Choro

Choro (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʃoɾu], "cry" or "lament"), also popularly called chorinho ("little cry" or "little lament"), is an instrumental Brazilian popular music genre which originated in 19th century Rio de Janeiro. Despite its name, the music often has a fast and happy rhythm. It is characterized by virtuosity, improvisation and subtle modulations, and is full of syncopation and counterpoint. Choro is considered the first characteristically Brazilian genre of urban popular music. The serenaders who play choros are known as chorões.[1]

Choro
Stylistic origins
Cultural originsLate 19th century, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Pixinguinha
Pixinguinha (1897–1973) is one of the most important choro composers of all time.
Joaquim Callado003
Joaquim Callado (1848-1880) is considered one of the creators of the choro genre of music.

Choro instruments

Instrumentos choro
Instruments commonly played in choro

Originally choro was played by a trio of flute, guitar and cavaquinho (a small chordophone with four strings). Other instruments commonly played in choro are the mandolin, clarinet, saxophone, trumpet and trombone. These melody instruments are backed by a rhythm section composed of 6-string guitar, 7-string guitar (playing bass lines) and light percussion, such as a pandeiro. The cavaquinho appears sometimes as a melody instrument, other times as part of the rhythm.

Compositional structure

Structurally, a choro composition usually has three parts, played in a rondo form: AABBACCA, with each section typically in a different key (usually the tonal sequence is: principal key->relative mode->sub-dominant key[2]). There are a variety of choros in both major and minor keys.

History

Chiquinha 6a
Chiquinha Gonzaga (1847-1935)
Viriatofigueira
Viriato Figueira (1851-1883)
Ernestonazareth2
Ernesto Nazareth (1863-1934)

In the 19th century, choro resulted from the style of playing several musical genres (polka, schottische, waltz, mazurka and habanera) by carioca musicians, who were already strongly influenced by African rhythms, principally the lundu and the batuque. The term “choro” was used informally at first to refer to the style of playing, or a particular instrumental ensemble, (e.g. in the 1870s flutist Joaquim Antônio da Silva Callado formed an ensemble called "Choro Carioca", with flute, two guitars and cavaquinho),[3][4] and later the term referred to the music genre of these ensembles. The accompanying music of the Maxixe (dance) (also called "tango brasileiro") was played by these choro ensembles. Various genres were incorporated as subgenres of choro such as "choro-polca", "choro-lundu", "choro-xote" (from schottische), "choro-mazurca", "choro-valsa" (waltz), "choro-maxixe", "samba-choro", "choro baião".[5]

Just like ragtime in the United States, tango in Argentina and habanera in Cuba, choro springs up as a result of influences of musical styles and rhythms coming from Europe and Africa.

In the beginning (by the 1880s to 1920s), the success of choro came from informal groups of friends (principally workers of postal/telegraphic service and railway[6]) which played in parties, pubs (botecos), streets, home balls (forrobodós), and also the big hits of Ernesto Nazareth, Chiquinha Gonzaga and other pianists, whose musical scores were published by print houses.[4] By the 1910s, many of the first Brazilian phonograph records are choros.

Much of the mainstream success (by the 1930s to 1940s) of this style of music came from the early days of radio, when bands performed live on the air. By the 1950s and 1960s it was replaced by urban samba in radio, but was still alive in amateur circles called "rodas de choro" (choro gatherings in residences and botecos), the one most famous was the "roda de choro" in the house of Jacob do Bandolim, in Jacarepaguá, and the "roda de choro" in the pub "suvaco de cobra" in the Penha.

In the late 1970s there was a successful effort to revitalize the genre in the mainstream, through TV-sponsored nationwide festivals in 1977 and 1978, which attracted a new, younger generation of professional musicians. Thanks in great part to these efforts, choro music remains strong in Brazil. More recently, choro has attracted the attention of musicians in the United States, such as Mike Marshall and Maurita Murphy Mead, who have brought this kind of music to a new audience.

