Choctaw mythology

Choctaw mythology is related to Choctaws, a Native American tribe originally from the Southeastern United States (Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana). In the 19th century, Choctaws were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes." Today the Choctaws have four tribes, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Jena Band of Choctaw Indians, and the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians.

The Choctaw and their ancestors have lived in the Mississippi region for about 4000 to 8000 years. Thousands of years of myth and story-making have contributed to a rich collection of history that spans the centuries. The Choctaw continue to tell and write about the legends that many have experienced in the American Deep South.

Choctaw group
Mississippi Choctaws in traditional clothing, ca. 1908
Choctaw Eagle Dance
Eagle Dance, Choctaw, painted by George Catlin near Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, 1835-7[1]

Choctaw creation

First version

The Choctaw who remain in Mississippi tell the following story as an explanation of how they came to the land where they live now and of how Nanih Waiya Mound came to be.

Two brothers, Chata and Chicksah, led the original people from a land in the far west that had ceased to prosper. The people traveled for a long time, guided by a magical pole. Each night, when the people stopped to camp, the pole was placed in the ground and in the morning the people would travel in the direction in which the pole leaned.

After traveling for an extremely long time, they finally came to a place where the pole remained upright. In this place, they laid to rest the bones of their ancestors, which they had carried in buffalo sacks from the original land in the west.

The mound grew out of that great burial.

After the burial, the brothers discovered that the land could not support all the people. Chicksah took half the people and departed to the North and eventually became the Chickasaw tribe.

Chatah and the others remained near the mound and are now known as the Choctaw.[2]

Second version

At the beginning there was a great mound. It was called Nanih Waiya. It was from this mound that the creator fashioned the first of the people. These people crawled through a long, dark cave into daylight and became the first Choctaw.

Supernatural Native America

MacoocheeMoundEffigyPipe
Effigy pipe from the Nacoochee Mound in Georgia, U.S.

Some early writers, and in later times Cushman and Bushnell, report that the Choctaws believed in a great good spirit and a great evil spirit. It seems that there were a number of supernatural beings mentioned in Choctaw historical accounts. In addition to the native language for what would today be termed God and Devil, the Choctaws believed they had many other "powerful beings" in their midst.

Ancient religion

The Great Spirit of the Choctaw went by various names. Rev. Alfred Wright also said The Great Spirit was referred to as "Nanapesa," "Ishtahullo-chito" or "Nanishta-hullo-chito," "Hushtahli," and "Uba Pike" or "Aba."[3][4] Shilup chitoh osh is a term anglicized to mean The Great Spirit. Chitokaka means The Great One. The terms lshtahullo or nanishtahullo is applied to anything thought to possess some occult or superior power - such as a witch.

Anthropologist theorize that the Mississippian ancestors of the Choctaw placed the sun at the center of their cosmological system. Mid-eighteenth-century Choctaws did view the sun as a being endowed with life. Choctaw diplomats, for example, spoke only on sunny days. If the day of a conference were cloudy or rainy, Choctaws delayed the meeting, usually on the pretext that they needed more time to discuss particulars, until the sun returned. The sun made sure that all talks were honest. The sun as a symbol of great power and reverence is a major component of southeastern Indian cultures.

— Greg O'Brien, Choctaws in a Revolutionary Age, 1750-1830[5]

Hushtahli is from Hashi (sun) and Tahli (to complete an action). Hushtahli is believed to have originated as a Choctaw term without European influence; the Choctaw were believed to be sun worshipers. Fire was the "most striking representation of the sun", having intelligence, and was considered to be in constant communication with the sun.

Interactions between animals and people

Chromesun moundville stone palette01
A digital graphic based on a ceremonial stone palette found at the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama

The Choctaw venerated Sinti lapitta, which was a horned serpent that visited unusually wise young men.[6][7]

Little people and other human-like creatures

They believed in a little man, about two feet high, who dwelled alone in the thick, dark woods. The little man was called Bohpoli or Kowi anukasha, both names being used alone or together. The translation of Bohpoli is the "Thrower". The translation of Kowi anuskasha is "The one who stays in the woods", or to give a more concise translation, "Forest dweller". Little man can be compared to the European counterparts- dwarfs, elves, gnomes, and leprechauns.

little grass known as (ole) to be rather mischievous, but not malicious. The Choctaws believed that they held sticks and stones in them. All unexplained sounds heard in the woods were attributed to (ole) or little grass, believing it took a special pleasure in hitting the pine trees to create noise.

