A chokha (Georgian: ჩოხა chokha or ტალავარი t'alavari; Abkhazian: акәымжәы, translit. akʷymzhʷy; Adyghe: цые, translit. tsiya; Persian: چوغا‎, translit. chughā; Armenian: չուխայ, translit. choukha(y); Azerbaijani: çuxa;[1] Chechen: чокхиб, translit. ҫoqib; Kabardian: цей, translit. tsei; Lezgian: чуха, translit. chukha; Ossetian: цухъхъа, translit. cuqqa; Russian: черкеска, translit. cherkeska; Ukrainian: черкеска, translit. cherkeska) is a woolen coat with a high neck that is part of the traditional male dress of the peoples of the Caucasus.[2]

Georgian (604)
Georgian man in a chokha

History and revival

Georgian King Luarsab II of Kartli depicted in a chokha

The chokha has been in wide use among Georgians[3] from the 9th century until the 1920s.[4] It is still used in Georgia as a symbol of national pride, and is frequently worn by Georgian men at weddings and official functions.[5] Worn by Georgians for more than a thousand years, the high-necked wool coat was rarely seen during Soviet rule, but now, for many, it symbolizes pride in the country's past and resistance to its occupation.[6]

Former Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili ordered high-ranking Georgian officials working abroad to present themselves in national costumes, including the chokha, at official meetings.[7]


There are four types of chokha: the Kartl-Kakheti chokha (Kartli and Kakheti are eastern Georgian provinces), the Khevsur chokha (mainly in the Mtskheta-Mtianeti province of Georgia), the Adjarian chokha (mainly found in western Georgian provinces such as Acharuli and Guria, previously also in Lazona), and the general Caucasian chokha.

The Caucasian chokha originated in the Caucasus[8] in the mountainous areas of Georgia. The word chokha entered the Georgian language from Persian. Originally, in Georgia, the garment was referred to as talavari, but later on, after the Persian invasions, Persians started to call Georgian national dress chokha (meaning 'outfit made of fabric'). Russians and Ukrainians called it a cherkeska (meaning 'of/from Circassia'), and the Kuban Cossacks adopted it as part of their costume. In Circassic languages, the chokha is known as shwakh-tsia which means 'covers the horseman', or simply tsia which means 'from fabric' and fasha which means 'fits you'.

In Georgia, the black chokha was reserved for the Order of Chokhosani, who represented an elite cadre of generals, war heroes and famous poets.

The chokha is sewn of thick fabric and flares out at the bottom. In some parts of the Caucasus there are also female chokhas.

In the late 19th century and early 20th century there were three types of chokhas: the Khevsur chokha, the Kartl-Kakheti chokha and general Caucasian chokha.

Khevsurian chokha

Georgische Trachten 1
Khevsureti chokhas

The Khevsur chokha was worn in the Khevsureti province of Georgia in the Greater Caucasus mountains. The Khevsur chokha is considered to be the closest to the medieval version of the chokha. It is mostly short, with trapezoid shapes. The front side of the chokha has rich decorations and slits on the sides, which extend to the waist. The Khevsur chokha has rich decorations made up of crosses and icons.

Kartli-Kakheti chokha

Kartlians and Kakhetians dressed in kartl-kakheti chokha.
Georgian cavalry wearing a Kartli-Kakheti chokha

The Kartli-Kakheti chokha is longer than the Khevsur chokha and has triangle-like shapes on the chest, exposing the inner cloth called arkhalukhi. It tends to have gazyrs (locally called masri) on both sides of the chest—spaces. The skirt usually has slits on the sides. People wear them without belts. The Kartli-Kakheti chokha has long sleeves and is usually black, dark red or blue.

General Caucasian chokha

The general Caucasian chokha shares similarities with the Kartl-Kakheti version. In most cases, different decorations fill the bullet spaces. This type of chokha has black leather belts decorated with silver pieces. It is usually a longer version of the Kartl-kakheti Chokha.[3]

The general Caucasian chokha is usually made of black, grey, white, blue, red or brown fabric. Among Azeris, it is considered part of the traditional outfit for the performers of mugham, an Azeri folk music genre. Traditionally a person's age determines the colour of their chokha.