Most Brazilian classical composers recognize the sophistication of choro and its major importance in Brazilian instrumental music. Radamés Gnattali said it was the most sophisticated instrumental popular music in the world. Heitor Villa-Lobos defined choro as the true incarnation of Brazilian soul. Notably, both composers had some of their music inspired by choro, bringing it to the classical tradition.[7] The French composer Darius Milhaud was enchanted by choro when he lived in Brazil (in 1917) and he composed the ballet Le Boeuf sur le toit, in which he quotes close to 30 Brazilian tunes.[8]

According to Aquiles Rique Reis (a Brazilian singer), ”Choro is classical music played with bare feet and callus on the hands”[9]

Notable Brazilian choro musicians

Notable choro compositions

See also

Suggested reading

  • Livingston-Isenhour, T., and Garcia, T. G. C. (2005). Choro: A Social History of a Brazilian Popular Music. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
  • Koidin, Julie (2011). Os Sorrisos do Choro: Uma Jornada Musical Através de Caminhos Cruzados. São Paulo: Global Choro Music.[2]
  • Koidin, Julie (2013). "Choro Conversations: Pursuing Life, Love and Brazil's Musical Identity," - Fremont, California: Global Choro Music.[3]
  • AMARAL JÚNIOR, José de Almeida (2013). "Chorando na Garoa - Memórias Musicais de São Paulo". São Paulo: Fundação Theatro Municipal de São Paulo.

Films

  • 2005 - Brasileirinho: Grandes Encontros do Choro. Directed by Mika Kaurismäki.
  • 2016 - "Mexicano: Carlito y La Choro Fábrica". Directed by Cristina Gonzalez.

External links

Notes

  1. ^ Béhague, Gerard. "Choro". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Retrieved 22 September 2013. (subscription required)
  2. ^ HighBeam
  3. ^ What is Choro? Archived 2011-10-01 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Livingston-Isenhour, T., and Garcia, T. G. C. (2005). Choro: A Social History of a Brazilian Popular Music. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
  5. ^ http://www.choromusic.com/arquivos/choro_english.pdf pag 4
  6. ^ Alexandre Gonçalves Pinto (1936). O choro - Reminiscências dos chorões antigos.[1]
  7. ^ http://www.brazzil.com/musfeb96.htm
  8. ^ http://daniellathompson.com/Texts/Le_Boeuf/boeuf_chronicles.htm
  9. ^ http://www.brazilianvoice.com/mostracolunas.php?colunista=Aquiles%20Reis&id=772
Altamiro Carrilho

Altamiro Carrilho (born Altamiro Aquino Carrilho; December 21, 1924 – August 15, 2012) was a Brazilian musician and composer. He is widely regarded as a master flutist and a major representative of the choro genre.

Carrilho died of lung cancer on August 15, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro.

Brazilian jazz

Brazilian Jazz can refer to both a genre, largely influenced by Bossa nova, that exists in many nations and the jazz music of Brazil itself.

Choro-Q

Choro-Q (チョロQ) is a series of Japanese 3–4 cm long toy cars, with coil-spring pullback motors, first made by Takara in 1978, and sold extensively in Western markets as Penny Racers.

The name comes from the Japanese word "Choro-choro" which means "dash around" and an abbreviation of "cute" which in its Japanese adaptation connotes both the aesthetic meaning and also the meaning of petite in size.

The Choro-Q car designs are largely based on illustrations by Yasuhiro Nakamura (中村安広) who also design its covers for books and videogames.

Choró

Choró is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Ceara. It is at an altitude of 243m, located on 04°50′36″S 39°08′28″W. Its population was 13,316 (2008). The municipality has a surface area of approximately 792,7 km².

Chôros No. 1

Chôros No. 1 (Chôro típico brasileiro) is a composition for guitar by the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos, written in 1920.