Bohpoli was never seen by the common Choctaws, only the prophets and doctors. The Indian doctors would report that Bohpoli assisted them in the manufacture of their medicines. Some stories even give the account that bohpoli would "steal" little children and take them into the woods, to teach them about herbs and medicines. After returning the children to their homes, Bohpoli would leave them alone, letting them grow up to become doctors of the tribe.

An interesting being mentioned in some of the history writings is Kashehotapalo, a combination of man and deer who delighted in frightening hunters. He was much admired for his speed and agility. If the Choctaws angered Kashehotapalo, he would race ahead of them and warn the enemy or animals being hunted.

Okwa Naholo or Oka Nahullo (white people of the water) dwelled in deep pools and had light skins like the skins of trout. They were believed to sometimes capture human beings whom they converted into beings like themselves.

Hoklonote was a bad spirit who could assume any shape it desired; it was considered to read people's thoughts.

Shadow-like beings

The Choctaws have stories about shadow beings. Nalusa Chito, also known as a Impa Shilup, was the soul-eater, great black being.[3] If people allow evil thoughts or depression to enter their minds, it would creep inside them and eat their soul. Many people of Choctaw Nation will not say his name, in fear of summoning the spirit.

Nalusa Falaya (long black being) resembled a man, but with very small eyes and long, pointed ears. He sometimes frightened hunters or transferred his power of doing harm. Some believed that Nalusa Falaya preferred to approach men by sliding on his stomach like a snake.

Hashok Okwa Hui'ga (Grass Water Drop) was believed to have a connection to what is termed will-o-the-wisp. Only its heart is visible, and that only at night. Hashok Okwa Hui'ga leads astray anyone who looks at it.

It was also believed that every man had a shilombish (the outside shadow) which always followed him, and shilup (the inside shadow, or ghost) which after death goes to the land of ghosts. The shilombish was supposed to remain upon the earth, and wander restlessly about its former home, often moaning, to frighten its surviving friends, as to make them forsake the spot, and seek another place to live. It was also supposed to assume the form of a fox, or owl; and by barking like the one, and screeching like the other at night, cause great consternation, for the cry was considered ominous of bad things. The Choctaws could tell between the shilombish and animals it imitates. When a fox barks, or an owl screeches, another fox or owl replies. But when the shilombish imitates the sound of either animal, no response is given.and the shadow like beings would often stalk children of younger adult age.

The Kashehotapolo is a creature that is neither man nor beast. While having the legs and hoofs of a deer, its body is that of a man. His head and face are small and shriveled, and it is said that one will experience evil if they look upon it. When hunters go near the swamps it inhabits, it sneaks behind them to call loudly before quickly fleeing. Although it does not harm man, it takes delight in their fright as it yells a sound that resembles a woman’s scream. For that reason it was named Kashehotapolo (kashesho, “woman”; tapalo, “call”).[8]

Birds of the dark

Ishkitini, or the horned owl, was believed to prowl about at night killing men and animals. Many believed that when ishkitini screeched, it meant sudden death, such as a murder. If the ofunlo (screech owl) was heard, it was a sign that a child under seven in the family was going to die, as the child would be about the size of a small owl. If opa (a common owl) perched in a barn or on trees near the house and hooted, it foreboded death among the near relatives.

Biskinik, the sapsucker, was known as the newsbird. If he landed on a tree in their yard early in the morning, some "hasty" news would come before noon. If he perched there late at night, the news would come before morning.

Animal-explained occurrences

Animals figure significantly in Choctaw mythology, as they do in most Native American myth cycles. For example, in Choctaw history, solar eclipses were attributed to black squirrels, and maize was a gift from the birds.[8]

Heloha (thunder) and Melatha (lightning) were responsible for the dramatic thunderstorms. In Choctaw mythology, they were two huge birds. Heloha would lay her giant eggs in the clouds and they would rumble as they rolled around atop the clouds. Despite his size, her mate, Melatha, was extremely fast and left a trail of sparks as he streaked across the sky.

