Cho Oyu (Nepali: चोयु; Tibetan: ཇོ་བོ་དབུ་ཡ) is the sixth-highest mountain in the world at 8,188 metres (26,864 ft) above sea level. Cho Oyu means "Turquoise Goddess" in Tibetan. The mountain is the westernmost major peak of the Khumbu sub-section of the Mahalangur Himalaya 20 km west of Mount Everest. The mountain stands on the China–Nepal border.
Just a few kilometres west of Cho Oyu is Nangpa La (5,716m/18,753 ft), a glaciated pass that serves as the main trading route between the Tibetans and the Khumbu's Sherpas. This pass separates the Khumbu and Rolwaling Himalayas. Due to its proximity to this pass and the generally moderate slopes of the standard northwest ridge route, Cho Oyu is considered the easiest 8,000 metre peak to climb. It is a popular objective for professionally guided parties.
The south side of Cho Oyu from Gokyo.
|Elevation||8,188 m (26,864 ft) |
|Prominence||2,340 m (7,680 ft) |
|Isolation||29 kilometres (18 mi)|
|English translation||Turquoise Goddess|
|Language of name||Tibetan|
Location in Province No. 1, Nepal and Tibet Autonomous Region, China
Cho Oyu (Nepal)
Cho Oyu (Tibet)
|Location||Nepal (Province No. 1)–China (Tibet)|
|Parent range||Mahalangur Himal, Himalayas|
|First ascent||October 19, 1954 by Herbert Tichy, Joseph Jöchler, Pasang Dawa Lama|
(First winter ascent 12 February 1985 Maciej Berbeka and Maciej Pawlikowski)
|Easiest route||snow/ice/glacier climb|
Cho Oyu's height was originally measured at 26,750 feet (8,150 m) and at the time of the first ascent it was considered the seventh highest mountain on earth, after Dhaulagiri at 8,167 metres (26,795 ft) (Manaslu, now 8,156 metres (26,759 ft), was also estimated lower at 26,658 feet (8,125 m)). A 1984 estimate of 8,201 metres (26,906 ft) made it move up to sixth place. New measurements made in 1996 by the Government of Nepal Survey Department and the Finnish Meteorological Institute in preparation for the Nepal Topographic Maps put the height at 8,188 m, one remarkably similar to the 26,867 feet (8,189 m) used by Edmund Hillary in his 1955 book High Adventure.
Cho Oyu was first attempted in 1952 by an expedition organised and financed by the Joint Himalayan Committee of Great Britain as preparation for an attempt on Mount Everest the following year. The expedition was led by Eric Shipton and included Edmund Hillary, Tom Bourdillon and George Lowe. A foray by Hillary and Lowe was stopped due to technical difficulties and avalanche danger at an ice cliff above 6,650 m (21,820 ft) and a report of Chinese troops a short distance across the border influenced Shipton to retreat from the mountain rather than continue to attempt to summit.
The mountain was first climbed on October 19, 1954, via the north-west ridge by Herbert Tichy, Joseph Jöchler and Sherpa Pasang Dawa Lama of an Austrian expedition. Cho Oyu was the fifth 8000 metre peak to be climbed, after Annapurna in June 1950, Mount Everest in May 1953, Nanga Parbat in July 1953 and K2 in July 1954. Until the ascent of Mount Everest by Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler in 1978, this was the highest peak climbed without supplemental oxygen.
Cho Oyu is considered the easiest eight-thousander, with the lowest death-summit ratio (1⁄25th of Annapurna's). It is the second most climbed eight-thousander after Everest (whose height makes it the most popular), and has over four times the ascents of the third most popular eight-thousander, Gasherbrum II. It is marketed as a "trekking peak", achievable for climbers with high fitness, but low mountaineering experience. It has a broadly flat summit plateau with no cairn (the traditional prayer flags on Cho Oyu's summit plateau do not mark the "technical" summit), which can be a source of confusion, and debate, amongst climbers (see Elizabeth Hawley).