Culture of Brazil

The culture of Brazil is primarily Western, but presents a very diverse nature showing that an ethnic and cultural mixing occurred in the colonial period involving mostly Indigenous peoples of the coastal and most accessible riverine areas, Portuguese people and African people. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, together with further waves of Portuguese colonization, Italians, Spaniards, Germans, Austrians, Levantine Arabs (Syrians and Lebanese), Armenian, Japanese, Chinese, Poles, Helvetians,

Ukrainians and Russians

settled in Brazil, playing an important role in its culture as it started to shape a multicultural and multiethnic society.

As consequence of three centuries of colonization by the Portuguese empire, the core of Brazilian culture is derived from the culture of Portugal. The numerous Portuguese inheritances include the language, cuisine items such as rice and beans and feijoada, the predominant religion and the colonial architectural styles. These aspects, however, were influenced by African and Indigenous American traditions, as well as those from other Western European countries. Some aspects of Brazilian culture are contributions of Italian, Spaniard, German, Japanese and other European immigrants. Amerindian people and Africans played a large role in the formation of Brazilian language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.This diverse cultural background has helped boast many celebrations and festivals that have become known around the world, such as the Brazilian Carnival and the Bumba Meu Boi. The colourful culture creates an environment that makes Brazil a popular destination for many tourists each year, around over 1 million.

Jacob do Bandolim

Jacob do Bandolim born Jacob Pick Bittencourt (February 14, 1918 – August 13, 1969) was a Brazilian composer and musician. Born to a Brazilian-Jewish mother and a gentile father in Rio de Janeiro, his stage name means "Mandolin Jacob", after the instrument he played.

A perfectionist, Jacob was able to achieve from his band Época de Ouro the highest levels of quality. Jacob hated the stereotype of the "dishevelled, drunk folk musician" and required commitment and impeccable dress from his musicians who, like himself, all held "day jobs." Jacob worked as a pharmacist, insurance salesman, street vendor, and finally notary public, to support himself while also working "full time" as a musician.

In addition to his virtuoso playing, he is famous for his many choro compositions, more than 103 tunes, which range from the lyrical melodies of "Noites Cariocas" ("Carioca Nights"), Receita de Samba and "Dôce de Coco" to the aggressively jazzy "Assanhado", which is reminiscent of bebop. He also researched and attempted to preserve the older choro tradition, as well as that of other Brazilian music styles.

List of Choro Q video games

The Choro Q video games are a series of video games based on Takara's Choro Q toy cars (also known as Penny Racers in English-speaking markets). The games have been localised for Western release under many different names, including Gadget Racers, Penny Racers and Road Trip.

Most of these games were developed by external companies, although they are usually credited to Takara since the developers' name rarely appears outside of the ending credits. Some of these developers include Tamsoft (Choro Q, Choro Q 2 and Choro Q 3), Barnhouse Effect (Shin Combat Choro Q, Choro Q HG and Choro Q HG 4), E-game (Choro Q Wonderful!, Choro Q HG 2 and Choro Q HG 3), Electronics Application (aka Eleca) (Choro Q Advance, Choro Q Advance 2, Choro Q: Hyper Customable GB and Perfect Choro Q). Most are auto racing games with extensive opportunities for customization, often including role-playing video game-style elements such as towns and side-quests.

Maham

Maham is a small city, sub-division, tehsil and a municipal committee in Rohtak district in the Indian state of Haryana. The Haryana govt has shown interest in building a Greenfield Cargo Airport at this city to serve the city of Rohtak. AAI has given in-principle consent to this plan in Jan 2014.

Maham is one of the two sub-divisions in Rohtak district. Maham tehsil is further divided into two community development blocks, Maham and Lakhan-Majra.

Maxixe (dance)

The maxixe (Portuguese pronunciation: [maˈʃiʃi]), occasionally known as the Brazilian tango, is a dance, with its accompanying music (often played as a subgenre of choro), that originated in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro in 1868, at about the same time as the tango was developing in neighbouring Argentina and Uruguay. It is a dance developed from Afro-Brazilian dances (mainly the lundu) and from European dances (mainly the polka).

Like the tango, the maxixe travelled to Europe and the United States in the early years of the 20th century.