Mythological Tales

The Origin of Poison

In a shallow pool of water where the Choctaw people would bathe there was a poison vine. All that would touch the vine would die. The vine liked the Choctaw people and did not want them to die, but could not warn them when its poison would infect the water. It decided to rid itself of its poison and called the chiefs of the snakes, bees, and wasps because they had all been trampled on and accidentally killed by the men. The chiefs came to an agreement to take and share the vine’s poison between themselves as a warning and deterrent from being trampled on.

The bees were the first to take the poison and said that they will take a small amount so as to protect their hives. They too liked the Choctaw people and did not want to kill them with the poison. To show that they were not man's enemy, the bees promised that, after they had been forced to use their sting, they would die.

The next to take the poison were the wasps, who said they will buzz in the ear of man as a warning before they attacked to protect their nests.

Finally, the snakes took the rest of the poison. They promised that they will always warn man with their rattle before they strike to give them the chance to flee.

From then on, it was only the foolish who did not heed the warnings of the small that were hurt from the vine’s poison.[8][9]

The Brothers Tashka and Walo

Two brothers named Tashka and Walo followed the sun for many years from childhood to adulthood. They would follow it throughout its life in the day until it died over the horizon in the evening. One day, the sun rested over a great expanse of water and the boys swam into it, going underneath.

They emerged in the home of the sun, with women all around. These women were the stars and the moon. The moon was the sun’s wife and asked them how they entered their realm. The brothers said that they followed the sun for many years since they were boys. The sun then told his wife to boil water, which he then placed the brothers into until their skin fell off. The sun asked if they knew their way back home. The boys replied no as they looked over the edge of the sky, seeing land, but not being able to discern their home from such a height.

The sun then asked why they had followed him for all these years, to which the brothers replied only to see where he had died. The sun agreed to send them home but instructed them not to talk for four days after they returned, or they would surely die. He called a giant buzzard to fly them home, and after they had landed an old man recognized them and went to tell their mother. The mother, scared since she had not seen them for many days, made them tell her where they had been. They told her of their tale and said that they will now surely die because they did not keep their promise to the sun.

After this the mother was very worried, but they returned home and told the tales of the many years they had followed the sun. After telling all of what they knew, they died and entered heaven.[10][11]

Dog's Lifespan

Soon after the great spirit created all the animals and humans, he asked each how long their lives should be. The dog was the first to respond, excited by the promise of a long life, and asked for 10 years. The rest of the animals did not know how long they wanted, so the spirit gave them the years he thought was best.

He gave humans 3 centuries of life and told the dog that, although its life was short, its quality of life will be determined by its master. If the master was good to the dog, feeding, loving, and caring for it, it will prosper and live long. If the master neglected and abused it, it will live a short and miserable life.[10]

The Origin of Grasshoppers and Ants

During the emergence from Nanih Waiya, the grasshoppers journeyed with man to reach the surface and spread in all directions. But in the travel to the surface, the mother of the grasshoppers was stepped on by the men, stopping the rest of her children from reaching the surface. Those already above ground spread in all directions just as the first tribes of man had done. From then on the Choctaw called the creatures eske ilay (“mother dead”).

As the men emerged from the hill and spread throughout the lands, they would trample on many other grasshoppers, killing and harming the orphaned children. Fearing that they would all be killed as the men multiplied while continuing to emerge from Nanih Waiya, the grasshoppers pleaded to Aba, the great spirit, for aid. Soon after, Aba closed the passageway, trapping many men who had yet to reach the surface within the cavern.

In an act of mercy, Aba transformed these men into ants, allowing them to rule the caverns in the ground for the rest of history.[10]

Choctaw Legends

The Hunter of the Sun

The hunter of the sun is a myth about what happens to the sun when it disappears. None of the prophets or chief leaders could answer this question. A young man embarked on a mission to understand what happens to the sun when it sets. He left his family, community, country to dedicate his life to answering this question. He said he would one day return with the answer to this question. Many years passed -- the young men became old and the old men died -- and people continued to talk about him. He finally returned, as an old man, with the answer to this question. He journeyed to the ocean and found that the sun sets and rises from the water. After sharing this, the old man died.[10]

Nane Chaha

Before the existence of man, there was a hill that had path to the center of the earth. Animals began populating the earth; plants, trees, rivers, and the raw environment began to form. The Choctaw people emerged at the top of the hill from the passageway called the Nane Chaha, and they experienced the light of the sun. After emerging, they scattered throughout the lands[10].