Generally, the chokha outfit includes a khanjali dagger, an akhalukhi shirt worn under the chokha, masrebi ( gazyrs, bullet/charge holders), and a kabalakhi ( bashlyk, a hood, separate from the robe) or nabdis kudi ( papakha, a tall fur hat).


  1. ^ "Archived copy" Азербайджанская национальная одежда [Azerbaijani national garments] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. Retrieved 16 April 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ McGuinness, Damien (10 July 2011). "Close-Up: Why Georgia's national costume is back in vogue". Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  3. ^ a b Strelkova, Ruso (31 August 2007). "To Wear or not to Wear (a Chokha)? That is the Question". Georgia Today. No. 372.
  4. ^ Abashidze, Irakli. Ed. Georgian Encyclopedia. Vol. IX. Tbilisi, Georgia: 1985.
  5. ^ "Georgia: Love Your Country, Love Your Chokha". 2011-02-20. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  6. ^ "BBC News - Close-Up: Why Georgia's national costume is back in vogue". 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  7. ^ Emkhvari, Elias (25 April 2008). "Chokha". Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  8. ^ Abashidze, Irakli. Ed. Georgian Encyclopedia. Vol. IX. Tbilisi, Georgia: 1985

An arkhalig (Azerbaijani: arxalıq "what goes on the back"; Georgian: ახალუხი, Armenian: արխալուղ, Persian: ارخالق‎) is part of both male and female traditional dress of the peoples of the Caucasus and Iran. The arkhalig originated from the beshmet, a Turkic outer clothing later worn by Cossacks.An arkhalig is a long tight-waist jacket made of various kinds of fabric, such as silk, satin, cloth, cashmere and velvet, traditionally depending on the social status of its owner. Male arkhaligs can be both single-breasted (done up with hooks) and double-breasted (done up with buttons). In cold weather, a chokha is put on above an arkhalig. Female arkhaligs are often ornamented and have tight long sleeves widening on the wrists. A female arkhalig can also include a fur list along the edges, patterned laces and braids, or be decorated with gold embroidery.In the arkhalıq, there are true sleeves, either cut plain, or plain to the elbow and then slit as far as the wrist, or, in the type called lelufar (Persian language, nīlūfar that means lily), flared from the elbow like the bell of a lily and trimmed with an extra 4 cm of lining from the inside.Arkhaligs were in wide use until the 1920s.

Bhojpuri cuisine

Bhojpuri cuisine (Hindi: भोजपुरी खाना) is a part of North Indian and Nepalese cuisine and a style of food preparation common amongst the Bhojpuri people living in the Bhojpuri region of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Bhojpuri foods are mostly mild and are less hot in term of spices used, but could be hotter and spicier according to individual preference. The food is tailor-made for Bhojpuri lifestyle in which the rural folk burn up a lot of calories in the fields. Bhojpuri people take pride in celebrating various festivals and religious rites with food; as a result, their food resembles the delicacies offered to deities.

Bhojpuri peoples enjoy eating both vegetable and meat dishes. The cuisine is heavily influenced by its neighbouring Awadhi and Mughlai cuisine.

Unlike western perception, in which any Indian gravy dish is called curry, Bhojpuri cuisine traces no history with the use of curry powder or curry leaves. The rich gravy dishes of this region, in fact all of North India where curry leaf is an alien spice, can be considered stews rather than curries.

Bihari cuisine

Bihari cuisine (Hindi: बिहारी खाना, Urdu: بِہاری کھانا‬‎) is eaten mainly in Bihar, Jharkhand, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bangladesh, Nepal, Mauritius, South Africa, Fiji, some cities of Pakistan, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname, Jamaica, and the Caribbean, as these are the places where people originating from the state of Bihar are present. Bihari cuisine includes Bhojpuri cuisine, Maithil cuisine and Magahi cuisine. There is also a tradition of meat-eating, and fish dishes are especially common in the Mithila region of North Bihar due to the number of rivers, such as the Sone, Gandak and Ganges and Koshi. There are also numerous Bihari meat dishes, with chicken and mutton being the most common.