The music was influenced by various other forms including the Spanish tango, lundu, polka and habanera, and is danced to a rapid 2/4 time. Pianist Ernesto Nazareth composed many Brazilian tangos; he was known for blending folk influences into his tangos, polkas and waltzes. He resisted using folk terms for his compositions; he preferred Brazilian Tango to maxixe.The maxixe was one of the dances that contributed to samba dance styles (such as samba de gafieira) and lambada.

Vernon Castle said of the maxixe in his 1914 book Modern Dancing, "The steps themselves are not difficult; on the contrary, they are childishly simple; it is the easiest dance of all to do, and I think the hardest of all to do well."Troy Kinney (1914) wrote the following about the Maxixe:

This is, virtually, a revival of the Two-step, plus certain Tango steps and enchainements (step sequences). Instead of the Tango's touch-and-turn-in of the foot, it employs a device of resting the heel on the floor, the foot pointed upward, while the body assumes a bent-over posture not particularly attractive.

Music of Brazil

The music of Brazil encompasses various regional musical styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms. Brazilian music developed some unique and original styles such as forró, repente, coco de roda, axé, sertanejo, samba, bossa nova, MPB, música nativista, pagode, tropicália, choro, maracatu, embolada (coco de repente), funk carioca, frevo, brega, modinha and Brazilian versions of foreign musical styles, such as rock, soul, hip-hop, disco music, country music, ambient, industrial and psychedelic music, rap, classical music, fado, and gospel.

Samba has become the best known form of Brazilian music worldwide, especially because of the country's carnival, although bossa nova, which had Antônio Carlos Jobim as one of its most acclaimed composers and performers, have received much attention abroad since the 1950s, when the song "Desafinado", interpreted by João Gilberto, was first released.

The first four winners of the Shell Brazilian Music prize have each left a very important legacy on Brazilian music and are among the most important representatives of Brazilian popular music: Pixinguinha (choro), Antônio Carlos Jobim (bossa nova), Dorival Caymmi (samba and samba-canção).

Instrumental music is also largely practiced in Brazil, with styles ranging from classical to popular and jazz influenced forms. Among the later, Pixinguinha, Hermeto Pascoal and Egberto Gismonti are significant figures. Notable classical composers include Heitor Villa-Lobos, Carlos Gomes and Cláudio Santoro. The country also has a growing community of modern/experimental composition, including electroacoustic music.

Pandeiro

The pandeiro (Portuguese pronunciation: [pɐ̃ˈdejɾu]) is a type of hand frame drum popular in Brazil, and which has been described as an unofficial instrument of that nation. The drumhead is tunable, and the rim holds metal jingles (platinelas), which are cupped creating a crisper, drier and less sustained tone on the pandeiro than on the tambourine. It is held in one hand, and struck on the head by the other hand to produce the sound. Typical pandeiro patterns are played by alternating the thumb, fingertips, heel, and palm of the hand. A Pandeiro can also be shaken to make sound, or one can run a finger along the head to produce a roll.

The Pandeiro is used in a number of Brazilian music forms, such as samba, choro, coco, and capoeira music. The Brazilian Pandeiro derives from the pandeireta or pandereta of Spain and Portugal.

Penny Racers (1998 video game)

Penny Racers is a racing game for the Nintendo 64. It was released in Japan in 1998 and in North America and Europe in 1999. The game is part of the Japanese racing game series Choro Q and is known by the name Choro Q 64 in Japan. (Japanese title: チョロQ64). The game had a Nintendo 64 sequel released only in Japan, Choro Q 64 2: Hachamecha Grand Prix Race. It is a customizable racer game, it has a total of 114 Parts, arranged in eight categories.