Media related to Cho Oyu at Wikimedia Commons
The 1952 British expedition to Cho Oyu (26,750 feet (8,150 m)) the Turquoise Goddess was organised by the Joint Himalayan Committee. It had been hoped to follow up the 1951 Everest expedition with another British attempt on Everest in 1952, but Nepal had accepted a Swiss application for 1952, to be followed in 1953 with a British attempt. So in 1952 Eric Shipton was to lead an attempt to ascend Cho Oyu, and Griffith Pugh was to trial oxygen equipment and train members for 1953. But the expedition failed both aims; that plus Shipton’s poor leadership and planning resulted in his replacement as leader for the 1953 expedition.The expedition members were Eric Shipton, Charles Evans, Tom Bourdillon, Ray Colledge, Alfred Gregory and Griffith Pugh (UK); from NZ Ed Hillary, George Lowe and Earle Riddiford, and from Canada Campbell Secord. The expedition sailed on 7 March from Southampton; except for Shipton, Pugh and Secord who flew out later.The New Zealand Alpine Club (NZAC) provided financial support, though because of sponsorship by The Times other newspaper articles could not be published until a month afterwards. Riddiford ate and tented with the British members because of his dispute with Lowe in Ranikhet when he was selected for the 1951 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition instead of Lowe (who did not have the money to pay his share of the costs)Alan Hinkes
Alan Hinkes OBE (born 26 April 1954) is an English Himalayan high-altitude mountaineer from Northallerton in North Yorkshire. He is the first and remains the only, British mountaineer to claim all 14 Himalayan eight-thousanders (mountains above 8,000m in height), which he did on 30 May 2005.Alexandru Găvan
Alex Găvan (born 19 May 1982) is a leading Romanian mountaineer specializing in Himalayan climbing of 8000 meter peaks without using supplemental oxygen or sherpa support in his ascents. By now Alex had successfully climbed six 8000 meter peaks. Since 2006, Alex runs a special project to climb all fourteen 8000 meter mountains in the world. At the present moment, he is the first Romanian climber to reach the summit of Gasherbrum I, Makalu and Shishapangma. His other three successful climbs of Cho Oyu, Manaslu and Broad Peak are second Romanian ascents. In 2006, with the successful ascent of Cho Oyu, Alex became at 24 years old the youngest Romanian ever to have climbed an eight thousand meter peak and was among the few who freely spoke about the Nangpa La shootings. He was awarded with "The 2007 Romanian Sportsman of the Year in High Altitude Mountaineering" by the Romanian Federation of Alpinism and Sport Climbing for the first Romanian ascent of Gasherbrum I.Arjun Vajpai
Arjun Vajpai (born 9 June 1993) was the youngest Indian and the youngest in the world to climb Mount Everest back in 2010. He achieved this feat at the age of 16 years, 11 months and 18 days. He broke the record set by Krushnaa Patil of Maharashtra who climbed the summit at the age of 19.
On 20 May 2011, he became the Youngest person ever to summit Lhotse, aged 17 years, 11 months and 16 days. Arjun also became the youngest to summit Manaslu on 4 October 2011. After 3 failed attempts on Makalu , he became the youngest Indian to summit it in his 4th attempt on 22 May 2016. He, after battling paralysis in his first attempt on Cho-oyu in 2012 became the youngest to summit it in a winter assent in 2016 on 4 October.
Arjun Vajpai is also the youngest person in the world to summit six of the fourteen 8000m above mountains. He summited his 6th and India's highest mountain Mt. Kanchanjunga on 20 May 2018.
Arjun Vajpai, Tshering Phinjo Sherpa and Nima Tshering Sherpa started from South Col (Camp IV 7950 m) at 10:24pm on 21 May and they reached the top of Mt. Everest at 06:33 am (Kathmandu time) on 22 May.
