instead filled by Harry Reid.

Committee assignments

2008 Presidential campaign

On January 11, 2007, Dodd announced his candidacy for the office of President of the United States on the Imus in the Morning show. On January 19, 2007, Dodd made a formal announcement with supporters at the Old State House in Hartford.

Chris Dodd speaking at SEIU event, Jan 27, 2007
Dodd speaking on the campaign trail, January 2007.

The watchdog group opensecrets.org pointed out that the Dodd campaign was heavily funded by the financial services industry, which is regulated by committees Dodd chairs in the Senate.[15][16]

In May, he trailed in state and national polls and acknowledged he was not keeping pace with rival campaigns' fund raising. However, he said that as more voters became aware of his opposition to the Iraq War, they would support his campaign.[17] However, his prospects did not improve; a November 7, 2007 Gallup poll placed him at 1%.[18]

Dodd dropped out of the primary race on the night of the January 3, 2008 Iowa caucuses after placing seventh with almost all precincts reporting, even though he had recently moved from his home state to Iowa for the campaign.[19]

Among eight major candidates for the nomination Dodd, even with later states where he was on the ballot after withdrawal, won last place by popular vote in primary (after Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, John Edwards, Bill Richardson, Dennis Kucinich, Joe Biden and Mike Gravel, also including uncommitted delegates and scattering votes).[20] He won a total of 25,252 votes in delegates primaries and 9,940 in penalized contests.

Dodd later said he was not interested in running for Vice President or Senate Majority Leader.[21] Dodd endorsed former rival Barack Obama on February 26, 2008.[22]

Motion Picture Association of America

In February 2011, despite "repeatedly and categorically insisting that he would not work as a lobbyist",[23][24] Dodd replaced Dan Glickman as chairman of and chief lobbyist for the MPAA.[25][26]

On January 17, 2012, Dodd released a statement criticizing "the so-called 'Blackout Day' protesting anti-piracy legislation."[27] Referring to the websites participating in the blackout, Dodd said, "It is an irresponsible response and a disservice to people who rely on them for information and use their services. It is also an abuse of power... when the platforms that serve as gateways to information intentionally skew the facts to incite their users in order to further their corporate interests."[27] In further comments, Dodd threatened to cut off campaign contributions to politicians who did not support the Preventing Real Online Threats to Economic Creativity and Theft of Intellectual Property Act and the Stop Online Piracy Act, legislation supported by the MPAA.[28]

On September 4, 2017, Dodd stepped down as MPAA CEO, and was replaced by former U.S. Ambassador to France and Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Charles Rivkin.[29][30]

Law practice

Following his tenure at MPAA, Dodd joined law firm Arnold & Porter in Washington, D.C.[31]

Controversies

Countrywide Financial loan controversy

In his role as chairman of the Senate Banking Committee Dodd proposed a program in June 2008 that would assist troubled sub-prime mortgage lenders such as Countrywide Financial in the wake of the United States housing bubble's collapse.[32] Condé Nast Portfolio reported allegations that in 2003 Dodd had refinanced the mortgages on his homes in Washington, D.C. and Connecticut through Countrywide Financial and had received favorable terms due to being placed in the "Friends of Angelo" VIP program, so named for Countrywide CEO Angelo Mozilo. Dodd received mortgages from Countrywide at allegedly below-market rates on his Washington, D.C. and Connecticut homes.[32] Dodd had not disclosed the below-market mortgages in any of six financial disclosure statements he filed with the Senate or Office of Government Ethics since obtaining the mortgages in 2003.[33]

Dodd's press secretary said "The Dodds received a competitive rate on their loans", and that they "did not seek or anticipate any special treatment, and they were not aware of any", then declined further comment.[34] The Hartford Courant reported Dodd had taken "a major credibility hit" from the scandal.[35] At the same time, the Chairman of the Senate Budget Committee Kent Conrad and the head of Fannie Mae Jim Johnson received mortgages on favorable terms due to their association with Countrywide CEO Angelo Mozilo.[36] The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and two Connecticut papers have demanded further disclosure from Dodd regarding the Mozilo loans.[37][38][39][40]

On June 17, 2008, Dodd met twice with reporters and gave accounts of his mortgages with Countrywide. He admitted to reporters in Washington, D.C. that he knew as of 2003 that he was in a VIP program, but claimed it was due to being a longtime Countrywide customer, not due to his political position. He omitted this detail in a press availability to Connecticut media.[41]

On July 30, 2009, Dodd responded to news reports about his mortgages by releasing information from The Wall Street Journal showing that both mortgages he received were in line with those being offered to general public in fall 2003 in terms of points and interest rate.[42]

On August 7, 2009, a Senate ethics panel issued its decision on the controversy. The Select Committee on Ethics said it found "no credible evidence" that Dodd knowingly sought out a special loan or treatment because of his position, but the panel also said in an open letter to Dodd that the lawmaker should have questioned why he was being put in the "Friends of Angelo" VIP program at Countrywide: "Once you became aware that your loans were in fact being handled through a program with the name 'V.I.P.,' that should have raised red flags for you."[43]

Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac controversies

Dodd was involved in issues related to the federal takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac during the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis. As part of Dodd's overall mortgage bill the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 before Congress in the summer of 2008, Treasury Secretary Hank Paulson sought provisions enabling the Treasury to add additional capital and regulatory oversight over these government-sponsored enterprises. At the time, it was estimated that the federal government would need to spend $25 billion on a bailout of the firms.[44]

During this period, Dodd denied reports claiming that these firms were in financial crisis. He called the firms "fundamentally strong",[45] said they were in "sound situation" and "in good shape" and to "suggest they are in major trouble is not accurate."[46] In early September, after the firms continued to report huge losses,[47] Secretary Paulson announced a federal takeover of both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Dodd expressed skepticism of the action, which the Treasury estimated could cost as much as $200 billion.

