Chittorgarh pronunciation (help·info) (also Chittor or Chittaurgarh) is a major city and a municipality in Rajasthan state of western India. It lies on the Berach River, a tributary of the Banas, and is the administrative headquarters of Chittorgarh District and a former capital of the Sisodia Rajput Dynasty of Mewar. The city of Chittaurgarh is located on the banks of river Gambhiri and Berach. Chittorgarh-Nimbahera is area is also famous for its cement factories . There are many cement plants. Chittorgarh is also famous for Marbles and Granites. Chittorgarh is home to the Chittor Fort, the largest fort in India and Asia. It was the site of three major sieges (1303, 1535, and 1567–1568) by Muslim invaders, and its Hindu rulers fought fiercely to maintain their independence. On more than one occasion, when faced with a certain defeat, the men fought to death while the women committed suicide by jauhar (mass self-immolation). Chittor also has been a land of worship for Meera, It is also known for Panna Dai.
Chittor Fort, Chittorgarh
Location in Rajasthan, India
|Founded by||Chitrangada Mori|
|Named for||Chitrangada Mori|
|• Body||Chittorgarh Municipal Council|
|• Total||350.76 km2 (135.43 sq mi)|
|Elevation||394.6 m (1,294.6 ft)|
|• Density||330/km2 (860/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, English, Mewari|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
Originally called Chitrakuta, the Chittor Fort is said to have been built by Chitranga, a king of the local Mori dynasty (Moris are a branch of Parmar Rajputs, not to be confused with the imperial Mauryans).
The Guhila (Gahlot) ruler Bappa Rawal is said to have captured the fort in either 728 CE or 734 CE. However, some historians doubt the historicity of this legend, arguing that the Guhilas did not control Chittor before the reign of the later ruler Allata.
In 1303, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji defeated the Guhila king Ratnasimha, and captured the fort. The fort was later captured by Hammir Singh, a king of the Sisodia branch of the Guhilas. Chittor gained prominence during the period of his successors, which included Rana Kumbha and Rana Sanga. In 1535, Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged and conquered the fort. After he was driven away by the Mughal emperor Humayun, the fort was given back to Sisodias by him.
Chittorgarh is located at  It has an average elevation of 394 metres (1292 ft).Chittorgarh is located in the southern part of the state of Rajasthan, in the northwestern part of India.It is located beside a high hill near the Gambheri River.Chittorgarh is located between 23° 32' and 25° 13' north latitudes and between 74° 12' and 75° 49' east longitudes in the southeastern part of Rajasthan state.The district encompasses 10,856 square km (3.17 per cent of the Rajasthan State) area of land..
The completed Golden Quadrilateral highway system passes through Chittorgarh, connecting it to much of the rest of India. The East West Corridor (Express Highway) also crosses it. Chittorgarh is situated on National Highway No. 76 & 79. National Highway 76 connects to Kota with a driving time of 2 hours.
Chittaurgarh Junction is a busy junction of Western Railway of Indian Railways, Ratlam Division. It has direct rail links with all major Indian cities including Ajmer, Udaipur, Jaipur, Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Pune, chennai, rameswaram, Yeshwantpur, Ahmadabad, Surat, Indore, Ratlam, Gwalior, Bhopal, Nagpur, Bilaspur, and Kota, Mysore.
Chittorgarh is well connected to all parts of India by roads. The Golden Quadrilateral Road Project and North-South-East-West corridor expressways pass through Chittorgarh City. The bus stand (bus depot) of Chittorgarh is located between the old and new cities. There are good bus services (private as well as state-owned) available for Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Bundi, Kota, Udaipur and other major cities.
Rajasthan Roadways (RSRTC) provides a service for visiting areas around Chittorgarh. Rajasthan Roadways also has premier services called Pink Line, Silver line and Sleeper Coaches (Grey Line).
The nearest airport is Udaipur (Dabok Airport). The airport is located 70 kilometers from Chittorgarh and linked by daily air service from New Delhi, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Ahmedabad, Chennai and Mumbai.
