# Chinese units of measurement

Chinese units of measurement, known in Chinese as the shìzhì ("market system"), are the traditional units of measurement of the Han Chinese. Although Chinese numerals have been decimal (base-10) since the Shang, several Chinese measures use hexadecimal (base-16). Local applications have varied, but the Chinese dynasties usually proclaimed standard measurements and recorded their predecessor's systems in their histories.

In the present day, the People's Republic of China maintains some customary units based upon the market units but standardized to round values in the metric system, for example the common jin or catty of exactly 500 g. The Chinese name for most metric units is based on that of the closest traditional unit; when confusion might arise, the word "market" (, shì) is used to specify the traditional unit and "common" or "public" (, gōng) is used for the metric value. Taiwan, like Korea, saw its traditional units standardized to Japanese values and their conversion to a metric basis, such as the Taiwanese ping of about 3.306 m² based on the square ken. The Hong Kong SAR continues to use its traditional units, now legally defined based on a local equation with metric units. For instance, the Hong Kong catty is precisely 604.78982 g.

Note: The names () and fēn () for small units are the same for length, area, and mass; however, they refer to different kinds of measurements.

Literal meaning Chinese units of measurement A traditional Chinese scale market system

## History

Bronze ruler from the Han Dynasty (206 BCE to CE 220); excavated in Zichang County; Shaanxi History Museum, Xi'an

According to the Liji, the legendary Yellow Emperor created the first measurement units. The Xiao Erya and the Kongzi Jiayu state that length units were derived from the human body. According to the Records of the Grand Historian, these human body units caused inconsistency, and Yu the Great, another legendary figure, unified the length measurements. Rulers with decimal units have been unearthed from Shang Dynasty tombs.

In the Zhou Dynasty, the king conferred nobles with powers of the state and the measurement units began to be inconsistent from state to state. After the Warring States period, Qin Shi Huang unified China, and later standardized measurement units. In the Han Dynasty, these measurements were still being used, and were documented systematically in the Book of Han.

Astronomical instruments show little change of the length of chi in the following centuries, since the calendar needed to be consistent. It was not until the introduction of decimal units in the Ming Dynasty that the traditional system was revised.

### Republican Era

On 7 January 1915, the Beiyang Government promulgated a measurement law to use not only metric system as the standard but also a set of Chinese-style measurement.[1] On 16 February 1929, the Nationalist Government adopted and promulgated The Weights and Measures Act[2] to adopt the metric system as the official standard and to limit the newer Chinese units of measurement (Chinese: 市用制; pinyin: shìyòngzhì; literally: 'market-use system') to private sales and trade in Article 11, effective on 1 January 1930.[3]

### People's Republic of China

The Government of the People's Republic of China continued using the market system along with metric system, as decreed by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on 25 June 1959, but 1 catty being 500 grams, would become divided into 10 (new) taels, instead of 16 (old) taels, to be converted from province to province, while exempting Chinese prescription drugs from the conversion to prevent errors.[4]

On 27 February 1984, the State Council of the People's Republic of China decreed the market system to remain acceptable till the end of 1990 and ordered the transition to the national legal measures by that time, but farmland measures would be exempt from this mandatory metrication until further investigation and study.[5]

### Hong Kong

In 1976 the Hong Kong Metrication Ordinance allowed a gradual replacement of the system in favor of the International System of Units (SI) metric system.[6] The Weights and Measures Ordinance defines the metric, Imperial, and Chinese units.[7] As of 2012, all three systems are legal for trade and are in widespread use.

### Macau

On 24 August 1992, Macau published Law No. 14/92/M to order that Chinese units of measurement similar to those used in Hong Kong, Imperial units, and United States customary units would be permissible for five years since the effective date of the Law, 1 January 1993, on the condition of indicating the corresponding SI values, then for three more years thereafter, Chinese, Imperial, and US units would be permissible as secondary to the SI.[8]

## Ancient Chinese units

### Length

Gilded Bronze Ruler - 1 chi = 231 mm. Western Han (206 BCE–8 CE). Hanzhong City

Traditional units of length include the chi (), bu (), and li (). The precise length of these units, and the ratios between these units, has varied over time. 1 bu has consisted of either 5 or 6 chi, while 1 li has consisted of 300 or 360 bu.