Dodd was the top recipient in Congress, followed by John Kerry, Barack Obama, then Hillary Clinton, of campaign funds from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac during 1989–2008.[48]

Irish Cottage controversy

In February 2009, Kevin Rennie, a columnist at the Hartford Courant, ran an op-ed concerning Dodd's acquisition of his vacation home in Roundstone, Ireland.[49] The article alleged that Dodd's former partner in buying the home had ties to disgraced Bear Stearns principal Edward Downe, Jr. who had since been convicted of insider trading by the Securities and Exchange Commission.[50] After paying an $11 million fine for his role in the scam, Downe later obtained a pardon in the waning days of the Bill Clinton administration. The controversial pardon was granted after Dodd lobbied Clinton on Downe's behalf. Dodd's letter to the President said, "Mr. President, Ed Downe is a good person, who is truly sorry for the hurt he caused others".[51] After Downe's pardon, Dodd bought out the interests of his partner for a price allegedly based on a 2002 bank appraisal of the Roundstone home, which yielded little profit for Dodd's partner.[52][53] Rennie criticized Dodd for claiming the Roundstone home was worth less than $250,000 in Senate ethics filings; some observers estimated the likely value in excess of US$1 million.[54]

In June 2009, Dodd provided a new statement to the Senate reporting the actual value of his Irish property at $658,000.[55] The Wall Street Journal later compared this issue to the ethical charges which led to the political demise of Alaska Senator Ted Stevens.[56]

AIG federal assistance and bonuses controversy

From the fall of 2008 through early 2009, the United States government spent nearly $170 billion to assist failing insurance giant American International Group. AIG then spent $165 million of this money to hand out executive "retention" bonuses to its top executives. Public outrage ensued over this perceived misuse of taxpayer dollars.

The Fox Business Network's Rich Edson broke the story claiming Dodd was responsible for the inclusion of a clause limiting excessive executive pay in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.[57][58][59][60] On February 14, 2009, The Wall Street Journal published an article, Bankers Face Strict New Pay Cap, discussing a retroactive limit to bonus compensation inserted by Dodd into the stimulus bill that passed in the Senate.[61]

The same article went on to mention that Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner and Lawrence Summers "had called Sen. Dodd and asked him to reconsider".

When the bill left conference, Dodd's provision had been amended to include a provision preventing limits on bonuses previously negotiated and under contract. This provision was lobbied for by Geithner and Summers.

As Dodd explained in a March 18, 2009 interview on CNN,[62] at Geithner and the Obama Administration's insistence he allowed his provision's original language to include Geithner and Summers' request, which in turn allowed AIG to give out bonuses under previously negotiated contracts. However, Dodd's provision also included language allowing the Treasury Secretary to examine bonuses doled out and, if they were found to be in violation of the public interest, recoup those funds.

Dodd retreated from his original statement that he did not know how the amendment was changed.[63] Dodd was criticized by many in the Connecticut media for the flip-flop.[64][65] In a March 20, 2009 editorial the New Haven Register called Dodd "a lying weasel"[66] The same day, Hartford Courant columnist Rick Green called on Dodd not to seek re-election in 2010.[67]

The Hill described Dodd as "reeling" from the controversy[68] and having "stepped in it" after changing his story about the bonus amendment.[69]

At a press conference in Enfield, Connecticut, on March 20, 2017 Dodd responded to critics and explained that his original answer to CNN was based on a misunderstanding of the question.[70] He also said he was disappointed that the Treasury officials who asked him to make the legislative changes had not identified themselves, refusing to confirm the identity of the individuals responsible for changing the amendment.[71]

The Manchester Journal Inquirer suggested that "Chris Dodd's explaining may have only begun".[72]

Opensecrets.org reported that Dodd received over $223,000 from AIG employees, many of whom were Connecticut residents, for his campaigns.[73] Additionally, realclearpolitics.com reported that Dodd's wife was a former director for Bermuda-based IPC Holdings, a company controlled by AIG. She held this position before she married him.[74] On May 3, 2009, the Courant reported Dodd's wife served on a number of corporate boards, including the CME Group and could be earning as much as $500,000 annually for those services.[75] On March 30, 2009, The Courant reported that former AIG Financial Products head Joseph Cassano personally solicited contributions from his employees in Connecticut via an e-mail in fall 2006, suggesting that the contributions were related to Dodd's ascension to the chairmanship of the Senate Banking Committee.[76]

Political positions

Sen Dodd speaks at a Navy ceremony at New London, Conn, July 6, 1985.JPEG
Dodd giving a speech at Naval Submarine Base New London, July 1985.