On 14 October 2015 Arjun Vajpai along with mountaineer Bhupesh Kumar created history by scaling an unexplored peak 6,180 metres (20,280 feet) high in Himachal's Spiti valley. They named it Mount Kalam in memory of late President of India A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.Arjun Vajpai scaled Mt. Makalu in his fourth attempt in 2016. Makalu is the fifth-highest mountain in the world and the sixth-most difficult to scale.Arjun Vajpai became the youngest Indian mountaineer to scale Mt. Cho Oyu accompanied by Pasang Norbu Sherpa and Lakpa Sherpa. It is the world's fifth-highest mountain in between the Tibet and China boundary at about 8,188 metres (26,864 ft).Arjun Vajpai is the son of Col. Sanjeev Vajpai and Priya Vajpai of Noida. He studied at Ryan International School, Noida. He has been fascinated by trekking and mountaineering since his childhood. He underwent two years of training at the Nehru Institute of Mountaineering.Arjun at his early stage, suffered from Asthama.
In one of his expeditions in 2012, he evaded death and was paralysed for 2 days in the open, at an altitude of 22,000 feet ! The Swiss adventurer Olivier Racine came to his rescue giving him appropriate medicine. Arjun was scaling Mt Cho Oyu, which is deep seated in Tibet. The winds were hostile and the temperature was -60 degrees! On the second day at Camp 2, Arjun woke up with his left side paralysed.Benoît Chamoux
Benoît Chamoux (19 February 1961 – 6 October 1995) was a French Alpinist, who claimed to have summited 13 of the Eight-thousanders in the Himalayas.
Three of these climbs are disputed and are not formally recorded (Makalu in 1995, Cho Oyu in 1990 and Shishapangma in 1990). His official recorded number of ascents is 10.Cho Oyu 8201m – Field Recordings from Tibet
Cho Oyu 8201m – Field Recordings From Tibet is an ambient album released by artist Biosphere under his real name Geir Jenssen. Recorded in 2001, it was released in 2006.Claude Kogan
Claude Kogan (1919–1959) was a pioneering French mountaineer who, after climbing a number of peaks in South America, turned to the Himalayas. After notable feats such as the first ascent of Nun (7,135 m (23,409 ft)), she died in October 1959 while leading a women-only expedition to climb Cho Oyu.Claudine Trécourt
Claudine Trécourt (born 1962) is a French ski mountaineer, high mountain guide and mountain climber. She currently teaches physics and sports. In May 2007 she also took part in an expedition on the Cho Oyu.Doychin Vasilev
Doychin Vasilev (Bulgarian: Дойчин Василев, born 12 June 1944 in Sofia) is a Bulgarian alpinist and cinematographer who has climbed five Himalayan 8,000 m peaks: Dhaulagiri (in 1995), Mount Everest (1997), Makalu (1998), and Shishapangma and Cho Oyu (1999). President of Alpine Club Vihren, Sofia. Participant in the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition Tangra 2004/05, noted by Discovery Channel as a timeline event in Antarctic exploration.Documentaries by Doychin Vasilev: Chomolungma (1997), Makalu (1998), Manaslu (1999), and White Dreams (2001)Eight-thousander
The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognise eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and since 2012 the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.
The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spaniard Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011 Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen. From 1950–1964, all eight-thousanders were summited. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander not summited in a Winter ascent.Gokyo Ri
Gokyo Peak (Nepali: Gokyo Ri) is a 5,357 m (17,575 ft)-high peak in the Khumbu region of the Nepal Himalayas. It is located on the west side of the Ngozumpa glacier, which is the largest glacier in Nepal and reputed to be the largest in the whole Himalayas. Gokyo (4,750 m, 15,583 ft above sea level), at the base of Gokyo Ri, is a small hamlet of a few stone houses and one of the highest settlements in the world. From Gokyo Ri it is possible to see four 8,000-metre peaks: Mount Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, and Cho Oyu. The Gokyo Lakes are in the area.
The Gokyo trek is a fairly popular trekking route. The route itself ends at Gokyo Ri, and trekkers typically turn around at this point and retrace their steps back to the trailhead. There is an alternative mountaineering route that begins near the southern tip of Ngozumpa Glacier and just south of Taujun Lake. This alternative route leads east over the Cho La, a pass at 5,420 m (17,782 ft), where it meets with the main Everest Base Camp trek.