Length in metre[9]
dynasty chi bu li
= 5 chi = 6 chi = 300 bu = 360 bu
Shang 0.1675 1.0050 301.50
0.1690 1.0140 304.20
Zhou 0.1990 1.1940 358.20
Eastern Zhou 0.2200 1.3200 396.00
0.2270 1.3620 408.60
0.2310 1.3860 415.80
Qin 0.2310 1.3860 415.80[10][11]
Han 0.2310 1.3860 415.80[12] 415.80[10][11]
600 CE 0.2550 1.5300 459.00
Tang 0.2465 1.2325 369.75 443.70
0.2955 1.4775 443.25 531.90
Song 0.2700 1.3500 405.00 486.00
Northern Song 0.3080 1.5400 462.00 554.40
Ming 0.3008–0.3190 1.5040–1.5950 451.20–478.50 541.44–574.20
Qing 0.3080–0.3352 1.5400–1.6760 462.00–503.89 554.40–603.46

## Modern Chinese units

All "metric values" given in the tables are exact unless otherwise specified by the approximation sign '~'.

Certain units are also listed at List of Chinese classifiers → Measurement units.

### Length

#### Chinese length units promulgated in 1915

Table of Chinese length units promulgated in 1915[1]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
háo 110 000 32 µm 0.00126 in
(T) or (S) 11000 0.32 mm 0.0126 in
fēn 1100 3.2 mm 0.126 in
cùn 110 32 mm 1.26 in Chinese inch
chǐ 1 0.32 m 12.6 in Chinese foot
5 1.6 m 5.2 ft Chinese pace
zhàng 10 3.2 m 3.50 yd
yǐn 100 32 m 35.0 yd
1800 576 m 630 yd this li is not the small li above,
which has a different character and tone

#### Chinese length units effective in 1930

Chinese-measuring-tape
Table of Chinese length units effective in 1930[3]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
háo 110 000 33 13 µm 0.00131 in Chinese milliinch
(T) or (S) 11000 13 mm 0.0131 in Chinese centiinch
fēn 市分 1100 3 13 mm 0.1312 in Chinese deciinch
cùn 市寸 110 3 13 cm 1.312 in Chinese inch
chǐ 市尺 1 33 13 cm 13.12 in Chinese foot
zhàng 市丈 10 3 13 m 3.645 yd Chinese yard
yǐn 100 33 13 m 36.45 yd Chinese chain

which has a different character and tone

#### Metric length units

The Chinese word for metre is ; this can take the Chinese standard SI prefixes (for "kilo-", "centi-", etc.). A kilometre, however, may also be called 公里 gōnglǐ, i.e. a metric .

In the engineering field, traditional units are rounded up to metric units.For example, the Chinese word sī is used to express 0.01 mm.

Table of Chinese length units in engineering
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
11 000 000 1 µm Authorized name: 微米
1100 000 10 µm Authorized name: 忽米
háo 110 000 100 µm Authorized name: 丝米
(T) or (S) 11000 1 mm Authorized name: 毫米
fēn 公分 1100 10 mm Authorized name: 厘米
cùn 公寸 110 100 mm Authorized name: 分米
chǐ 公尺 1 1 m Authorized name:

which has a different character and tone

#### Hong Kong and Macau length units

Table of Chinese length units in Hong Kong[7] and Macau[8]
English Jyutping Character Portuguese Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
fan fan1 condorim 1100 3.71475 mm 0.1463 in
tsun cyun3 ponto 110 3.71475 cm 1.463 in
chek cek3 côvado 1 37.1475 cm 1.219 ft Hong Kong and Macau foot

These correspond to the measures listed simply as "China" in The Measures, Weights, & Moneys of All Nations [13]

### Area

#### Chinese area units promulgated in 1915

Table of Chinese area units promulgated in 1915[1]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
háo 11000 0.6144 m2 0.7348 sq yd Chinese milliacre
(T) or (S) 1100 6.144 m2 7.348 sq yd Chinese centiacre
fēn 110 61.44 m2 73.48 sq yd Chinese deciacre, 10 li
(T) or (S) 1 614.4 m2 734.82 sq yd Chinese acre, 10 fen, or 60 square zhang
qǐng (T) or (S) 100 6.144 ha 15.18 acre Chinese hide, 100 mǔ
Table of Chinese square units effective in 1915[1]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
fāng cùn 方寸 1100 10.24 cm2 1.587 sq in square cun
fāng chǐ 方尺 1 0.1024 m2 1.102 sq ft square chi
fāng zhàng 方丈 100 10.24 m2 110.2 sq ft square zhang