Dodd supported amending the Family and Medical Leave Act, which he authored in 1993, to include paid leave,[77] and a corporate carbon tax to combat global warming.[78]

Dodd is credited with inserting the last-minute pay limit into American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The pay restrictions included prohibition of bonuses in excess of one-third of total salary for any company receiving any money from the plan and was retroactive to companies that received funds under Troubled Assets Relief Program.[79] Fortune magazine however, panned this provision as likely to "drive the craftiest financial minds away from the most troubled institutions". This article also pointed out the Dodd bill delegated to the Treasury Secretary the right to approve appropriate restaurants for client entertainment.[80]

In May 2009, Dodd was the author and lead sponsor of the Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility, and Disclosure Act of 2009, which was signed into law by President Barack Obama on May 22, 2009. The law requires card companies give cardholders 45 days notice of any interest rate increases, prevents card companies from retroactively increasing interest rates on the existing balance of a cardholder in good standing for reasons unrelated to the cardholder's behavior with that card, and prohibits card companies from arbitrarily changing the terms of their contract with a cardholder, banning the so-called practice of "any-time, any-reason repricing." Also included in the bill were provisions requiring companies to give cardholders time to pay their bills by requiring card companies to mail billing statements 25 calendar days before the due date and individuals under the age of 21 to either show income or have a co-signer in order to obtain a credit card. In a conference call with reporters after the bill was signed, Dodd stated his intention to continue work on capping credit card interest rates at thirty percent and to establish limits on fees that merchants pay when a customer uses a credit card for a purchase.[81]

Dodd announced on June 22, 2009, that he supports same-sex marriage. He had opposed gay marriage in the 2008 election, but stated that his daughters are growing up in a different generation than his and that his views have evolved over time.[82] Same-sex couples have been able to marry in Connecticut since November 12, 2008, following the Connecticut Supreme Court's ruling.[83][84] In April 2009, the legislature overwhelmingly passed and Governor Jodi Rell signed a bill making all references to marriage in law gender neutral.[85][86]

Personal life

In 1970, Dodd married Susan Mooney; they divorced in 1982.[87][88] Afterwards, he dated at different times Bianca Jagger and Carrie Fisher, among others.[89]

In 1999, Dodd married Jackie Marie Clegg, a native of Orem, Utah, former longtime aide to Senator Jake Garn, Republican of Utah, and former official at the Export-Import Bank of the United States.[90] The marriage joined Dodd's family of Eastern Catholic Democrats with Clegg's family of LDS (Mormon) Republicans from the Utah Valley.[90] The couple has two daughters, Grace (born September 2001) and Christina Dodd (born May 2005).[90][91]

Dodd was raised as a Catholic and attends Mass.[92] In 2007, Dodd stated that his Catholic faith taught him "to promote the common good" and "do everything possible to provide a safety net for the most vulnerable."[92] Dodd also credited his Catholic background with his decision to join the Peace Corps.[92] Dodd's two children were baptized in the Catholic tradition and blessed in the Mormon tradition.[92]

He made a brief cameo appearance as himself in the political satire film Dave (1993).[93]

On July 31, 2009, Dodd announced he had been diagnosed with prostate cancer; his aides said that it was at an early, treatable stage and Dodd would undergo surgery during the Senate August recess.[94][95] The surgery, held at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, was successful.[96]

Awards and honors

In 2008, Dodd received the Washington Office on Latin America's Human Rights Award.[97]

In 2014, Dodd received The Media Institute's Freedom of Speech Award.[98]

In 2016, Dodd received the Brass Ring Award from the United Friends of the Children, a Los Angeles charitable organization, in recognition of his work on behalf of children while in the Senate.[99]