Dairy products are consumed frequently throughout the year, with common foods including yogurt known as dahi and also buttermilk known as mattha, ghee, lassi and butter. The cuisine of Bihar is similar to a great extent to North Indian cuisine but has an influence from other East Indian Cuisine (for example like Bengali cuisine). It is highly seasonal, with watery foods such as watermelon and Sherbet made of pulp of the wood-apple fruit being consumed mainly in the summer months and dry foods, preparations made of sesame seeds, poppy seeds in the winter months.

Some dishes for which Bihar is famous for include Bihari Kebab, Litti-Chokha, Bihari Boti, Bihari Chicken Masala, Sattu Paratha, which are parathas stuffed with fried chickpea flour, chokha (spicy mashed potatoes), fish curry and', Postaa-dana kaa halwaa.

Chokha (painter)

Chokha was an early 19th-century painter of Rajasthan in India. He was the son of Bakta, also a painter, and produced works for both the courts of Mewar and Devgarh.


Chokhamela was a saint in Maharashtra, India in the 14th century. He belonged to the Mahar caste, considered "untouchable" in India in that era. He was born at Mehuna Raja, a village in Deulgaon Raja Taluka of Buldhana district. He lived at Mangalvedha in Maharashtra. He wrote many Abhangas. He was one of the first Dalit poets in India.

Chokhamela lived with his wife Soyarabai and son Karmamela in Mangalvedha. Chokhamela's task was to guard and work in farms of uppercast people . As a lower-caste person, Chokha was forced to live outside the town in a separate settlement for members of the untouchable caste.

His family also followed varkari sect.

Soyarabai - Wife

Nirmala - Sister and her husband Banka (who is brother of Soyarabai)

Karmamela - SonHe was initiated into bhakti spirituality by the poet-saint Namdev (1270-1350). Once when he visited Pandharpur, he listened to Sant Namdev's kirtan. Already a devotee of Vitthal alias Vithoba, Chokha was moved by Namdev's teachings.

Later, he moved to Pandharpur. The traditional story is that the upper castes here did not allow him to enter the temple, nor did they allow him to stand in the door of the temple, so he instead built a hut on the other side of the river Chandrabhaga.

While working on construction of a wall in Mangalvedha, near Pandharpur, the wall fell down, crushing some workers. Chokha was one of them. His tomb is in front of the Vitthal temple, Pandharpur, where it can be seen to this day. According to a legend the bones of the dead Chokhamela were still chanting Vitthal, Vitthal, apparently yearning to visit the Vitthal temple. The bones were buried at the footsteps of the Vitthal temple. In early 20th century, the Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar attempted to visit the temple, but was stopped at the burial site of Chokhamela and denied entry beyond that point for being a Mahar.Sant Chokhamela information in Marathi - he is a great sant from Maharashtra.

Choqa Sabz-e Naqd-e Ali

Choqa Sabz-e Naqd-e Ali (Persian: چقاسبزنقدعلي‎, also Romanized as Choqā Sabz-e Naqd-e ‘Alī; also known as Chokhā Sabz) is a village in Zirtang Rural District, Kunani District, Kuhdasht County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 278, in 45 families.

Cinema of Georgia

The cinema of Georgia has been noted for its cinematography in Europe. Italian film director Federico Fellini was an admirer of the Georgian film: "Georgian film is a completely unique phenomenon, vivid, philosophically inspiring, very wise, childlike. There is everything that can make me cry and I ought to say that it (my crying) is not an easy thing."

Energy in Georgia (country)

Georgia had a total primary energy supply (TPES) of 4.793 Mtoe in 2016. Electricity consumption was 11.5 TWh in 2016. Electricity production was 11.6 TWh, of which 81% from hydroelectricity and 19% from natural gas. It is estimated that only 25% of Georgia's total energy is used.

Folk costume

A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital or religious status. If the costume is used to represent the culture or identity of a specific ethnic group, it is usually known as ethnic costume (also ethnic dress, ethnic wear, ethnic clothing, traditional ethnic wear or traditional ethnic garment). Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear.

Following the outbreak of romantic nationalism, the peasantry of Europe came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable. Their dress crystallised into so-called "typical" forms, and enthusiasts adopted that attire as part of their symbolism.

In areas where Western dress codes have become usual, traditional garments are often worn at special events or celebrations; particularly those connected with cultural traditions, heritage or pride. International events may cater for non-Western attendees with a compound dress code such as "business suit or national dress".