#### Chinese area units effective in 1930

Table of Chinese area units effective in 1930[3]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
háo 11000 23 m2 7.18 sq ft Chinese milliacre
(T) or (S) 1100 6 23 m2 7.973 sq yd Chinese centiacre
fēn 市分 110 66 23 m2 79.73 sq yd Chinese deciacre, 10 li
(T) or (S) 1 666 23 m2 797.3 sq yd
0.1647 acre
Chinese acre, 10 fen
60 square zhang
qǐng (T) or (S) 100 6 23 ha 16.47 acre Chinese hide, 10 shí or 100 mǔ
Table of Chinese square units effective in 1930[3]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
fāng cùn 方寸 1100 11 19 cm2 1.722 sq in square cun
fāng chǐ 方尺 1 19 m2 172.2 sq in
1.196 sq ft
square chi
fāng zhàng 方丈 100 11 19 m2 119.6 sq ft
13.29 sq yd
square zhang

#### Metric and other area units

Metric and other standard length units can be squared by the addition of the prefix 平方 píngfāng. For example, a square kilometre is 平方公里 píngfāng gōnglǐ.

#### Macau area units

Table of Chinese area units in Macau[8]
Jyutping Character Portuguese Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
cek3 côvado 16000 0.1269 m2 1.366 sq ft
pou3 1240 3.1725 m2 34.15 sq ft
3.794 sq yd
zoeng6 braça 160 12.69 m2 136.6 sq ft
15.18 sq yd
fan1 condorim 110 76.14 m2 91.06 sq yd
mau5 (T) or (S) maz 1 761.4 m2 910.6 sq yd

### Volume

These units are used to measure cereal grains, among other things. In imperial times, the physical standard for these was the jialiang.

#### Chinese volume units promulgated in 1915

Table of Chinese volume units effective in 1915[1]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value US value Imperial value Notes
sháo 1100 10.354688 ml 0.3501 fl oz 0.3644 fl oz
110 103.54688 ml 3.501 fl oz 3.644 fl oz
shēng 1 1.0354688 l 2.188 pt 1.822 pt
dǒu 10 10.354688 l 2.735 gal 2.278 gal
50 51.77344 l 13.68 gal 11.39 gal
dàn 100 103.54688 l 27.35 gal 22.78 gal

#### Chinese volume units effective in 1930

Table of Chinese volume units effective in 1930[3]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value US value Imperial value Notes
cuō 11000 1 ml 0.0338 fl oz 0.0352 fl oz millilitre
sháo 1100 10 ml 0.3381 fl oz 0.3520 fl oz centilitre
110 100 ml 3.381 fl oz 3.520 fl oz decilitre
shēng 市升 1 1 l 2.113 pt 1.760 pt litre
dǒu 市斗 10 10 l 21.13 pt
2.64 gal
17.60 pt
2.20 gal
decalitre
dàn 市石 100 100 l 26.41 gal 22.0 gal hectolitre

#### Metric volume units

In the case of volume, the market and metric shēng coincide, being equal to one litre as shown in the table. The Chinese standard SI prefixes (for "milli-", "centi-", etc.) may be added to this word shēng.

Units of volume can also be obtained from any standard unit of length using the prefix 立方 lìfāng ("cubic"), as in 立方米 lìfāng mǐ for a cubic metre.

#### Macau volume units

Table of Chinese volume units in Macau[8]
Jyutping Character Portuguese Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
cyut3 1 1.031 l
gam1 dak6 甘特 10 10.31 l
sek6 100 103.1 l

### Mass

These units are used to measure the mass of objects. They are also famous for measuring monetary objects such as gold and silver.

#### Chinese mass units promulgated in 1915

Table of Chinese mass units promulgated in 1915[1]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
háo 110 000 3.7301 mg 0.0001316 oz
11000 37.301 mg 0.001316 oz cash
fēn 1100 373.01 mg 0.01316 oz candareen
qián 110 3.7301 g 0.1316 oz mace
liǎng 1 37.301 g 1.316 oz tael or Chinese ounce
jīn 16 596.816 g 1.316 lb catty or Chinese pound