Pixinguinha

Alfredo da Rocha Viana, Jr., better known as Pixinguinha (Portuguese: [piʃĩˈɡiɲə]; April 23, 1897 – February 17, 1973) was a composer, arranger, flautist and saxophonist born in Rio de Janeiro. Pixinguinha is considered one of the greatest Brazilian composers of popular music, particularly within the genre of music known as choro. By integrating the music of the older choro composers of the 19th century with contemporary jazz-like harmonies, Afro-Brazilian rhythms, and sophisticated arrangements, he introduced choro to a new audience and helped to popularize it as a uniquely Brazilian genre. He was also one of the first Brazilian musicians and composers to take advantage of the new professional opportunities offered to musicians by the new technologies of radio broadcasting and studio recording. Pixinguinha composed dozens of choros, including some of the most well-known works in the genre such as "Carinhoso", "Glória", "Lamento" and "Um a Zero".

Road Trip Adventure

Road Trip Adventure, also known as Road Trip or Choro Q HG 2 (often mislabeled as Road Trip: Arcade Edition), is a racing adventure video game for the PlayStation 2 developed by E-game (but commonly credited to Takara). The game was released in 2002 in Japan by Takara, in North America by Conspiracy Entertainment, and in 2003 in Europe and other PAL regions by Play It.

The game combines elements of racing and adventure games, and is widely considered to be the best of the Choro Q series due to its large seamless world which the player can freely explore. The game takes place in a world of anthropomorphic cars that interact like humans. As part of the PS2 Classics release, Road Trip Adventure was released on the PlayStation Store for the PS3 in Europe on February 15, 2012; however, it was not released on the American PSN.

Sessai Chōrō

Sessai Chōrō (雪斎長老) (died 1557), also known as Taigen Sessai, was a Japanese abbot and mountain ascetic (yamabushi). He was the uncle of Imagawa Yoshimoto, and served him as military advisor and as commander of Imagawa's forces, despite his lack of any formal battle training or experience.

Sessai aided his nephew in consolidating the Imagawa territories, and in a number of political maneuvers which gained Imagawa influence over the Matsudaira family. By 1548 he had secured a young Tokugawa Ieyasu (a member of the Matsudaira family) as a hostage. However, Imagawa soon came into conflict with the Oda clan, and faced defeat at the 1542 battle of Azukizaka. After this, he left Sessai in command of his armies.

In 1545, Imagawa secured a treaty and alliance between his family and those of the Hōjō and Takeda Shingen. At some point after this, Sessai began to advise Tokugawa Ieyasu, though the extent of his role in Tokugawa's military exploits is unclear, and unlikely to be great.

Sessai died in 1557 due to complications from gout.

Takara

Takara Co., Ltd. (株式会社タカラ) was a Japanese toy company founded in 1955. In March 2006, the company merged with Tomy company limited to form Takara Tomy. The Takara motto was 遊びは文化」("playing is culture").

Tamsoft

Tamsoft Corporation (株式会社タムソフト, Kabushiki Gaisha Tamu Sofuto) is a Japanese video game developer, founded on 26 June 1992.

Some of their most popular games were released for Sony's PlayStation console, including the Battle Arena Toshinden series, early Choro Q games and Guardian's Crusade. Tamsoft has also worked on the PlayStation 2 port of Sega's Virtua Tennis 2 and Itadaki Street 3 for Enix, as well as several games in D3 Publisher's Simple 2000 series. Some other famous series are Dream Club, OneeChanbara and Senran Kagura.

Tico-Tico no Fubá

"Tico-Tico no fubá" [ˈtʃiku ˈtʃiku nu fuˈba] ("sparrow in the cornmeal", or, literally, "rufous-collared sparrow in the cornmeal") is a Brazilian choro song written by Zequinha de Abreu in 1917. Its original title was "Tico-Tico no farelo" ("sparrow in the bran"), but since Brazilian guitarist Américo Jacomino "Canhoto" (1889–1928) had a work with the same title, Abreu's work was given its present name in 1931, and sometime afterward Aloysio de Oliveira wrote the original Portuguese lyrics.

Outside Brazil, the song reached its peak popularity in the 1940s, with successful recordings by Ethel Smith, The Andrews Sisters (with English-language lyrics by Ervin Drake), Carmen Miranda and others.

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