Chlorophenoxy herbicide

Chlorophenoxy herbicides are a class of herbicide which includes: MCPA, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and mecoprop.[1] Large amounts have been produced since the 1950s for agriculture.[2] Acute toxic effects after oral consumption are varied and may include: vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal haemorrhage acutely followed by coma, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, ataxia, nystagmus, miosis, hallucinations and convulsions.[3] Treatment with urinary alkalinization may be helpful but evidence to support this practice is limited.[1][3]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Roberts DM, Buckley NA (2007). "Urinary alkalinisation for acute chlorophenoxy herbicide poisoning". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD005488. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005488.pub2. PMID 17253558.
  2. ^ "Occupational Exposures to Chlorophenoxy Herbicides (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 41, 1986)".
  3. ^ a b Bradberry SM, Proudfoot AT, Vale JA (2004). "Poisoning due to chlorophenoxy herbicides". Toxicol Rev. 23 (2): 65–73. doi:10.2165/00139709-200423020-00001. PMID 15578861.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3. It is a systemic herbicide which selectively kills most broadleaf weeds by causing uncontrolled growth in them, but leaves most grasses such as cereals, lawn turf, and grassland relatively unaffected.

2,4-D is one of the oldest and most widely available herbicides and defoliants in the world, having been commercially available since 1945, and is now produced by many chemical companies since the patent on it has long since expired. It can be found in numerous commercial lawn herbicide mixtures, and is widely used as a weedkiller on cereal crops, pastures, and orchards. Over 1,500 herbicide products contain 2,4-D as an active ingredient.

Dichlorprop

Dichlorprop is a chlorophenoxy herbicide similar in structure to 2,4-D that is used to kill annual and perennial broadleaf weeds. It is a component of many common weedkillers. About 4 million pounds of dichlorprop are used annually in the United States.

Pesticide poisoning

A pesticide poisoning occurs when chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as humans, wildlife, or bees. There are three types of pesticide poisoning. The first of the three is a single and short-term very high level of exposure which can be experienced by individuals who commit suicide, as well as pesticide formulators. The second type of poisoning is long-term high-level exposure, which can occur in pesticide formulators and manufacturers. The third type of poisoning is a long-term low-level exposure, which individuals are exposed to from sources such as pesticide residues in food as well as contact with pesticide residues in the air, water, soil, sediment, food materials, plants and animals.In developing countries, such as Sri Lanka, pesticide poisonings from short-term very high level of exposure (acute poisoning) is the most worrisome type of poisoning. However, in developed countries, such as Canada, it is the complete opposite: acute pesticide poisoning is controlled, thus making the main issue long-term low-level exposure of pesticides.

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