Maharana Pratap Jayanti The legendary Maharana Pratap was a true patriot who initiated the first war of independence. Maharana was born on May 9, 1540 in Kumbhalgarh in Rajsamand district of Rajasthan to Maharana Udai Singh II and Rani Jeevant Kanwar.Maharana Pratap has gained amazing respect and honor as he is seen as an epitome of valor, heroism, pride, patriotism and the spirit of independence.His birth anniversary (Maharana Pratap Jayanti) is celebrated as full-fledged festival every year on 3rd day of Jyestha Shukla phase.
Special puja and processions are held in his remembrance on Maharana Pratap Jayanti day everywhere.Several cultural programs such as debate are also organized.
Meera Mahotsav Meera Bai (1498 - 1547) was a devout follower of Lord Krishna. Meera Bai was one of the foremost exponents of the Prema Bhakti (Divine Love) and an inspired poet. Mira Bai was a Rajput princess who lived in the north Indian state of Rajasthan.Meera was Rajput princess born in about 1498 in Metra, Rajasthan. Her father, Ratan Singh, was the youngest son of Rao Duda, ruler of Merta, and son of Rao Duda ruler and founder of Jodhpur. Ratan Singh belonged to the Rathore clan.She was married to Bhoj Raj, ruler of Chittor.
Meera Smrithi Sansathan (Meera Memorial Trust) along with the Chittorgarh district officials organise Meera Mahotsav every year on Sharad Purnima day (On Mirabai's birth anniversary) for 3 days. Many famous musicians and singers get together to sing bhajan's in this celebration. The 3 days celebration also features puja's, discussions, dances, fire works etc.
Teej Teej is one of the major festivals in Chittorgarh which is celebrated with great enthusiasm.Teej is the festival of swings. It marks the advent of the monsoon month of Shravan (August). The monsoon rains fall on the parched land and the pleasing scent of the wet soil rises into the air. Swings are hung from trees and decorated with flowers. Young girls and women dressed in green clothes sing songs in celebration of the advent of the monsoon. This festival is dedicated to the Goddess Parvati, commemorating her union with Lord Shiva. Goddess Parvati is worshipped by seekers of conjugal bliss and happiness.
Gangaur The Gangaur Festival is the colourful and most important local festival of Rajasthan and is observed throughout the State with great fervour and devotion by womenfolk who worship Gauri, the consort of Lord Shiva during July-Aug. Gan is a synonym for Shiva and Gaur which stands for Gauri or Parvati who symbolises saubhagya (marital bliss). Gauri is the embodiment of perfection and conjugal love which is why the unmarried women worship her for being blessed with good husbands, while married women do so for the welfare, health and long life of their spouses and a happy married life.
Jauhar Mela The fort and the city of Chittorgarh host the biggest Rajput festival called the "Jauhar Mela". It takes place annually on the anniversary of one of the jauhars, but no specific name has been given to it. It is generally believed that it commemorates Padmini's jauhar, which is most famous. This festival is held primarily to commemorate the bravery of Rajput ancestors and all three jauhars which happened at Chittorgarh Fort. A huge number of Rajputs, which include the descendants of most of the princely families, hold a procession to celebrate the Jauhar. It has also become a forum to air one's views on the current political situation in the country.
Rang Teras – The Tribal Fair Rang Teras is a popular tribal fest of Mewar celebrated on the 13th moon night of the month of Chaitra. A big colorful fair and huge gathering of tribal to rejoice the harvest of wheat has been celebrating Rang Teras is customary since 15th century. It is a thanksgiving festival of farmers. Farmers pay their honor to Mother Earth for providing them food for next year.As a part of Celebrations, young men in village perform their valiant skills while dancing.It is also celebrated is Sri Krishna Temples all around North India and ISKCON Temples.