See also

References

  1. ^ Moore, Heidi (November 9, 2007). "Wall Street experts invade Washington". Financial News Online US. Archived from the original on November 13, 2007.
  2. ^ Abrupt Dem retirements show tough landscape Associated Press; January 6, 2010
  3. ^ "Chris Dodd's leading role". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
  4. ^ Faughnder, Ryan (April 28, 2017). "Christopher Dodd will leave MPAA and be replaced by Charles Rivkin". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  5. ^ Battle, Robert. "The Ancestors of Chris Dodd".
  6. ^ Biography of Thomas J. Dodd Archived September 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Florida Capital News: Dominican Republic RPCV Senator Chris Dodd campaigns in Florida to help Democrats with Hispanic vote". Peace Corps Online. October 25, 2002. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
  8. ^ "The James W. Dodge Foreign Language Advocate Award". Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
  9. ^ Gergen, David (February 21, 2001). Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership from Nixon to Clinton. Simon and Schuster. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-7432-1949-5.
  10. ^ "IV. Separate Remarks, Views and Dissent of Members of the Committee". Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. 1979. p. 483.
  11. ^ "2010 Connecticut Senate Race". Retrieved January 6, 2010.
  12. ^ "Sen. Chris Dodd To Retire". Hartford Courant. Hartford Courant. January 6, 2010. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
  13. ^ "Two for the Senate; Christopher Dodd for Connecticut". The New York Times. October 23, 1992. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
  14. ^ a b Sperling, Gene (January 10, 2008). "Biden, Dodd Showed Depth of Democrats". Bloomberg News. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
  15. ^ Ritsch, Massie (April 18, 2007). "Financiers, Along with Lawyers, are Underwriting the Race for the White House, Watchdog Finds". Opensecrets.org. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  16. ^ "Christopher J. Dodd". 2008 Presidential Election Campaign Money. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  17. ^ "Sen. Dodd Calls For End To Iraq War". The Washington Post. Philip Elliott. May 26, 2007.
  18. ^ Newport, Frank (November 7, 2007). "Hillary Clinton's Big Lead in Democratic Race Unchanged". Gallup. Retrieved November 2, 2007.
  19. ^ Rhee, Foon (January 3, 2008). "Dodd withdraws from Democratic field". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 2, 2010.
  20. ^ "US President - D Primary Race - Jan 03, 2008". Our Campaigns. Retrieved on August 14, 2010.
  21. ^ Miga, Andrew (January 6, 2008). "Failed White House bid could boost Dodd among Democrats". Boston.com. Archived from the original on May 7, 2008. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  22. ^ Helman, Scott (February 26, 2008). "Dodd: Obama has tapped 'hearts and souls'". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008.
  23. ^ Greenwald, Glenn (March 2, 2011) Chris Dodd shows how Washington works Archived August 31, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Salon.com
  24. ^ Nagesh, Gautham (March 1, 2011) Dodd to be Hollywood's top man in Washington, The Hill
  25. ^ Barnes, Brooks (February 20, 2011). "M.P.A.A. and Christopher Dodd Said to Be Near Deal". The New York Times. Media Decoder (blog). Retrieved February 20, 2011.
  26. ^ Carney, Timothy (March 1, 2011) The Great 2010 Cashout: Dodd writes regulations Hollywood likes, gets hired as Hollywood lobbyist, Washington Examiner
  27. ^ a b Dodd, Christopher (January 17, 2012). "Senator Dodd Responds to Blackout Protests" (PDF). M.P.A.A.
  28. ^ Brendan Sasso (January 20, 2012). "Consumer group accuses Hollywood of 'threatening politicians'".
  29. ^ Faughnder, Ryan (April 28, 2017). "Shake-up at the MPAA. Hollywood's chief lobbyist, Chris Dodd, to be replaced by Charles Rivkin". Los Angeles Times.
  30. ^ Petski, Denise (April 28, 2017). "Chris Dodd Stepping Down As Chairman Of MPAA; Charles Rivkin To Take Over". Deadline.
  31. ^ Wilson, Meghan R. "Chris Dodd joins K Street firm"; The Hill; Capitol Hill Publishing Corp.; News Communications, Inc. 16 Jan. 2018.
  32. ^ a b "Angelo's Angel". The Wall Street Journal. June 19, 2008.
  33. ^ Journal Inquirer > Archives > Connecticut > Dodd defends his Countrywide mortgages
  34. ^ Damian Paletta, "Dodd Tied to Countrywide Loans", The Wall Street Journal, June 13, 2008
  35. ^ Elections - Courant.com Archived June 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Simpson, Glenn R.; Hagerty, James R. (June 7, 2008). "Countrywide Friends Got Good Loans". The Wall Street Journal.
  37. ^ "A Friend in Need". The Washington Post. June 17, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  38. ^ "Beltwaywide Financial". The Wall Street Journal. June 16, 2008.
  39. ^ Sen. Scandal: Dodd's sweet deal The Republican-American Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Rep-am.com (June 17, 2008). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  40. ^ Selected Item Archived October 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Hamilton, Jesse A. (June 17, 2008). "Dodd Tells Different Stories at News Conferences". Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2008.
  42. ^ Feinberg Allegations Against Dodd are Old News, Facts Show that Dodd's Loans were at Market Rates | U.S. Senator Christopher J. Dodd Archived January 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Dodd.senate.gov. Retrieved on August 14, 2010.
  43. ^ Crittenden, Michael R.. (August 7, 2009) Senate Ethics Panel Clears Dodd, Conrad on Countrywide Loans - WSJ.com. Online.wsj.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  44. ^ "Sen. Dodd: Fannie, Freddie 'Too Big To Fail'". NPR. July 23, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
  45. ^ Crittenden, Michael R. (July 11, 2008). "Sen. Dodd calls Fannie, Freddie 'fundamentally strong'". MarketWatch. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
  46. ^ Michak, Don (July 14, 2008). "Dodd defends Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac, rips Bush and the Fed". Journal Inquirer. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
  47. ^ Duhigg, Charles (August 8, 2008). "Mortgage Giants to Buy Fewer Risky Home Loans". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
  48. ^ "Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Invest in Democrats". Center for Responsive Politics. July 16, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