#### Mass units in the Republic of China since 1930

Table of mass units in the Republic of China since 1930[3]
Pinyin Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
11 600 000 312.5 µg 0.00001102 oz centicash or Chinese decimillidram
háo 1160 000 3.125 mg 0.0001102 oz decicash or Chinese millidram

fēn 市分 11600 312.5 mg 0.01102 oz candareen or Chinese decidram
qián 市錢 1160 3.125 g 0.1102 oz mace or Chinese dram
liǎng 市兩 116 31.25 g 1.102 oz tael or Chinese ounce
jīn 市斤 1 500 g 1.102 lb catty or Chinese pound
dàn 擔 / 担 100 50 kg 110.2 lb picul or Chinese hundredweight

#### Mass units in the People's Republic of China since 1959

Table of mass units in the People's Republic of China since 1959[4]
Pinyin Character[14] Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes

fēn 市分 11000 500 mg 0.01764 oz candareen or Chinese decidram
qián 市钱 1100 5 g 0.1764 oz mace or Chinese dram
liǎng 市两 110 50 g 1.764 oz tael or Chinese ounce
jīn 市斤 1 500 g 1.102 lb catty or Chinese pound
formerly 16 liang = 1 jin
dàn 市担 / 擔 100 50 kg 110.2 lb picul or Chinese hundredweight

#### Metric mass units

The Chinese word for gram is ; this can take the Chinese standard SI prefixes (for "milli-", "deca-", etc.). A kilogram, however, is commonly called 公斤 gōngjīn, i.e. a metric jīn.

#### Hong Kong and Macau mass units

Table of Chinese mass units in Hong Kong[7] and Macau[8]
English Jyutping Character Portuguese Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
lei4 liz 116 000 37.79931 mg 0.02133 dr Not defined in Hong Kong. Macanese definition may not be correct when dividing catty.
candareen (fan) fan1 condorim 11600 377.9936375 mg 0.2133 dr Macanese definition of 377.9931 mg may not be correct when dividing catty.
mace (tsin) cin4 maz 1160 3.779936375 g 2.1333 dr Macanese definition of 3.779931 g may not be correct when dividing catty.
tael (leung) loeng2 tael 116 37.79936375 g 1.3333 oz Macanese definition of 37.79931 g may not be correct when dividing catty.
catty (kan) gan1 cate 1 604.78982 g 1.3333 lb Hong Kong and Macau share the definition.
picul (tam) daam3 担 / 擔 pico 100 60.478982 kg 133.3333 lb Hong Kong and Macau share the definition.

#### Hong Kong troy units

These are used for trading precious metals such as gold and silver.

Table of mass (Hong Kong troy) units[7]
English Character Relative value Metric value Imperial value Notes
troy candareen 金衡分 1100 374.29 mg 0.096 drt
troy mace 金衡錢 110 3.7429 g 0.96 drt
troy tael 金衡兩 1 37.429 g 1.2 ozt

### Time

Table of time units
Pinyin Character Relative value Western value Notes
miǎo 144 milliseconds 1 second
fēn 100 miǎo 60 miǎo 14.4 seconds 1 minute
1 minor kè=10 fēn 15 fēn 2.4 minutes 15 minutes kè was defined at ​196, ​1108, or ​1120 day during the Liang dynasty, and established at ​196 day after the Qing dynasty.
1 major kè=60 fēn 14.4 minutes
diǎn 100 fēn 60 fēn 24 minutes 1 hour
shí[15] (T)
(S)
8 13 4 kè 2 hours 1 hour the xiǎoshí(小時/小时) is currently used to express "hour" in order to avoid the ambiguity
(pre-Qin) 10 kè 2.4 hours
/ tiān 日/天 12 shí 24 shí 24 hours

## Historiography

As there were hundreds of unofficial measures in use, the bibliography is quite vast. The editions of Wu Chenglou's 1937 History of Chinese Measurement[16] were the usual standard up to the 1980s or so, but rely mostly on surviving literary accounts. Newer research has put more emphasis on archeological discoveries.[17] Qiu Guangming & Zhang Yanming's 2005 bilingual Concise History of Ancient Chinese Measures and Weights summarizes these findings.[18] A relatively recent and comprehensive bibliography, organized by period studied, has been compiled in 2012 by Cao & al.;[19] for a shorter list, see Wilkinson's year 2000 Chinese History.[17]

