Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh

Chittoor is a city and district headquarters in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is also the mandal and divisional headquarters of Chittoor mandal and Chittoor revenue division, respectively.[2] The city has a population of 2,89,625 and that of the agglomeration is 3,53,766.[3]

Chittoor railway station
Chittoor is located in Andhra Pradesh
Chittoor is located in India
Coordinates: 13°12′00″N 79°07′00″E / 13.2000°N 79.1167°ECoordinates: 13°12′00″N 79°07′00″E / 13.2000°N 79.1167°E
StateAndhra Pradesh
Municipal corporation2012
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyChittoor Municipal Corporation (CMC), Chittoor Urban Development Authority
 • City95.97 km2 (37.05 sq mi)
Area rank7th (Andhra Pradesh)
333.75 m (1,094.98 ft)
 • Rank13th (Andhra Pradesh) 233 (India)
 • Metro353,766
 • OfficialTelugu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code+91–08572
Vehicle registrationAP–03,AP-39
WebsiteOfficial website


After the Indian independence in 1947, Chittoor became a part of the erstwhile Madras state. The modern Chittoor District was formerly North Arcot District, which was established by the British in the 19th century had Chittoor as its headquarters[citation needed] . On 1 April 1911, district was split into Chittoor district and North Arcot District.


The district abounds in several pre-historic sites. The surface finds discovered are assigned to special stages in the progress of civilisation. Palaeolithic tools were discovered at Tirupathi, Sitarampeta, Ellampalle, Mekalavandlapalle, Piler, etc. Mesolithic tools were discovered at Chinthaparthi,Moratavandlapalle, Aruvandlapalle, Tirupathi etc. Remains of Neolithic and ancient tools were unearthed near Bangarupalem . The existence of megolithic culture was revealed by the discovery of burials at Irulabanda, Bapanatham, Voyalpadu, Sodum, Velkuru, Nyakaneri, Basinikonda, etc.

Political history

The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas in the 4th century BC. The district of Chittoor was not a homogeneous administrative unit up to 1911. Its component parts were under the control of various principal dynasties at different periods of times, namely, the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Cholas, Pandyas, Royal of Vijayanagara, Qutub Shahis, Mughals, Asof Jahis, Marathas, Hyder Ali and Tipu of Mysore, and the British, besides minor dynasties such as the Renande Cholas, Banas, Vaidumbas, Nolambas, Western Gangas, Yadavas, Telugu Cholas, Matlis, Uttama Chola, Andiyaman, Siyaganga rulers, Nawabs of Kadapa and Arcot. The Zamindars of Karvetinagar, Srikalahasthi, Punganur and Kangundhi also ruled over this district.[4]


Chittoor city lies on the banks of Neeva River at the southernmost part of Andhra Pradesh state. It is located on the NH 69 and NH 40 linking major metropolitan cities of Bangalore and Chennai.

It is located between the northern latitudes of 37" and 14°8" and between the eastern longitudes 78°33" and 79°55". It is bounded on the east by Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh and South by Vellore, Thiruvallur Districts of Tamil Nadu, on the west by Kolar and Chikkaballapur Districts of Karnataka, on the North Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh and on the south by Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu. In respect of area it takes the eighth place with an area of 15,150 Square Kilometers which accounts for 5.51 percent of the total area of the state. The general elevation of the mountainous part of the district is 2500 feet above sea level. The Chennai & Bangalore cities are located in 150 km. and 165 km. respectively to Chittoor Town.[5]


Climate data for Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.7
Average low °C (°F) 17.7
Average rainfall mm (inches) 6


Telugu is the official and widely spoken language.[7]Chittoor has a population of 353,766[8] and has a sex ratio of 1002 females per 1000 males compared to the state average of 992 females, as of 2011 census.[9] The literacy rate of the City is 90.60%.[10] Chittoor was upgraded as municipal corporation in 2011.


Chittoor Municipal Corporation is the civic administrative body of the city. It was constituted as a Grade–III municipality in the year 1917. It was upgraded to Grade–II in 1950, Grade–I in 1965, Special Grade in 1980 and Selection Grade in 2000. On 7 July 2012, it was upgraded to municipal corporation by merging 14 gram panchayats into the corporation and is spread over an area of 69.75 km2 (26.93 sq mi).[11]


Agriculture near Chittor
Agriculture near Chittoor

Chittoor is the district capital and houses many district level government institutions.