Hindustan Zinc Limited (Chanderiya Lead-Zinc Smelter)
Chanderiya Lead-Zinc Smelter is the one of the largest zinc-lead smelting complexes in the world. Its current metal production capacity is 610,000 tonnes per annum (525,000 tonnes per annum of zinc and 85,000 tonnes per annum of lead). In the year ended March 2013, Chanderiya produced 443,000 MT of zinc and 60,000 MT of lead. The main products are special high grade (SHG) zinc, continuous galvanizing grade (CGG) zinc, prime western (PW) zinc and pure lead. It also produces a number of valuable by-products including silver and cadmium.
The Akola–Ratlam rail line is a railway line in India linking Akola in Maharashtra with Ratlam in Madhya Pradesh.Bari Sadri
Bari Sadri is a town and a municipality in Chittaurgarh district in the state of Rajasthan, India.Begun
For Begun farmer's movement see Begun movement. For people with Begun surname see Begun (surname).Begun is a city and a municipality in Chittaurgarh district in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is also one of the historical towns of Chittorgarh district. One of Mewar's important rivers, Brahmani, flows through Begun. Begun also has a fort which is surrounded by a small river. Shahid Rupaji Karpaji freedom fighter lead "Begun Bijoliya Kisan Anndolan" in leadership of Shahid Vijay Singh Pathik.Berach River
The Berach River, a tributary of the Banas River, is a river of Rajasthan state in western India. The Berach originates in the hills of Udaipur District, northeast of Udaipur city. The river has a length of 157 km, and drains a basin of 7,502 km². It flows northeast through Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Bhilwara districts, joining the Banas near Bigod village of Bhilwara district. The fortress city of Chittorgarh lies on the Berach. Its chief tributaries are the Ahar, Wagli, Wagon, Gambhiri and Orai, which join it from the right. The Ayar flows through the city of Udaipur, joining the Berach at the reservoir of Udai Sagar.Chandra Prakash Joshi
Chandra Prakash Joshi is an Indian politician and a member of parliament to the 16th Lok Sabha from Chittorgarh (Lok Sabha constituency), Rajasthan. He is also the state President of the Bhartiya Janta Party youth wing (Bjym), Rajasthan. He won the Indian general election, 2014 being a Bharatiya Janata Party candidate.Chittaurgarh Junction railway station
Chittaurgarh Junction (station code: COR) is one of the major railway junctions in Southern Rajasthan, India. The railway station of Chittorgarh is located on a broad gauge line and falls under the administrative control of Western Railway Zone of Indian Railways and consists of 7 main railway platforms.
Chittaurgarh Junction is connected by rail with Jaipur via Bhilwara and Ajmer, Kota via Bundi, Jodhpur via Ajmer, Indore Junction BG, Bhopal, Indore Mhow, Ujjain, Ratlam, Nagda Junction, Ajmer and Hazrat Nizamuddin, Bandra Terminus, Mysuru, New Jalpaiguri by many broad gauge trains. The city is also connected to Udaipur City via Mavli Jn. Some weekly trains to Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Agra, Mathura, Kanpur , Rameshwaram, Patliputra pass through this station.Chittor Fort
The Chittor Fort or Chittorgarh is one of the largest forts in India. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The fort was the capital of Mewar and is located in the present-day town of Chittor. It sprawls over a hill 180 m (590.6 ft) in height spread over an area of 280 ha (691.9 acres) above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River. The fort precinct has several historical palaces, gates, temples and two prominent commemorative towers.Beginning in the 7th century, the fort was controlled by the Mewar Kingdom. From the 9th to 13th centuries, the fort was ruled by Paramara dynasty. In 1303, the Turkic ruler of Delhi, Alauddin Khalji defeated Rana Ratan Singh's forces at the fort. In 1535 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat, defeated Bikramjeet Singh and took the fort. In 1567 Akbar defeated Maharana Udai Singh II's troops. The fort's defenders sallied forth to charge the attacking enemy but yet were not able to succeed. Following these defeats, the women are said to have committed jauhar or mass self-immolation. The rulers, soldiers, noblewomen and commoners considered death preferable to the mass rape and pillaging that was thought to occur following to surrender to the Sultanate forces.In 2013, at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Chittorgarh Fort, along with five other forts of Rajasthan, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as a group called the Hill Forts of Rajasthan.Chittorgarh (Lok Sabha constituency)
Chittorgarh Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 25 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Rajasthan state in India.Chittorgarh district
Chittorgarh District is a district of Rajasthan state in western India. The historic city of Chittorgarh is the administrative headquarters of the district.