  49. ^ Dodd's 'Cottage': A Cozy Purchase. Courant.com (February 22, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  50. ^ "Business Ethics of the Rich and Famous?". Time. June 15, 1992. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  51. ^ Dodd Delivers Heated Response To Critics - Politics News Story - WFSB Hartford. Wfsb.com. Retrieved on August 14, 2010.
  52. ^ Dodd's 'Cottage': A Cozy Purchase. Courant.com (February 22, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  53. ^ Chris Dodd's Irish 'Cottage' - WSJ.com. Online.wsj.com (March 12, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  54. ^ "How politics works: Senator Christopher Dodd and his cosy Irish cottage". The Daily Telegraph. London. February 24, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  55. ^ Topic Galleries. Courant.com. Retrieved on August 14, 2010. Archived June 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ Dodd's Irish Luck - WSJ.com. Online.wsj.com (June 20, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  57. ^ Edson, Rich. "Fox Business: Rich Edson on Chris Dodd provisions exempting AIG bonuses". YouTube. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  58. ^ Rich Edson, Amid AIG Furor, Dodd Tries to Undo Bonus Protections He Put In Archived October 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Fox Business Network, March 17, 2009
  59. ^ Rich Edson, Amid AIG Furor, Dodd Tries to Undo Bonus Protections He Put In Fox Business Network by way of Blue Mass Group, March 17, 2009
  60. ^ Michelle Malkin, Chris Dodd: For AIG bonuses before he was against them Michellemalkin.com, March 17, 2009
  61. ^ Solomon, Deborah; Mark Maremont; David Enrich; Dan Fitzpatrick (February 14, 2009). "Bankers face strict new pay cap. Stimulus bill puts retroactive curb on bailout recipients; Wall Street fumes". The Wall Street Journal. p. A1. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
  62. ^ "Breaking: I was responsible for bonus loophole, says Dodd". CNN. March 18, 2009.
  63. ^ Chris Dodd Admits To Adding Loophole In Stimulus That Allowed A.I.G. Bonuses. YouTube. Retrieved on August 14, 2010.
  64. ^ Dodd KO'd - Helen Ubinas | Notes from HeL. Blogs.courant.com. Retrieved on August 14, 2010.
  65. ^ Wayn, Michael. (March 19, 2009) Sen. Chris Dodd Changes Explanation on AIG Bonuses - Capitol Watch. Blogs.courant.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  66. ^ EDITORIAL: Dodd lied about AIG bonuses- The New Haven Register - Serving New Haven, Connecticut Archived February 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. The New Haven Register. Retrieved on August 14, 2010.
  67. ^ Dodd Needs To Say He Won't Run In 2010. Courant.com (March 20, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  68. ^ Aaron Blake (March 19, 2009). "Storm center hanging over Chris Dodd". The Hill.
  69. ^ Ben Pershing (March 19, 2009). "AIG Bonuses Light a Fire Under Congress". The Washington Post.
  70. ^ Dodd Sets the Record Straight About AIG. YouTube. Retrieved on August 14, 2010.
  71. ^ "Dodd defends actions as an AIG exec returns $6 million bonus". CNN. March 20, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
  72. ^ > Archives > Chris Powell > Chris Dodd's explaining may have only begun. Journal Inquirer (March 21, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  73. ^ Ritsch, Massie. (March 16, 2009) Before the Fall, AIG Payouts Went to Washington - OpenSecrets Blog. OpenSecrets. Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  74. ^ Articles - Dodd's Wife a Former Director of Bermuda-Based IPC Holdings, an AIG Controlled Company. RealClearPolitics (March 23, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  75. ^ Board Of Compensation - Hartford Courant Archived May 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Courant.com (May 3, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
  76. ^ Topic Galleries. Courant.com. Retrieved on August 14, 2010. Archived April 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  77. ^ "Economic Opportunity". Christopher Dodd Presidential Campaign 2007. Archived from the original on December 16, 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  78. ^ Chris Dodd Campaign (May 11, 2007). "Chris Dodd: Dodd Touts Energy Plan At Biodiesel Plant, Kitchen Tables In Southeast Iowa". Archived from the original on May 7, 2008. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
  79. ^ Solomon, Deborah and Mark Maremont (February 14, 2009). "Bankers Face Strict New Pay Cap: Stimulus Bill Puts Retroactive Curb on Bailout Recipients; Wall Street Fumes". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. p. A1.
  80. ^ Colvin, Geoff (March 6, 2009). "Chris Dodd wants to scrap your bonus". CNN Money. CNN. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
  81. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 6, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  82. ^ Smith, Ben (June 22, 2009). "Dodd backs gay marriage". The Politico. Allbritton Communications Company. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
  83. ^ Gay Marriages Begin in Connecticut
  84. ^ Gay weddings begin in Connecticut as debate rages
  85. ^ AN ACT IMPLEMENTING THE GUARANTEE OF EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE FOR SAME SEX COUPLES
  86. ^ Connecticut Gov. signs gay marriage into law
  87. ^ Elisabeth Bumiller, Christopher Dodd, His Father's Son, The Washington Post (July 13, 1983).
  88. ^ Beth Fouhy,Dodd to drop presidential bid, Associated Press (January 3, 2008).
  89. ^ Elisabeth Bumiller Dodd's Other Campaign: Restoring Dad's Reputation, The New York Times (September 24, 2007).
  90. ^ a b c Lee Davidson, Dodd's Utah ties: Wife's from Orem (January 12, 2007).
  91. ^ Alexandra Marks, Christopher Dodd: a worldview shaped by his father and fatherhood, Christian Science Monitor (December 27, 2007).
  92. ^ a b c d Religion and Politics '08: Christopher Dodd, Pew Research Center (November 4, 2008).
  93. ^ Chris Dodd, Internet Movie Database.
  94. ^ Raymond Hernandez, Dodd to Have Surgery for Prostate Cancer, The New York Times (July 31, 2009).
  95. ^ Perry Bacon Jr., Sen. Christopher Dodd of Conn. to Undergo Cancer Surgery, The Washington Post (August 1, 2009).
  96. ^ Bernie Becker, Successful Surgery for Dodd, The New York Times (August 11, 2009).
  97. ^ WOLA Honors OAS Chief Insulza and Senator Dodd at Annual Event, Washington Office on Latin America (September 17, 2008).
  98. ^ MPAA Chairman, Senator Chris Dodd, Accepts The Media Institute's Freedom of Speech Award, Motion Picture Association of America, Inc. (November 20, 2014).
  99. ^ United Friends of the Children to Honor Senator Christopher Dodd and Polly Williams at the Brass Ring Awards Dinner on June 6, 2016 (press release), United Friends of the Children (May 24, 2016).