Chittoor is predominantly an agro-market place and a major market for mango, grain, sugarcane, and peanut. Other industries include oilseed, poultry and milk. Tomato farming contributing over 20% of the State's production. Ground nut is the most major commercial crop in the district followed by sugarcane and the major horticulture crop of mangoes. 2nd largest milk producing district with its expansive dairy industries. In the field of Dairy, the district stood first in the state. The district is famous also for textile industries like that of Silk with 13,000 power looms providing employment 40,000 workers. Granite industry famous for its black, pink and grey granites.[12]


The Swayambu Varasidhi Vinayakaswamy temple at Kanipakam is the famous notable Hindu temple near the city.

Ardhagiri Anjaneyaswamy temple at Aragonda is the notable landmark near the city.

The 11th century historical Chandragiri Fort is the notable landmark near the city.


The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[13][14] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English and Telugu.

Engineering colleges:

  • SITAMS: Sreenivasa Institute of Technology and Management Studies [15]
  • SVCET: Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology [16]
  • VEMU : Vemu Institute of Technology

Medical colleges:

  • Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research [17]
  • RVS Institute of Medical Sciences [18]




APS RTC bus on Chittoor Roads

The city is well connected to major cities through national and state highways. The National Highways through Chittoor City are, National Highway 40 (India) connecting Chittoor with Kadapa and Kurnool on North and connecting Vellore and Chennai on South National Highway 69 (India) connecting Chittoor with Kolar and Bangalore on West National Highway 140 (India) connecting Chittoor with Tirupati and Nellore on East. The city has total road length of 382.30 km.[19]

Public transport

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates bus services from Chittoor bus station.[20] Bus services are operated to Kanipakam, Tirupati, Madanapalli, Palamaner, Piler, Puttur, Kuppam, Srikalahasti,Nellore, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Kanchipuram, Chennai, Puducherry, Kolar, Bangalore, Mysore, Kurnool, Kadapa, Anantapur, Hydrabad,Hanumakonda, Warangal, Vijayawada, Guntur, Ongole, Rajahmundry, Amaravati and also to all other major towns and cities in the Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Puducherry and Telangana states.

Railways Chittoor railway station is a National railway station in Chittoor city of Andhra Pradesh. It lies on Gudur-Katpadi Branch line section and is administered under Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone. Nearest Major Railway Junction is Katpadi Junction Railway station Tamil Nadu. Just 30 km From Chittoor city. There are direct trains daily from Chittoor to Vijayawada,Kakinada,Kacheguda(Hyderabad),Bengaluru,Thiruvananthapuram, Newdelhi to Kanyakumari HimSagar Express and weekly/Biweekly/Triweekly trains connect Chittoor with Mannargudi,Jammu,Katra,Tirunelveli,Mangalore,Ernakulam,Visakhapatnam,Hatia Ranchi,Santragachi(Kolkata) and Jayanthi Janata express etc.. which runs through Chittoor.


The nearest domestic airport is Tirupati Airport at Renigunta in Chittoor District, Andhra pradesh.

The nearest international airports are Chennai International Airport at Chennai and Kempegowda International Airport at Bangalore.

The Infrastructure Corporation of Andhra Pradesh Limited (INCAP) will build Kuppam Airport at Shantipuram Mandal at an estimated cost of Rs 100 crore .[21][22]


Chittoor is an assembly constituency in Andhra Pradesh. Chittoor is part of Chittoor (Lok Sabha constituency). Naramalli SivaPrasad of TeluguDesam Party is the sitting Member of Parliament for Chittoor (Lok Sabha constituency) and D.K.Sathyaprabha of Telugu Desam Party is the sitting Member of Legislative Assembly for Chittoor (Assembly constituency).

Assembly Election Results:

Year A. C. No. Assembly Constituency Name Type of A.C. Winner Candidates Name Gender Party Votes Runner UP Gender Party Votes
2014 291 Chittoor GEN D. A. Sathya Prabha F TDP 73430 Jangalapalli Srinivasulu (Jmc) M YSRC 66631
2009 291 Chittoor GEN C.K.Jayachandra Reddy M INC 46094 Arani Srinivasulu J.M.C M PRAP 44384
2004 140 Chittoor GEN A.S. Manohar M TDP 58788 C.K. Jayachandra Reddy @ C.K.Babu M IND 54900
1999 140 Chittoor GEN C.K.Jayachandra Reddy(C.K.Babu) M INC 62999 A.S.Manohar M TDP 48702
1994 140 Chittoor GEN C.K. Jayachandra Reddy M INC 46709 A.S. Manohar M TDP 44623
1989 140 Chittoor GEN C.K. Jayachandra Reddy@C.K Babu M IND 44972 C. Hari Prasad M TDP 26986
1985 140 Chittoor GEN R. Gopinathan M INC 45081 Rajasimhulu M TDP 36439
1983 140 Chittoor GEN Hansi Laxmi F IND 49127 Venkateswara Chowdery N. P M INC 32693
1978 140 Chittoor GEN N.P.Venkateswara Choudary M JNP 29941 C.V.L. Narayana M INC(I) 21139
1972 140 Chittoor GEN D. Anianeyulu Naidu M INC 32607 K. M. Erriah M DMK 14324
1967 137 Chittoor GEN D. A. Naidu M INC 32559 P. V. Naidu M SWA 20979
1962 144 Chittoor GEN C. D. Naidu M SWA 35256 P. Chinnama Reddy M INC 13301
1955 124 Chittoor GEN Chinnama Reddy M INC 17397 C.V. Srinivasa Modaliar M IND 104

Parliament Election Results:

PC No. PC Name Category Winner Gender Party Vote Runner Up Gender Party Vote
2014 42 Chittoor (SC) Naramalli Sivaprasad M TDP 594862 G.Samanyakiran M YSRCP 550724
2009 42 Chittoor (SC) Sivaprasad,Dr. Naramalli M TDP 434376 Thippeswamy M M INC 423717
2004 21 Chittoor GEN D.K. Audikesavulu M TDP 454128 Dr. Ravuri Venkata Swamy M INC 391990
1999 21 Chittoor GEN Noothana Kalva Ramakrishna Reddy M TDP 419208 R. Gopinath M INC 400570
1998 21 Chittoor GEN Nuthanakalva Ramakrishna Reddy M TDP 349831 Gnanendra Reddy.M M INC 269750
1996 21 Chittoor GEN N.Ramakrishna Reddy M TDP 405052 Audikesavulu D.K M INC 343702
1991 21 Chittoor GEN M. Gnanendra Reddy M INC 373631 Gurram V. Sreenatha Reddy M TDP 263649
1989 21 Chittoor GEN Gnanendra Reddy M INC 390786 N.Rangaswamy M TDP 308278
1984 21 Chittoor GEN N.P.Jhansi Lakshmi F TDP 332543 Amaranadha Reddy Nallari M INC 271332
1980 21 Chittoor GEN P. Rajagopal Naidu M INC(I) 232249 N. P. Chengalraya Nayudu M JNP 172402
1977 21 Chittoor GEN P. Rajagopal Naidu M INC 229252 N. P. Changalraya Naidu M BLD 218805
1971 21 Chittoor GEN P. Narasimha Reddy M INC 245052 K. P. Chengalraya Naidu M NCO 116313
1967 21 Chittoor GEN N.P.C. Naidu M INC 186594 N.G. Ranga M SWA 158931
1962 22 Chittoor GEN Madabhusi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar M INC 130026 C.V.L. Narayan M SWA 106062
1957 17 Chittoor GEN M.V. Gangadharasiva M INC Uncontested
1957 17 Chittoor GEN M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar M INC 154817 C.V.L. Narayan M IND 71357

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Introduction". chittoormunicipalcorporation. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  2. ^ "Chittoor District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 497, 518–19. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  3. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts".
  4. ^ "::chittoor::".
  5. ^ Topography/ Boundaries – CHITTOOR DISTRICT'S OFFICIAL WEBSITE | ANDHRA PRADESH | INDIA - చిత్తూరు జిల్లా అధికారిక వెబ్సైట్ - ChittoorDistrictWebsite Archived 22 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "CLIMATE: CHITTOOR". Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  7. ^ "WELCOME TO CENSUS OF INDIA : Census India Library". Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  8. ^
  9. ^ Sex Ratio of Andhra Pradesh is 992 per 1000 as per Census 2011 | Census 2011 Indian Population Archived 23 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (27 April 2011). Retrieved on 2012-01-07.
  10. ^ Chittor Municipality Archived 10 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 7 January 2012.
  11. ^ "Chittoor Municipal Corporation at a glance". Chittoor Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  12. ^ Commerce/ Industries – CHITTOOR DISTRICT'S OFFICIAL WEBSITE | ANDHRA PRADESH | INDIA - చిత్తూరు జిల్లా అధికారిక వెబ్సైట్ - ChittoorDistrictWebsite Archived 2 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  14. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  15. ^ SITAMS: Sreenivasa Institute of Technology and Management Studies
  16. ^ SVCET: Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology.
  17. ^ Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research.
  18. ^ RVS Institute of Medical Sciences
  19. ^ "DETAILS OF ROADS IN EACH ULB OF ANDHRA PRADESH". Archived from the original on 1 August 2016.
  20. ^ "Bus Stations in Districts". Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  21. ^ "Airstrip to come up in Kuppam soon". Hans India India. 27 August 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  22. ^ "Development of Regional Airport at Kuppam (Chittoor District)". INCAP website. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  23. ^ "Dr. C. R. Reddy". 1973. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  24. ^ Nara Chandrababu Naidu