The district has an area of 10,856 km², and a population of 1,802,656 (2001 census). The district is disjunct, divided into a larger western portion and a smaller eastern portion by Neemuch District of Madhya Pradesh. The western portion is bounded by Neemuch, Mandsaur, and Ratlam districts of Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Rajasthan district of Pratapgarh to the south, Udaipur and Rajsamand to the east, and Bhilwara to the north. The eastern portion is bounded by Bhilwara, Bundi, and Kota districts of Rajasthan to the north and Neemuch District of Madhya Pradesh to the south and west. It is
divided into 10 tehsils which are: Chittorgarh, Rashmi, Gangrar, Begun, Kapasan, Rawatbhata,
Dungla, bhadesar, Bari Sadri and Nimbahera.Jauhar
Jauhar, sometimes spelled Jowhar or Juhar, was the Indian custom of mass self-immolation by women in parts of the Indian subcontinent, to avoid capture, enslavement and rape by any foreign invaders, when facing certain defeat during a war. Some reports of jauhar mention women committing self-immolation along with their children. This practice was historically observed in northwest regions of India, with most famous Jauhars in recorded history occurring during wars between Hindu Rajput kingdoms in Rajasthan and the Muslim armies. Jauhar is related to sati, and sometimes referred in scholarly literature as jauhar sati.Kaushik Roy said that the jauhar custom was observed only during Hindu-Muslim wars, but not during internecine Hindu-Hindu wars among the Rajputs. Hawley however disagrees and states it was present before them and was likely started by the actions of the Greek conquerors.The term jauhar sometimes connotes with both jauhar-immolation and saka ritual. During the Jauhar, Rajput women committed suicide with their children and valuables in massive fire, to avoid capture and abuse in the face of inescapable military defeat and capture. Simultaneously or thereafter, the men would ritually march to the battlefield expecting certain death, which in the regional tradition is called saka.Jauhar by Hindu kingdoms has been documented by Islamic historians of the Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire. Among the oft cited example of jauhar has been the mass suicide committed in 1303 CE by the women of Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan, faced with invading army of Khalji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. The jauhar phenomenon was also observed in other parts of India, such as in the Kampili kingdom of northern Karnataka when it fell in 1327 to Delhi Sultanate armies.Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Mandaphia
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Mandaphia, situated in Mandaphia town of Chittorgarh district of Rajasthan, is one of the Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas which are set up all over India. It is a part of the system of gifted education. The objectives of the scheme were to provide good quality modern education to the talented children predominantly of rural areas, without regard to their family's socioeconomic condition.The school was opened on 22 August 1987. There are approximately 557 JNVs across India as of now and it is one of them. It offers free education to all students who get selected through the admission process which includes an All India Entrance Exam, held at district level.
It comes under the Jaipur region of Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti.Kalika Mata Temple, Chittorgarh Fort
Kalika Mata Temple is an 8th-century Hindu temple located within the Chittor Fort in the Chittorgarh municipality of Rajasthan state in India. The upper parts of the structure are more recent. It predates Maharana Pratap and has thousands of visitors every day. The goddess worshipped at this temple is an aspect of goddess Bhadrakali, clan goddess of Panwar(Mori Panwar)clan,The Mori Panwar Clan are the descendent of Chitrangna Mori,who built Chittorgargh.Kalika Mata is Kuldevi of Mori Panwar Clan.Kota district
Kota District is a district of the state of Rajasthan in western India. The city of Kota is the administrative headquarters of the district.