More information on Myths and Sacred Stories

In the book Choctaw Tales by Tom Mould and Chief Phillip Martin, it explains how difficult it could be to pass down sacred stories intergenerationally in the Choctaw Nation, while keeping the story accurate as possible. Storytelling can be difficult only if someone is not sharing the same accurate information. It is important to the Choctaw Nations and many other Indigenous groups because the person sharing the story helps their younger generation understand their history. Unfortunately, if the story is told inaccurately, then it will lose its value. Storytelling is very beneficial in the Choctaw Nation to share Choctaw legacies because it helps people get a better understanding of their culture. For example, before the creation of a written language, history was established by sacred myths, legend and personal reminiscences. These sacred myths helped record the history of the Choctaw and many other Indigenous groups. During these sacred stories and myths, names were mentioned, but dates were hardly included. An example of this would be Choctaw Indian Chief Pushmataha who lived from 1764-1824. Stories are often told about the Indian Chief through family members and the huge impact he had on people’s lives, but the story loses its passion when told by others.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Eagle Dance, Choctaw." Luce Foundation for American Art. (retrieved 7 September 2010)
  2. ^ Taken from Choctaw Creation Myth Archived 26 January 2013 at Archive.today where it is listed as being in the public domain
  3. ^ a b Source Material for the Social and Ceremonial Life of the Choctaw Indians at Google Books
  4. ^ Jobes, Gertrude. Dictionary of Mythology Folklore and Symbols. New York:The Scarecrow Press, 1962.
  5. ^ O'Brien, Greg. "Choctaw and Power". Choctaws in a Revolutionary Age, 1750-1830. University of Nebraska Press.
  6. ^ Alchin, Linda. "Horned Serpent Symbol". Native Indian Tribes. Retrieved 2 November 2013. [...] The Choctaw tribe honored a spirit called 'Sinti lapitta' who was a horned serpent which visited exceptionally wise young men. [...]
  7. ^ Akers, Donna (28 January 2013). "7. Choctaw Arts Ceremonies and Festivals". Culture and Customs of the Choctaw Indians (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 146. ISBN 9780313364013. [...] The Great Serpent, Sinti lapitta, was a giant snake with a head like a panther or, in other oral traditions, a huge snake whose head had two horns. In both beliefs, the Great Serpent was a water monster with great power. [...]
  8. ^ a b c Lankford, George (1987). Native American Legends : Southeastern Legends--Tales from the Natchez, Caddo, Biloxi, Chickasaw, and Other Nations. Little Rock: August House.
  9. ^ "How Poison came into the World - A Choctaw Legend". www.firstpeople.us. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e Mould, Tom (2004). Choctaw tales. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781617030918. OCLC 777549428.
  11. ^ "Brothers who followed The Sun - A Choctaw Legend". www.firstpeople.us. Retrieved 14 April 2019.

External links

Bogeyman

The Bogeyman (; also spelled boogeyman, bogyman, bogieman, boogie monster or boogie man) is a mythical creature used by adults to frighten children into good behaviour. The Bogeyman has no specific appearance, and conceptions vary drastically by household and culture, but is commonly depicted as a masculine or androgynous monster that punishes children for misbehavior. Bogeymen may target a specific act or general misbehaviour, depending on what purpose needs serving, often based on a warning from the child's authority figure.

The term "Bogeyman" is sometimes used as a non-specific personification or metonym for terror, and in some cases, the Devil.