In modern times, there are instances where traditional garments are required by sumptuary laws. In Bhutan, the traditional Tibetan-style clothing of gho and kera for men, and kira and toego for women, must be worn by all citizens, including those not of Tibetan heritage. In Saudi Arabia, women are also required to wear the abaya in public.


Gazyr (via Russian: газырь from Turkish hazır, "ready", ultimately from Arabic); Georgian: მასრები masrebi, was an implement to hold a rifle charge: a tube with a bullet and a measure of gunpowder or a paper cartridge. They were carried in gazyr bags or in rows of small pockets on the breast. Later gazyr pockets has become a distinctive element of national dress of the peoples of Caucasus, such as Georgian chokha.Gazyr breast pockets ("gazyrs") were borrowed by Russian Cossacks, together with other elements of Caucasus peoples' outfit, as part of their military uniform.

Georgian dance

There are a number of Georgian dances (Georgian: ქართული ცეკვა), these folk dances of the Georgian people have a number of purposes. Two of these folk dances, Perkhuli and Khorumi, are inscribed on the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Georgia list.

Law enforcement in Georgia (country)

Law enforcement in Georgia is conducted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia. Currently, there are more than 42,000 registered police officers.

List of volcanoes in Georgia (country)

This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Georgia.

Litti (cuisine)

Litti, along with chokha, is a complete meal originated from the Indian subcontinent; and popular in Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, parts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh as well as Nepalese state of Madhesh. It is a dough ball made up of whole wheat flour and stuffed with Sattu (roasted chickpea flour) mixed with herbs and spices and then roasted over coal or cow dung cakes or wood then it is tossed with lots of ghee. Although very often confused with the closely related Baati, it is a completely different dish in terms of taste, texture and preparation. It may be eaten with yogurt, baigan bharta, alu bharta, and papad. The litti are traditionally baked over a cow-dung fire, but in the modern day a new fried version has been developed.Herbs and spices used to flavour the litti include Onion, garlic, ginger, coriander leaves, lime juice, carom seeds, nigella seeds and salt. Tasty pickles can also be used to add spice flavour. In western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh litti is served with murgh korma (a creamy chicken curry) or chokha (a vegetable preparation of roasted and mashed eggplant, tomato, and potato).

Nenu Local

Nenu Local (English: I'm Local) is a 2017 Indian Telugu romantic comedy film directed by Trinadha Rao Nakkina and produced by Dil Raju under his banner, Sri Venkateswara Creations. This film's story, screenplay and dialogues were written by Prasanna Kumar Bezawada. It features Nani and Keerthy Suresh in the lead roles. Music was composed by Devi Sri Prasad. The trailer of the film was launched on 14 January 2017 and the film was released on 3 February 2017. The film received mixed to positive reviews and went on to become a Blockbuster at the box office. Nenu Local became the biggest hit in Nani's career with collections reaching around Rs. 60 crore (Gross) at the Box-office, surpassing his previous career best grosser Bale Bale Magadivoi (2015). It also collected over $1 million at the U.S. box office.

The movie was remade in Bengali in 2018 as Total Dadagiri starring Yash Dasgupta and in Odia in 2018 as Local Toka Love Chokha starring Babushan.


Rkatsiteli (; Georgian რქაწითელი; literally "red stem") is a kind of grape used to produce white wine.


Sherwani (Hindi: शेरवानी; Urdu: شیروانی‬‎; Bengali: শেরওয়ানি) is a long coat-like garment worn in the Indian subcontinent, very similar to a British frock coat or a Polish żupan. It was traditionally associated with the Indian subcontinent. It is worn over a kurta with the combination of either a churidar, a dhoti, a pajama, or a shalwar/sirwal as the lower-body clothing. It can be distinguished from the achkan by the fact that it is shorter in length, is often made from heavier suiting fabrics, and by the presence of a lining.

Sport in Georgia

Historically, Georgia has been famous for its physical education; it is known that the Romans were fascinated with Georgians' physical qualities after seeing the training techniques of ancient Iberia.Among the most popular sports in Georgia are football, basketball, rugby union, wrestling, judo and weightlifting. Other famous sports in 19th-century Georgia were horse polo and lelo, a traditional Georgian game later replaced by rugby union.

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