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Robert Steele
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Connecticut's 2nd congressional district

1975–1981
Succeeded by
Sam Gejdenson
Party political offices
Preceded by
Abraham Ribicoff
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Connecticut
(Class 3)

1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004
Succeeded by
Dick Blumenthal
Preceded by
Debra DeLee
as Chair of the Democratic National Committee
General Chair of the Democratic National Committee
1995–1997
Served alongside: Don Fowler (National Chair)
Succeeded by
Roy Romer
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Abraham Ribicoff
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Connecticut
1981–2011
Served alongside: Lowell Weicker, Joe Lieberman
Succeeded by
Dick Blumenthal
Preceded by
Mitch McConnell
Chair of the Senate Rules Committee
2001–2003
Succeeded by
Trent Lott
Preceded by
Richard Shelby
Chair of the Senate Banking Committee
2007–2011
Succeeded by
Tim Johnson
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Dan Glickman
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Motion Picture Association of America
2011–2017
Succeeded by
Charles Rivkin
1980 United States Senate election in Connecticut

The 1980 United States Senate election in Connecticut took place on November 3, 1980, alongside other elections to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Abraham Ribicoff decided to retire. Democrat Chris Dodd won the open seat.

1986 United States Senate election in Connecticut

The 1986 United States Senate election in Connecticut took place on November 3, 1986, alongside other elections to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Chris Dodd won re-election to a second term.

1992 United States Senate election in Connecticut

The 1992 United States Senate election in Connecticut took place on November 3, 1992, alongside other elections to the United States Senate in 34 other states, as well as with a presidential election and elections to the United States House of Representatives in all 50 states. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Christopher Dodd won re-election for a third term.

1998 United States Senate election in Connecticut

The 1998 United States Senate election in Connecticut was held November 3, 1998 alongside other elections to the United States Senate in other states as well as elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Chris Dodd won re-election for a fourth term against former Republican U.S. Congressman Gary Franks.

2004 United States Senate election in Connecticut

The 2004 United States Senate election in Connecticut took place on November 2, 2004, alongside other elections to the United States Senate in other states as well as elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections. Incumbent Democrat U.S. Senator Chris Dodd won re-election for a fifth term.

2008 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists individuals who were potential Democratic Party candidates for Vice President of the United States in the 2008 presidential election. After Illinois Senator Barack Obama became the Democratic Party's presumptive presidential nominee on June 3, 2008, Obama formed a small committee, made up of James A. Johnson (who stepped down after one week), Eric Holder and Caroline Kennedy, to help him select a running mate. Veteran Democratic lawyer and advisor James "Jim" Hamilton, of the firm Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, later replaced Johnson in vetting candidates.Obama strongly considered choosing Senator Evan Bayh and governors Tim Kaine and Kathleen Sebelius, but Obama ultimately decided to select Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his running mate. The Obama-Biden ticket won the 2008 presidential election, defeating the Republican McCain-Palin ticket.

2008 Oklahoma Democratic primary

The Oklahoma Democratic primary, 2008, part of the process of selecting that party's nominee for President of the United States, took place on February 5, one of the many nominating contests of 2008's "Super Tuesday". The primary election chose 38 pledged delegates to represent Oklahoma at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. The remainder of Oklahoma's 47 delegates consisted of unpledged superdelegates not bound by the results of the primary. The election was a closed primary, meaning that only registered Democrats could vote in this election. Hillary Clinton won the primary by a significant margin.

Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, and Jim Rogers appeared on the ballot, together with four candidates who had already withdrawn from the contest: Chris Dodd, Bill Richardson, Dennis Kucinich, and John Edwards. All but Rogers had run nationwide campaigns for the presidential nomination; Rogers is a perennial candidate in Oklahoma who had run for lieutenant governor in 2006.

2010 United States Senate election in Connecticut

The 2010 United States Senate election in Connecticut was a midterm election which took place on November 2, 2010 to decide a Class III Senator from the State of Connecticut to join the 112th United States Congress. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Christopher Dodd suffered from dropping approval ratings in the past few years due to major controversies, leading him to announce in January 2010 that he would retire, instead of seeking a sixth term. As Dodd was a Democrat, Richard Blumenthal, incumbent State Attorney General, announced on the same day that he would run for Dodd's seat. The Connecticut Democratic Party nominated Blumenthal on May 21. Businesswoman Linda McMahon won the state party's nominating convention and the August 10 Republican primary to become the Republican candidate.