## References

### Citations

1. "權度法 [Quándù Fǎ]", 政府公報 [Zhèngfǔ Gōngbào, Government Gazette], No. 957, Beijing: Office of the President, 7 January 1915, pp. 85–94. (in Chinese)
2. ^
3. "The Weights and Measures Act (1929)". Legislative Yuan. Archived from the original on 2014-04-25.
4. ^ a b (in Chinese) 1959 Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, No. 180, pages 311 to 312
5. ^
6. ^ Yearbook HK. "Yearbook." Metrication. Retrieved on 26 April 2007.
7. ^ a b c d Cap. 68 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ORDINANCE
8. Law No. 14/92/M ((in Chinese) 第14/92/M號法律; (in Portuguese) Lei n.º 14/92/M)
9. ^ Schinz, 1996
10. ^ a b Dubs (1938), pp. 276-280; (1955), p. 160, n. 7.
11. ^ a b Hulsewé (1961), pp. 206–207.
12. ^ Hill (2015), "About the Measurements", pp. xxiii-xxiv.
13. ^
14. ^ (in Chinese) 1959 Gazette of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, No. 180, page 316
15. ^
16. ^ 吳承洛 (1937), 《中國度量衡史》 [Zhōngguó Dùliànghéng Shǐ], 2nd ed. in 1957, 3rd ed. in 1993. (in Chinese)
17. ^ a b Wilkinson, Endymion (2000), Chinese History: A Manual (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, pp. 244–245, ISBN 978-0-674-00249-4.
18. ^ 丘光明 (2005), 张延明, ed., 《中国古代计量史图鉴》 [Zhōngguó Gǔdài Jìliàng Shǐ Tújiàn], Hefei: Hefei University Press, ISBN 7-81093-284-5. (in Chinese) & (in English)
19. ^ Cao Jin; et al. (2012), Chinese, Japanese and Western Research in Chinese Historical Metrology: A Classified Bibliography (1925-2012), Tübingen: Institute for Chinese and Korean Studies at the University of Tübingen.

### Sources

• Hill, John E. (2015) Through the Jade Gate - China to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. Vol. I. John E. Hill. CreateSpace, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-5006-9670-2.
• Homer H. Dubs (1938): The History of the Former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku. Vol. One. Translator and editor: Homer H. Dubs. Baltimore. Waverly Press, Inc.
• Homer H. Dubs (1955): The History of the Former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku. Vol. Three. Translator and editor: Homer H. Dubs. Ithaca, New York. Spoken Languages Services, Inc.
• Hulsewé, (1961). "Han measures." A. F. P. Hulsewé, T'oung pao Archives, Vol. XLIX, Livre 3, pp. 206–207.
• Chinese Measurement Converter - Online Chinese / Metric / Imperial Converter
• Chinese/Metric/Imperial Measurement Converter
• Schinz, Alfred (1996). The magic square: cities in ancient China. Edition Axel Menges. p. 428. ISBN 3-930698-02-1.
Bianjing Drum Tower

The Bianjing Drum Tower, also known as the Bianjing Pavilion and by its Chinese name as the Bianjing Lou, is a drum tower in Shangguan, the seat of Dai County, Xinzhou Prefecture, Shanxi, in the People's Republic of China. It dates to 1476 and is 39.3 meters (129 ft) high.

Candareen

A candareen (; Chinese: 分; pinyin: fēn; Cantonese Yale: fàn; Singapore English usage: hoon) is a traditional measurement of weight in East Asia. It is equal to 10 cash and is ​1⁄10 of a mace. It is approximately 378 milligrams. A troy candareen is approximately 374 milligrams (5.77 gr).

In Hong Kong, one candareen is 0.3779936375 grams and, in the Weights and Measures Ordinance, it is ​2⁄150 ounces avoirdupois. In Singapore, one candareen is 0.377994 grams.The word candareen comes from the Malay kandūri. An earlier English form of the name was condrin. The candareen was also formerly used to describe a unit of currency in imperial China equal to 10 li (釐) and is ​1⁄10 of a mace. The Mandarin Chinese word fēn is used to denote ​1⁄100 of a Chinese renminbi yuan but the term candareen for that currency is now obsolete.

Cash (unit)

Cash or li (simplified Chinese: 厘; traditional Chinese: 釐 or 厘; pinyin: lí) is a traditional Chinese unit of weight.

The terms "cash" or "le" were documented to have been used by British explorers in the 1830s when trading in Qing territories of China.Under the Hong Kong statute of the Weights and Mesaures Ordinance, 1 cash is about 0.0013 ounces (0.037 g). Currently, it is ​1⁄10 candareen or ​1⁄16000 catty, namely 3.779936375 milligrams (0.05833333269 gr).