There is another higher summit just north of where the main Gokyo trek route ends. It stands at an altitude of 5,483 m (17,989 ft) above sea level.Mahalangur Himal
Mahālangūr Himāl (Nepali: महालङ्गूर हिमाल, Mahālaṅgūra himāla) is a section of the Himalayas in northeast Nepal and south-central Tibet of China extending east from the pass Nangpa La between Rolwaling Himal and Cho Oyu, to the Arun River. It includes Mount Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, and Cho Oyu — four of Earth's six highest peaks. On the Tibetan side it is drained by the Rongbuk and Kangshung Glaciers and on the Nepali side by Barun, Ngojumba and Khumbu Glaciers and others. All are tributaries to the Koshi River via Arun River on the north and east or Dudh Kosi on the south.
Mahalangur Himal can be divided into three subsections:
Makālu (Nepali: मकालु) nearest the Arun River and along the Nepal-China border including Makalu 8463m, Chomo Lonzo 7790m south of the Kama valley in Tibet, Kangchungtse or Makalu II 7678m, Peak 7199 and some ten others over 6000 metres.
Barun (Nepali: बरुण, Baruṇa) inside Nepal and south of the Makālu section. It includes Chamlang 7319m and Chamlang East 7235m, Peak 7316, Baruntse 7129m, Ama Dablam 6812m and about 17 others over 6000 metres.
Khumbu (Nepali: खुम्बु) along the international border west of the Makalu section, Including the Everest massif: Everest 8848m, Lhotse 8516m, Nuptse 7855m and Changtse 7580m. West of Everest are Pumori 7161m and Cho Oyu 8201m plus some 20 others over 7000 metres and 36 over 6000 metres.The Khumbu region of Nepal is the best known populated part of the Mahalangurs since it is on the access trail to the normal (South Col) route up Everest.Mount Everest reconnaissance from Nepal
After World War II, with Tibet closing its borders and Nepal becoming considerably more open, Mount Everest reconnaissance from Nepal became possible for the first time culminating in the successful ascent of 1953. In 1950 there was a highly informal trek to what was to become Everest Base Camp and photographs were taken of a possible route ahead. Next year the 1951 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition reconnoitred various possible routes to Mount Everest from the south and the only one they considered feasible was the one via the Khumbu Icefall, Western Cwm and South Col. In 1952, while the Swiss were making an attempt on the summit that nearly succeeded; the 1952 British Cho Oyu expedition practised high-altitude Himalayan techniques on Cho Oyu, nearby to the west.Nangpa La
Nangpa La (el. 5,806 m or 19,050 ft) is a high mountain pass crossing the Himalayas and the Nepal-Tibet Autonomous Region border a few kilometres west of Cho Oyu and some 30 km (20 mi) northwest of Mount Everest.
A foot-trail over Nangpa La is the traditional trade and pilgrimage route connecting Tibetans and Sherpas of Khumbu. This was the location of the 2006 Nangpa La shootings.
From this pass the Mahalangur section of the Himalaya extend east past Cho Oyu, Gyachung Kang, Everest, Ama Dablam and Makalu to the gorge of the Arun River. The Rolwaling Himalayas including Gauri Sankar and Melungtse rise west and southwest of the pass.
In 2006, Chinese border guards of the People's Armed Police (PAP) opened fire on 75 unarmed Tibetan refugees as they traversed waist-deep snow in the Nangpa La shooting incident, killing 17-year-old Buddhist nun Kelsang Namtso and leading to the disappearance of a further 17 refugees. Despite an attempted Chinese coverup, several foreign climbers at base camps on Cho Oyu managed to video and photograph the situation as it unfolded and the events drew widespread international condemnation when shown to the outside world.