During the period around 12th century AD, Rao Deva, a Hada Chieftain conquered the territory and founded Bundi and Hadoti. In the early 17th century AD, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, the ruler of Bundi -Rao Ratan Singh, gave the smaller principality of Kota to his son, Madho Singh. Since then Kota became a hallmark of the Rajput gallantry and culture. In Pre Independence days social activist Guru Radha Kishan worked here along with other prominent freedom fighters and organised people against insane policies of the government. He left Kota after local administration came to know about the arrest warrant issued against him for his activities for freedom movement.
The district is bounded on the north by Bundi District, on the east by Baran District, on the south by Jhalawar District, and on the west by Chittorgarh District. It is renowned for its IIT JEE preparation as well as medical exams preparation . It is now the hub of educational institutions and is home to Asia's biggest manufacturer of fertilizer.
Further, Kota is surrounded by four power stations within its 50 km radius. First is Rajasthan atomic power plant which is an atomic power plant and is very near to Kota at a place called Rawatbhata and is situated at a place called Rawatbhata in the Chittorgarh District. Second is Kota Thermal Power plant which generates power from coal and is situated at the bank of Chambal river and is within Kota city. Third is Anta Gas Power plant which generates power from gas and is situated at a place called Anta in the Baran District. and the fourth is Jawahar Sagar Power plant which is hydraulic power plant.Nimbahera
Nimbahera is a town and a municipality in Chittorgarh district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located around 350 km (220 mi) south-west of the state capital, Jaipur.
Nimbahera is well connected through both rail and road; it lies on the railway line connecting Ajmer to Ratlam.Nimbahera railway station
Nimbahera railway station is a railway station in Chittaurgarh district, Rajasthan. Its code is NBH. It serves Nimbahera town. The station consists of a single platform. Passenger, Express, and Superfast trains halt here.Samadhishvara Temple, Chittorgarh
The Samadhishvara Temple (IAST: Samādhīśvara) is a Hindu temple located in the Chittor Fort in Rajasthan, India. It is dedicated to Shiva, who is called "Samadhishvara", that is, "Lord of Samadhi". Epigraphic evidence suggests that the temple was constructed in the 11th century, and was further restored in the 13th and the 15th centuries.Sanwariaji Temple
The Sanwaliaji temple of the Dark Krishna is situated on the Chittorgarh - Udaipur Highway, at the town of bhadsora, about 40 kilometers from Chittorgarh. The deity also known as Shri Sanwaria Seth. The legends has it that in the year 1840, a milkman named Bholaram Gurjar dreamt of three divine statues buried under the ground in the Chapar village of Bhadsora-Bagund. When the villagers started digging the place, they found the three statues, exactly as Bholaram saw in his dream. They were the statues of LORD KRISHNA-all of them beautiful and mesmerizing.
One of the statues was taken to Mandaphiya, one to Bhadsoda and the third remain at the very place where it was found. All three locations became temples. When it was brought to Mandaphiya, at that time shri Rodulalji jain (Village head of Mandaphiya) with the help of villagers built a small temple consisting of four walls and shade and placed the statue by performing all the necessary rituals.Later on, the three temples of Sanwaliya Ji became renowned and devotees visit them in large numbers every day.
Located just 40 from Chittorgarh - the historic city of valor and devotion - Mandaphiya is now known as Shri Sanwaliya Dham (The residence of Lord Krishna) and is second to Shri Nathadwara to the followers of the Vaishnav Sect. People believe that all their desires are fulfilled when they visit Shri Sanwaliya Seth's Darbar (Court of Shri Sanwaliya Ji).Siege of Chittorgarh (1567–1568)
The Siege of Chittorgarh (20 October 1567 – 23 February 1568) was a part of the campaign of the Mughal Empire against the kingdom of Mewar in 1567. Forces led by Akbar surrounded and besieged 8,000 Rajputs and around 40,000 peasants under the command of Jaimal in Chittorgarh.