Berkley Bedell

Berkley Warren Bedell (born March 5, 1921) is a retired American politician and businessman who served as the U.S. Representative for Iowa's 6th congressional district from 1975 to 1987. After starting a successful business in his youth, Berkley Fly Co., he ran for Congress in 1972, but was defeated by incumbent Wiley Mayne. In 1974 however, Bedell beat Wiley Mayne and was elected to the U.S. House.

He was known for his support of representative democracy and his populist style. For example, he would hold town halls and let constituents vote on motions to decide what he would do in Congress on their behalf and these meetings helped Bedell understand the problems of his constituents; as a result, he backed issues that were important to his farming constituency, such as waterway usage fees and production constraints.He did not seek reelection in 1986 after contracting Lyme disease from a tick bite. Though he no longer serves in Congress, Bedell remains active in Iowa politics, strongly supporting Howard Dean in 2004 over John Kerry. In the 2008 presidential election, he met several times with Chris Dodd, but endorsed Barack Obama in the end.

British National Cyclo-cross Championships

The British National Cyclo-cross Championships are held annually. The winners of each event are awarded with a symbolic white cycling jersey featuring blue and red stripes, which can be worn by the rider at other cyclo-cross events in the country to show their status as national champion. The champion's stripes can be combined into a sponsored rider's team kit design for this purpose.

Chris Dodd 2008 presidential campaign

The 2008 presidential campaign of Chris Dodd was launched on January 11, 2007 and ended on January 3, 2008 after a sixth-place finish in the Iowa caucuses. Dodd, the Senior Senator from Connecticut, sought the nomination of the Democratic Party for President of the United States. Centering his campaign in the strategically important states of Iowa and New Hampshire, he tried to bring forth a platform of change. Dodd's performance in the opinion polls varied, but in the financial sphere, he had secured some notable and influential endorsements who had sufficiently funded his campaign.

Dodd tried to follow in the pattern of New Englanders who have entered the race for the Democratic nomination and won, including John Kerry, Michael Dukakis, and John F. Kennedy. If elected, Dodd would have become the second Roman Catholic president (after Kennedy) and the second Connecticut-born president (after George W. Bush). He would have been the first Senator to win the presidency while in office since Kennedy was elected in 1960 (that honor ultimately went to Barack Obama). After his withdrawal from the race, Dodd went on to endorse the eventual winner Barack Obama, and retired from the Senate in 2011.

Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe

The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), also known as the U.S. Helsinki Commission, is an independent U.S. government agency created by Congress in 1975 to monitor and encourage compliance with the Helsinki Final Act and other Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) commitments. It was initiated by House representative Millicent Fenwick and established in 1975 pursuant to Public Law No. 94-304 and is based at the Ford House Office Building.

The Commission consists of nine members from the U.S. House of Representatives, nine members from the United States Senate, and one member each from the Departments of State, Defense, and Commerce. The positions of Chairman and Co-Chairman are shared by the House and Senate and rotate every two years, when a new Congress convenes. A professional staff assists the Commissioners in their work.

The Commission contributes to the formulation of U.S. policy toward the OSCE and the participating states and takes part in its execution, including through Member and staff participation on official U.S. delegations to OSCE meetings and in certain OSCE bodies. Members of the Commission have regular contact with parliamentarians, government officials, NGOs, and private individuals from other OSCE participating states.

The Commission convenes public hearings and briefings with expert witnesses on OSCE-related issues; issues public reports concerning implementation of OSCE commitments in participating States; publishes a periodic Digest with up-to-date information on OSCE developments and Commission activities; and organizes official delegations to participating States and OSCE meetings to address and assess democratic, economic, and human rights developments firsthand.

In February 2018, the CSCE convened in Washington, DC to address the issue of Russian doping in international sport. Central to the discussion was an exploration of the need to protect whistle-blowers. The meeting included testimony from Jim Walden, attorney for Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, the former head of Russia's anti-doping laboratory.

Corporate Air Services HPF821

Corporate Air Services HPF821 was a transport aircraft delivering weapons via airdrop to the Nicaraguan Contras which was shot down over Nicaragua on 5 October 1986 by a surface-to-air missile. Two U.S. pilots and a Nicaraguan Nationalists radio operator died when the Fairchild C-123 Provider was shot down by a Sandinista soldier using an SA-7 shoulder-launched missile, while Eugene Hasenfus, the U.S. "kicker" responsible for pushing the cargo out of the aircraft, survived by parachuting to safety. The aircraft was carrying "60 collapsible AK-47 rifles, 50,000 AK-47 rifle cartridges, several dozen RPG-7 grenade launchers and 150 pairs of jungle boots".Hasenfus was captured within 24 hours, and sentenced by a Nicaraguan court to 30 years in prison; at the request of Senator Chris Dodd and others, he was released in exchange for Sandinista soldiers captured by the Contras. Hasenfus's comments about CIA backing for the flights were initially denied by the U.S. government, but investigations of what became known as the Iran-Contra affair showed that the U.S. had organized this and other flights, and had funded the cargo using illegal weapons sales to Iran.