External links


Arogyavaram is a Medical centre and village in Madanapalle in the district of Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Chittoor (disambiguation)

Chittoor may refer to:

Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, a city in and district headquarters of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

Chittoor district, a district in Rayalaseema region, Andhra Pradesh, India

Chittoor mandal, Andhra Pradesh, a mandal in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

Chittoor revenue division, Andhra Pradesh, a revenue division in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

Chittorgarh, a city and district headquarters of Chittorgarh district, Rajasthan, India

Chittorgarh district, a district in Rajasthan, India

Chittur, a town in Palakkad district of Kerala, India

Chittoor railway station

Chittoor railway station (station code:CTO) is an Indian railway station in Chittoor city of Andhra Pradesh. It lies on the Gudur-Katpadi Branch line and is administered under Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone.

Chittor V. Nagaiah

Chittoor V. Nagaiah (born Vuppaladadiyam Nagaiah Sarma) was a multilingual Indian film Actor, Thespian, Composer, Director, Producer, Writer and Playback Singer from Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India. Indian film journalist and the editor of Film India, Baburao Patel, described Nagiah as The Paul Muni of India. In his honour, the Chittoor Nagaiah Kalakshetram of arts was established in Chittoor city of Andhra Pradesh.Nagaiah was closely connected to Rama Vilasa Sabha, a Telugu theatre association in Chittoor City . He performed and directed several stage plays, such as Sarangadhara, Viswamithra Chitra Nilayam, Savitri, Bruhannala and Ramadasu. He staged the roles of Telugu Saint-poets Pothana, Vemana, Ramadasu and Tyagaraja. Nagaiah developed a life-time association with B. N. Reddy, at this juncture H. M. Reddy formed Rohini Pictures with the association of B. N. Reddy. The firm started its first venture in Telugu through the film Gruhalakshmi in 1938, in which Nagaiah played a significant role. Later, the association worked through several films with Vauhini Studios including social films such as; Vande Matharam (1939), Sumangali (1940), Devata (1941), Swarga Seema (1945) and Beedhalapatlu. (1947).Nagaiah made significant contributions to Telugu cinema, and starred in about two hundred Telugu films. Regarded as one of the finest Indian method actors, and the first Telugu matinee idol, his forte was usually playing intense characters, often immersing himself in study of the real character's traits and mannerisms. Nagaiah was the lead protagonist in the most expensive 1940 Telugu production, Viswa Mohini, touted to be the first film on the Indian motion picture world. He was the producer, director, composer and actor for pioneering works; he essayed 14th-century poet Pothana in Bhakta Potana (1942), 17th-century saint Tyagaraja in Thyagayya (1946), 12th-century saint Gora Kumbhar in Chakradhari (1948), and the social problem film Naa Illu (1953). In 1964, Nagaiah essayed 17th-century saint Kancharla Gopanna in Ramadasu for which he won the National Film Award. Nagaiah also starred in about one hundred and sixty films in Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam and Hindi. He received the Padma Shri from the Government of India in 1965 for his contributions to Indian cinema.


Chowdepalle is a village in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the mandal headquarters of Pileru mandal.

Kola Bhaskar

Kola Bhaskar (born in Andhra pradesh, India) is an Indian film editor.

List of things named after Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887 – 1920) is the eponym of all of the topics listed below.

M. B. Sreenivasan

Manamadurai Balakrishnan Sreenivasan (19 September 1925 – 9 March 1988), or MBS, as he was called, was a South Indian music director who worked mainly in the Malayalam and Tamil film industries.

He was born to an orthodox Tamil Brahmin family on 19 September 1925 in Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh. He had his schooling at P.S. High School, Chennai. During his college days at Madras Presidency College, he was attracted to communist ideals and joined the Madras Students Organisation. His acquaintance with Nemai Ghosh, a Bengali director, paved his entry into films. His first film song was written to the words of noted Tamil lyricist, Jayakanthan, for the Tamil film Paadhai Theriyudhu Paar. He played a major part in the formation of Indian Peoples Theatre Association (IPTA).