Satellite ImageNgozumpa glacier
The Ngozumpa glacier, below the sixth highest mountain in the world Cho Oyu in Nepal, at 36 kilometres (22 mi), is the longest glacier in the Himalayas. Ngozumpa Glacier is a large persistent body of ice. It flows slowly due to stresses induced by its weight.Tenzing Peak
Tenzing Peak is the name which has been proposed by the Government of Nepal for a 7,916-metre (25,971 ft) peak in the Himalayas in honour of Tenzing Norgay, who made the first ascent of Everest with Edmund Hillary in 1953. It is also known variously as Ngojumba Kang, Ngozumpa Kang and Ngojumba Ri.
In September 2013 a government panel recommended that two mountains on the ridge between Cho Oyu and Gyachung Kang be called Hillary Peak and Tenzing Peak as part of a batch of new summits that would be opened to climbers in 2014. It is in fact a satellite peak of Cho Oyu.It was first climbed on 24 April 1965 by Naomi Uemura and Pemba Tenzing as part of a Japanese expedition from the Alpine Club of Meiji University.Tingri (town)
Gangga (or Tingri according to name of region) (Tibetan: སྒང་དགའ་, Wylie: sgang dga', Chinese: 岗嘎镇; Pinyin: gǎnggā zhèn) is a town in southern Tibet. It is in Tingri County, Shigatse Prefecture with a population of around 523. It is often used as a base by mountain climbers preparing to ascend Mount Everest or Cho Oyu. Tingri Shelkar (Dring ri Shel dkar) is a small town approximately 60 km north-west of Mount Everest and just over 50 km from the Nepali border in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It is at an altitude of about 4,300 metres (approx. 14,107 feet). The old Shekar Dorje Dzong, or fort, is above the new town and used to enclose Shekar Chode, a Gelug monastery which was completely destroyed but is being restored. It is known for its views of Mount Everest, Mount Lhotse, Mount Makalu, and Cho Oyu, which comprise four of the six highest mountains in the world.
Tingri used to be an important trading post where Sherpas from Nepal exchanged rice, grain and iron for Tibetan wool, livestock and salt. It gives its name to the broad upland basin more than 4,500 metres high that is known as the Tingri Plain. One must cross the pass known as the Lakpa La (5,220 m) to the north to reach the Tsangpo Valley system. Shallow, fast-flowing rivers of melted snow water make its grassy meadowland ideal for grazing by Tibetan animals. The plain used to abound with gazelles, blue sheep, antelopes and khyang or wild asses but, unfortunately, most of the animals are gone now. The Chinese army has a small base nearby.
Tingri Lankor (Ding ri glang 'khor) — Padampa's Residence was founded in 1097 CE by the South Indian Buddhist adept, Padampa Sangye (died 1117) who made five visits to Tibet and was an important person in the re-establishment of the Buddhadharma in Tibet. His consort was the Tibetan dakini Machik Labdron. The gompa or temple was built in the Padampa Sange's meditation cave and became the seat of the Dampapa School of Tibetan Buddhism. It is in the process of restoration.Tingri County
Tingri County or Dhringgri County (Tibetan: དིང་རི་རྫོང་།, Wylie: ding ri rdzong, ZYPY: Tingri Zong; Chinese: 定日县; pinyin: Dìngrì Xiàn), is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Xigazê in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
The county comprises the upper valley of the Bum-chu or Arun River, with the valleys of its tributaries plus the valleys of the Rongshar Tsangpo and the Lapchi Gang Tsanpo which flow south into Nepal. It is bordered on the south by the main range of the Himalayas including Mt. Everest (Tib. Chomolungma), Makalu and Cho Oyu. The present county administration is located at Shelkar, about 87 km (54 mi) east of Tingri (town).It is one of the four counties that comprise the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve (Tingri, Dinjie, Nyalam, and Kyirong).Øyvin Thon
Øyvin Thon (born 25 March 1958) is a Norwegian orienteering competitor, and has seven gold medals at the World Orienteering Championships.
He is married to Brit Volden, also a World Orienteering Champion. In 2005 they both climbed Cho Oyu (8201 meters).