Debra DeLee

Debra DeLee (born 1948) was Chair of the Democratic National Committee from 1994 to 1995, and was the second woman to hold the post. She also served as CEO of the Democratic National Committee.

She is currently President and CEO of Americans for Peace Now (APN), a national Zionist organization dedicated to enhancing Israel's security through peace and to supporting the Israeli Peace Now movement. She was born in Chicago, Illinois, is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin, Madison. She was a superdelegate for the 2008 Democratic National Convention and endorsed United States Senator Hillary Clinton of New York in the primaries.

Electoral history of Christopher Dodd

Electoral history of Christopher Dodd, senior United States Senator from Connecticut (1981-2011), United States Representative (1975–1981), Democratic National Committee Chairman (1995–1997) and a candidate for the 2008 Democratic Presidential nomination

Friday's Child (album)

Friday's Child is the second album by pop singer Will Young. The album was released on 1 December 2003 and reached number 1 on the UK Albums Chart. The album has gone 5× Platinum in the UK, with worldwide sales of over 1.8 million. The second single taken from the album Your Game won the 2005 BRIT Award for Best British Single.

Fundraising for the 2008 United States presidential election

In the 2008 United States presidential election, fundraising increased significantly compared to the levels achieved in previous presidential elections.

According to required campaign filings as reported by the Federal Election Commission (FEC), 148 candidates for all parties collectively raised $1,644,712,232 and spent $1,601,104,696 for the primary and general campaigns combined through November 24, 2008. The amounts raised and spent by the major candidates, according to the same source, were as follows:

Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama created a broad grassroots movement and a new method of campaigning by courting and mobilizing activists, donations, and voters through the Internet (see grassroots fundraising). It was part of a campaign that mobilized grassroots workers in every state. Obama also set fundraising records in more than one month by gaining support from a record-breaking number of individual small donors.The reported cost of campaigning for president has increased significantly in recent years. One source reported that if the costs for both Democratic and Republican campaigns were added together (for the presidential primary election, general election, and the political conventions), the costs have more than doubled in only eight years ($448.9 million in 1996, $649.5 million in 2000, and $1.01 billion in 2004). In January 2007, Federal Election Commission Chairman Michael E. Toner estimated that the 2008 race would be a $1 billion election, and that to be taken seriously, a candidate would have needed to raise at least $100 million by the end of 2007.Although he had said he would not be running for president, published reports in 2007 indicated that billionaire and New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg had been considering a presidential bid as an independent with up to $1 billion of his own fortune to finance it. Bloomberg ultimately ended this speculation by unequivocally stating that he would not run. Had Bloomberg decided to run, he would not have needed to campaign in the primary elections or participate in the conventions, reducing both the necessary length and cost of his campaign.

With the increase in money expenditures, many candidates did not use the public financing system funded by the presidential election campaign fund checkoff. John McCain, Tom Tancredo, John Edwards, Chris Dodd, and Joe Biden qualified for and elected to take public funds throughout the primary process. Major Democratic candidates Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama chose not to participate in the public financing system.Howard Dean collected large contributions through the Internet in his 2004 primary run. In 2008, candidates went even further to reach out to Internet users through their own sites and such sites as YouTube, MySpace, and Facebook.On December 16, 2007, Ron Paul collected $6 million, more money on a single day through Internet donations than any presidential candidate to date, though this was exceeded with a $10 million day in September 2008 by Barack Obama.

Fundraising plays a central role in many presidential campaigns and is a key factor in determining the viability of candidates. Money raised is applied in many ways, such as for the salaries of non-volunteers in the campaign, transportation, campaign materials, and media advertisements. Under United States law, candidates are required to file campaign finance details with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) at the end of every calendar quarter. Summaries of these reports are made available to the public shortly thereafter, revealing the relative financial situations of all the campaigns.

Motion Picture Association of America

The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is an American trade association representing the five major film studios of Hollywood, and streaming service giant, Netflix. Founded in 1922 as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), its original goal was to ensure the viability of the American film industry. In addition, the MPAA established guidelines for film content which resulted in the creation of the Production Code in 1930. This code, also known as the Hays Code, was replaced by a voluntary film rating system in 1968, which is managed by the Classification and Rating Administration (CARA).

More recently, the MPAA has advocated for the motion picture and television industry, with the goals of promoting effective copyright protection, reducing piracy, and expanding market access. It has long worked to curb copyright infringement, including recent attempts to limit the sharing of copyrighted works via peer-to-peer file-sharing networks and by streaming from pirate sites. Former United States Ambassador to France Charles Rivkin is the current chairman and CEO of the MPAA.

Nationwide opinion polling for the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries

This is a collection of scientific, public nationwide opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the 2008 Democratic presidential candidates.

Class 1
Class 3
Rules
(1870–1947)
Rules and Administration
(1947–Present)
Banking and Currency
(1913–1970)
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
(1970–)
Chairpersons
of the DNC
Presidential
tickets
State and
Territorial
Parties
Conventions
(List)
Affiliated
groups
Related
articles
Democratic Party
Democratic
candidates
Republican Party
Republican
candidates
Draft movements

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.