He formed the Madras Youth Choir in 1971, which sings Indian choral music, based at Chennai. You can contact the choir at MYC sings choral compositions of MBS. They have released a twin cd Pallupaduvome by Charsur and propose to release a children's CD Poo Vaenuma that was composed by MBS. He had also acted in a Tamil movie, Agraharathil Kazhutai.

He was married to Zahida Kitchlew, a Kashmiri Muslim, who was the daughter of the freedom fighter Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew. They had a son named Kabir. None of them are still alive.

M. B. Sreenivasan died suddenly of a heart attack while conducting a choir in the Lakshadweep islands on 9 March 1988. His body was later taken to his homeland, and was cremated there. Zahida, his wife, outlived him for 14 years, dying on 23 October 2002. Kabir died on 4 April 2009.

Mahesh Kathi

Mahesh Kathi is a controversial film critic and actor working in Telugu cinema. He appeared on the reality TV show Bigg Boss Telugu. He studied film theory at the Hyderabad Central University.

National Mathematics Day (India)

In 2012, the Indian government declared 22 December to be National Mathematics Day. This was announced by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 26 February 2012 at Madras University, during the inaugural ceremony of the celebrations to mark the 125th anniversary of the birth of the Indian mathematical genius Srinivasa Ramanujan (22 Dec 1887- 26 Apr 1920). On this occasion Singh also announced that 2012 would be celebrated as the National Mathematics Year.Since then, India's National Mathematics Day is celebrated every 22 December with numerous educational events held at schools and universities throughout the country. In 2017, the day's significance was enhanced by the opening of the Ramanujan Math Park in Kuppam, in Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh.

P. V. K. N. Government College

P. V. K. N. Government College (or Papudesi Venkata Krishnama Naidu Government College), Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh was established in 1961 and recognized by the University Grants Commission in 1966. It is the leading college in Chittoor district, affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Arts, Sciences and Commerce. The campus is spread over an area of 54.8 acres (22.2 ha) with a student population of 3655, of which 928 are women and 67 are PG students.

P. V. Midhun Reddy

P. V. Midhun Reddy is an Indian politician and a Member of Parliament to the 16th Lok Sabha from Rajampet (Lok Sabha constituency), Andhra Pradesh. He won the Indian general election, 2014 being a Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party candidate.


Penubalakala (Pencity) is a developing village in Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, in a panchayat which includes 13 small villages.

Ramanujan Math Park

The Ramanujan Math Park is an Indian museum and activity center dedicated to mathematics education inside the Agastya Campus Creativity Lab located in Kuppam, in Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh. It is named after the celebrated Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) who was from nearby Madras State. It is a joint project of Agastya International Foundation and the non-profit organization Gyanome.Agastya is known for its hands-on teaching methods and the Math Park follows this tradition. The park features both indoor and outdoor exhibits as well as interactive touch screen stations, all designed to enhance the mathematical experience. There are plans to replicate this math park experience at other Government run schools elsewhere in India.

Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology, Chittoor

Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology (Autonomous) (SVCET) (Telugu: శ్రీ వెంకటేశ్వర కాలేజ్ ఆఫ్ ఇంజనీరింగ్ టెక్నాలజీ) is an engineering college in R V S Nagar, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Talari Manohar

Talari Manohar (born 1954) is a politician from Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India.He served as Member of the Legislative Assembly and also as a Member of Parliament in the '80s and '90s. He was a founding member of the Telugu Desam Party (TDP). He later joined the Praja Rajyam Party (PRP). He lost in the 2009 elections contesting for Member of Parliament from Chittoor. He has been active in politics since his student days at Sri Venkateswara University. He is a contemporary of Nara Chandra Babu Naidu who is the current president of Telugu Desam Party.

Due to the merger of the Praja Rajyam Party, he is now in the Indian National Congress.

Vakkantham Vamsi

Vakkantham Vamsi is an Indian film actor turned dialogue writer, screenwriter and director in Telugu cinema. He wrote scripts for popular star heroes of Telugu cinema such as Allu Arjun, Mahesh Babu, Ravi Teja , N. T. Rama Rao Jr. and Ram Charan.


Vankayala (Telugu: వంకాయల) is an Indian surname.


Yadamvaripalli is a village which is located in Thippireddigaripalli Chinnagottigallu Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh.

There is a famous Shri Draupathi Devi temple and every year Mahabaratham is being conducted in the temple premises

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.