Choctaw

The Choctaw (Choctaw: Chahta) are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States (modern-day Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana). Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group. Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound located in what is central present-day Mississippi. It is still considered sacred by the Choctaw. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs. The anthropologist John Reed Swanton suggested that the Choctaw derived their name from an early leader. Henry Halbert, a historian, suggests that their name is derived from the Choctaw phrase Hacha hatak (river people).The Choctaw coalesced as a people in the 17th century, and developed three distinct political and geographical divisions: eastern, western and southern. These different groups sometimes created distinct, independent alliances with nearby European powers. These included the French, based on the Gulf Coast and in Louisiana Territory; the English of the Southeast, and the Spanish of Florida and Louisiana during the colonial era. During the American Revolution, most Choctaw supported the Thirteen Colonies' bid for independence from the British Crown. They never went to war against the United States but they were forcibly relocated in 1831–1833, as part of the Indian Removal, in order for the US to take over their land for development by European Americans.

In the 19th century, the Choctaw were classified by European Americans as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" because they adopted numerous practices of their United States neighbors. The Choctaw and the United States (US) agreed to nine treaties. By the last three, the US gained vast land cessions; they removed most Choctaw west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory, sending them on a forced migration far from their homelands. The Choctaw were the first Native American tribe forced to relocate under the Indian Removal Act. The Choctaw were exiled from their land because the U.S. desired its resources, and to sell it for settlement and agricultural development by European Americans. Some US leaders believed that by reducing conflict between the peoples, they were saving the Choctaw from extinction. The Choctaw negotiated the largest area and most desirable lands in Indian Territory. Their early government had three districts, each with its own chief, who together with the town chiefs sat on their National Council. They appointed a Choctaw Delegate to represent them to the US government in Washington, DC.

By the 1831 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, those Choctaw who chose to stay in the newly formed state of Mississippi were to be considered state and U.S. citizens, who still maintained their Choctaw Citizenship; they were one of the first major non-European ethnic groups to be eligible for U.S. citizenship. Article 14 in the 1830 treaty with the Choctaw stated Choctaws may wish to become citizens of the United States under the 14th Article of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on all of the combined lands which were consolidated under Article I from all previous treaties between the United States and the Choctaw.During the American Civil War, the Choctaw in both Oklahoma and Mississippi mostly sided with the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy had suggested to their leaders that it would support a state under Indian control if it won the war.

After the Civil War, the Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana Choctaw fell into obscurity for some time. The Choctaw in Oklahoma no longer considered the Mississippi Choctaw part of the Choctaw Nation. However, Jack Amos legally challenged the Choctaw Nation's stance at the turn of the 20th century.

In 1978, the United Supreme Court of the United States held that all remnants of the Choctaw Nation are entitled to all rights of the federally recognized Nation. The American Indian Policy Review Commission Final Report Volume I, Chapter 11, Page 468 on May 19, 1977 federally acknowledged/recognized the existence of the Choctaw Communities of Mobile and Washington Counties which are along the Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers where Choctaw Treaties were negotiated in various Choctaw Treaties.

The Choctaw in Oklahoma struggled to build a nation. They transferred the Choctaw Academy there and opened an academy for girls in the 1840s. In the aftermath of the Dawes Act in the late 19th century, the US dissolved tribal governments in order to extinguish Indian land claims and admit the Indian and Oklahoma territories as a state in 1907. From that period, the US appointed chiefs of the Choctaw and other tribes in the former Indian Territory.

During World War I, Choctaw soldiers served in the U.S. military as the first Native American codetalkers, using the Choctaw language. After the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Choctaw reconstituted their government. The Choctaw Nation had kept their culture alive despite years of pressure for assimilation.

The Choctaw are the third-largest federally recognized tribe. Since the mid-twentieth century, the Choctaw have created new institutions, such as a tribal college, housing authority, and justice system. Today the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, and the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians are the federally recognized Choctaw tribes. Mississippi also recognizes another band, and smaller Choctaw groups are located in Louisiana, Alabama, and Texas. The Alabama Choctaw who are federally recognized under 24 C.F.R 1000 and 25 U.S.C. 4101 called the Native American Housing Self-Determination Act of 1986 (formerly the "Indian" Housing Act of 1937) under which the United States Federal Government jointly owns the MOWA Choctaw Indian Reservation as land held in trust as a reservation and for the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians per multiple deeds in public records in Mobile County, Alabama Department of Revenue Records. The Department of Interior has listed the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians as a trustee of Natural Resources in the Southeast Region of the United States. The National Park Service under the Secretary of Interior has posted public notice of the MOWA Choctaw Indian Reservation in Alabama. The Office of the Secretary of Interior issued the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians its Federal Bureau of Investigations ORI number, formally acknowledging the Government to Government relationship in 1999.

The MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians in Alabama and the Alabama Inter-Tribal Council, which is composed solely of non-federally recognized tribes under Chief Framon Weaver, obtained a US Supreme Court ruling that sovereign immunity applies not only to entities such as the Alabama Inter-Tribal Council as an arm of the tribe, but also that sovereign immunity is inherent and possessed of Indians because they are Indians. This decision of the U.S. Federal Court of Appeals was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in 2002.

Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

The Choctaw Nation (Choctaw: Chahta Yakni) (officially referred to as the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma) is a Native American territory and federally recognized Indian Tribe with a tribal jurisdictional area and reservation comprising 10.5 counties in Southeastern Oklahoma. The Choctaw Nation maintains a special relationship with both the United States and Oklahoma governments.

As of 2011, the tribe has 223,279 enrolled members, of which 84,670 live within the state of Oklahoma and 41,616 live within the Choctaw Nation's jurisdiction. A total of 233,126 people live within these boundaries. The tribal jurisdictional area is 10,864 square miles (28,140 km2).The chief of the Choctaw Nation is Gary Batton, who took office on April 29, 2014, after the resignation of Gregory E. Pyle. The Choctaw Nation Headquarters, which houses the office of the Chief, is located in Durant. The tribal legislature meets at the Council House, across the street from the historic Choctaw Capitol Building, in Tuskahoma. The Capitol Building is now the Choctaw Nation Museum.

The Choctaw Nation is one of three federally recognized Choctaw tribes; the others are the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians and Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. The latter two bands are descendants of Choctaw who resisted the forced relocation to Indian Territory. The Mississippi Choctaw preserved much of their culture in small communities and reorganized as a tribal government under new laws after the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.

Those Choctaw who removed to the Indian Territory, a process that went on into the early 20th century, are federally recognized as the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. The removals became known as the "Trail of Tears."

Creek mythology

Creek mythology is related to a Creek Native American tribe who are originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Mvskoke (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling. Modern Muscogees live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Their language, Mvskoke, is a member of the Creek branch of the Muskogean language family. The Seminole are close kin to the Mvskoke and speak a Creek language as well. The Creeks were considered one of the Five Civilized Tribes. After the Creek War many of the Creeks escaped to Florida to create the Seminole.

IMPA

IMPA may refer to:

Impa, a recurring character in The Legend of Zelda series

Industrias Metalúrgicas y Plasticas Argentinas S.A., an Argentine aircraft manufacturer which made the IMPA Tu-Sa, a civil aviation trainer aircraft

International Marine Purchasing Association, a marine supply-chain organization; see IMPA coding

Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-A (IMP-A or IMP 1), a research satellite launched 1963 as part of the Explorer program

International Motor Press Association, a trade association representing automotive journalists and public relations professionals in the United States

Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e Aplicada, Brazil's National Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics

EET Nº7 Taller Regional Quilmes (IMPA), a high school in Quilmes, Buenos Aires

isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, a metabolite of sarin

List of religions and spiritual traditions

While religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who defined it as a

[…] system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic."

A critique of Geertz's model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category." Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world.The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviours, including clerical hierarchies, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, congregations of laity, regular meetings or services for the purposes of veneration of a deity or for prayer, holy places (either natural or architectural) or religious texts. Certain religions also have a sacred language often used in liturgical services. The practice of a religion may also include sermons, commemoration of the activities of a god or gods, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trance, rituals, rites, ceremonies, worship, initiations, funerals, marriages, meditation, invocation, mediumship, music, art, dance, public service or other aspects of human culture. Religious beliefs have also been used to explain parapsychological phenomena such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences and reincarnation, along with many other paranormal and supernatural experiences.Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths. One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings, and thus religion, as a concept, has been applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures that are not based upon such systems, or in which these systems are a substantially simpler construct.

Mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas comprise numerous different cultures. Each has its own mythologies. Some are quite distinct, but certain themes are shared across the cultural boundaries.

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