Catty

The catty, kati or jin (commonly in China) , symbol 斤, is a traditional Chinese unit of mass used across East and Southeast Asia, notably for weighing food and other groceries in some wet markets, street markets, and shops. Related units include the picul, equal to 100 catties, and the tael (also spelled tahil, in Malay/Indonesian), which is ​1⁄16 of a catty. A stone is a former unit used in Hong Kong equal to 120 catties and a gwan (鈞) is 30 catties. Catty or kati is still used in South East Asia as a unit of measurement in some contexts especially by the significant Overseas Chinese populations of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.

The catty is traditionally equivalent to around 1⅓ pound avoirdupois, formalised as 604.78982 grams in Hong Kong, 604.79 grams in Malaysia and 604.8 grams in Singapore. In some countries, the weight has been rounded to 600 grams (Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Thailand). In mainland China, the catty (more commonly translated as jin within China) has been rounded to 500 grams and is referred to as the market catty (市斤 shìjīn) in order to distinguish it from the "metric catty" (公斤 gōngjīn), or kilogram, and it is subdivided into 10 taels rather than the usual 16.

Gram

The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.

Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre [1 cm3], and at the temperature of melting ice" (later at 4 °C, the temperature of maximum density of water). However, in a reversal of reference and defined units, a gram is now defined as one thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg, which itself is now defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, not in terms of grams, but by "the amount of electricity needed to counteract its force"

Height

Height is measure of vertical distance, either vertical extent (how "tall" something or someone is) or vertical position (how "high" a point is).

For example, "The height of that building is 50 m" or "The height of an airplane is about 10,000 m".

When the term is used to describe vertical position (of, e.g., an airplane) from sea level, height is more often called altitude.

Furthermore, if the point is attached to the Earth (e.g., a mountain peak), then altitude (height above sea level) is called elevation.In a Cartesian space, height is measured along the vertical axis (y) between a specific point and another that does not have the same y-value. If both points happen to have the same y-value, then their relative height equal to zero.

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols "0"–"9" to represent values zero to nine, and "A"–"F" (or alternatively "a"–"f") to represent values ten to fifteen.

Hexadecimal numerals are widely used by computer system designers and programmers, as they provide a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values. Each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits, also known as a nibble, which is half a byte. For example, a single byte can have values ranging from 0000 0000 to 1111 1111 in binary form, which can be more conveniently represented as 00 to FF in hexadecimal.

In mathematics, a subscript is typically used to specify the radix. For example the decimal value 10,995 would be expressed in hexadecimal as 2AF316. In programming, a number of notations are used to support hexadecimal representation, usually involving a prefix or suffix. The prefix 0x is used in C and related languages, which would denote this value by 0x2AF3.

Hexadecimal is used in the transfer encoding Base16, in which each byte of the plaintext is broken into two 4-bit values and represented by two hexadecimal digits.

Hong Kong units of measurement

Hong Kong has three main systems of units of measurement in current use:

The Chinese units of measurement of the Qing Empire (no longer in widespread use in mainland China);

British Imperial units; and

The metric system.In 1976 the Hong Kong Government started the conversion to the metric system, and as of 2012 measurements for government purposes, such as road signs, are almost always in metric units. However, all three systems are officially permitted for trade, and in the wider society a mixture of all three systems prevails.

Imperial units

The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The Imperial units replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825. The system came into official use across the British Empire. By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although some imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom, Canada and other countries formerly part of the British Empire. The imperial system developed from what were first known as English units, as did the related system of United States customary units.

Japanese currency

Japanese currency has a history covering the period from the 8th century to the present. After the traditional usage of rice as currency medium, Japan's currency was characterized by an early adoption of currency systems and designs from China before developing a separate system of its own.

Li (unit)

The li (Chinese: 里, lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance. The li has varied considerably over time but was usually about one third of an English mile and now has a standardized length of a half-kilometer (500 meters or 1,640 feet). This is then divided into 1,500 chi or "Chinese feet".

The character 里 combines the characters for "field" (田, tián) and "earth" (土, tǔ), since it was considered to be about the length of a single village. As late as the 1940s, a "li" did not represent a fixed measure but could be longer or shorter depending on the effort required to cover the distance.There is also another li (Traditional: 釐, Simplified: 厘, lí) that indicates a unit of length ​1⁄1000 of a chi, but it is used much less commonly. This li is used in the People's Republic of China as the equivalent of the centi- prefix in metric units, thus limi (厘米, límǐ) for centimeter. The tonal difference makes it distinguishable to speakers of Chinese, but unless specifically noted otherwise, any reference to li will always refer to the longer traditional unit and not to either the shorter unit or the kilometer. This traditional unit, in terms of historical usage and distance proportion, can be considered the East Asian counterpart to the Western league unit.

Longma

The longma was a fabled winged horse with dragon scales in Chinese mythology. Seeing a longma was an omen of a legendary sage-ruler, particularly one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.

Mace (unit)

A mace (Chinese: 錢; pinyin: qián; Hong Kong English usage: tsin; Southeast Asian English usage: chee) is a traditional Chinese measurement of weight in East Asia that was also used as a currency denomination. It is equal to 10 candareens and is ​1⁄10 of a tael or approximately 3.78 grams. A troy mace is approximately 3.7429 grams. In Hong Kong, one mace is 3.779936375 grams. and in Ordinance 22 of 1884, it is ​2⁄15 ounces avoirdupois. In Singapore, one mace (referred to as chee) is 3.77994 grams.In imperial China, 10 candareens equaled 1 mace which was ​1⁄10 of a tael and, like the other units, was used in weight-denominated silver currency system. A common denomination was 7 mace and 2 candareens, equal to one silver Chinese yuan.

Metrication Ordinance

The Metrication Ordinance was enacted in 1976 in Hong Kong. The law allowed a gradual replacement of the Imperial units and Chinese units of measurement in favour of the International System of Units Metric System. The adoption was facilitated under the government's Metrication Committee.

Pyeong

A pyeong (abbreviation py) is a Korean unit of area and floorspace, equal to a square kan or 36 square Korean feet. The ping and tsubo are its equivalent Chinese and Japanese units, similarly based on a square bu (ja:步) or ken, equivalent to 36 square Chinese or Japanese feet.

Qian

Qian may refer to:

Guizhou, abbreviated as Qián (黔), province of China

Mace (unit), or Qian, one of the Chinese units of measurement, equal to 5g

Qian (hexagram), the first hexagram of the I Ching

Qian (surname), a Chinese surname (钱 / 錢), identical to the Korean family-name Jeon.

Qiān (surname), a Chinese surname (千), identical to the Korean family-name Chun.

Qian County, in Xianyang, Shaanxi, China

Qian Mountains, mountain range in Northeast China

Tael

Tael (), also known as the tahil and by other names, can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East. It usually refers to the Chinese tael, a part of the Chinese system of weights and currency.

In Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia it is equivalent to 10 mace (Chinese: 錢; pinyin: qián) or ​1⁄16 catty, albeit with slightly different metric equivalents in these two places. These Chinese units of measurement are usually used in Chinese herbal medicine stores as well as gold and silver exchange.

Taiwanese units of measurement

Taiwanese units of measurement (Chinese: 臺制, Taiwanese: Tâi-chè, Hakka: Thòi-chṳ, Mandarin: Táizhì) are the customary and traditional units of measure used in Taiwan. The Taiwanese units formed in the 1900s when Taiwan under Japanese rule. The system mainly refers to Japanese system with some units derived from the Qing era Chinese units and Dutch era Dutch units. The Taiwanese units are pronounced in Taiwanese Hokkien and Hakka before the World War II and adopted by the Mandarin speaking immigrants from China in 1949. Today, the Taiwanese units are used exclusively, in some cases alongside official metric (SI) units, and in other cases they have been supplanted by metric units. Linguistically, practically all Taiwanese units of measure are Chinese classifiers used to classify nouns.

Note that although the Taiwanese units have similar names to those in Chinese units of measurement and Hong Kong units of measurement, the standard is different to those used in China or Hong Kong.

Zhàng

The zhang (Chinese: 丈) is a customary Chinese unit of length equal to 10 chi (Chinese feet). Its value varied over time and place with different values of the chi, although it was occasionally standardized. In 1915, the Republic of China set it equal to about 3.2 meters or 3.50 yards. In 1930, this was revised to an exact value of 3⅓ meters (about 3.645 yd).

It is not commonly used in mainland China today but appears in traditional Chinese architecture, where it was commonly used to measure bays.

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