Chinese people

Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China,[1] usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation. Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in China, at about 92% of the population,[2] are often referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English,[3][4] however there are dozens of other related and unrelated ethnic groups in China.

Beijing-Niujie-Minzu-Tuanjie-Da-Jiating-3666
Portion of a mural in Beijing depicting the 56 recognized ethnic groups of China

Ancestry

Yellow and green hanfu
Woman wearing yellow and green hanfu, a traditional dress of the Han Chinese.

A number of ethnic groups within China, as well as people elsewhere with ancestry in the region, may be referred to as Chinese people.[5]

Han Chinese people, the largest ethnic group in China, are often referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English.[6][3][4] The ethnic Chinese also form a majority or notable minority in other countries, and may comprise as much as 19% of the global human population.[7]

Other ethnic groups in China include the related Hui people or "Chinese Muslims", the Zhuang, Manchu, Uyghurs and Miao, who make up the five largest ethnic minorities in mainland China with populations exceeding 10 million. In addition, the Yi, Tujia, Tibetans and Mongols each number populations between six and nine million.

The People's Republic of China (PRC) officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, many of whom live in the special administrative regions of the country. However, there exists several smaller ethnicities who are "unrecognized" or subsumed as part another ethnic group. The Republic of China (ROC or commonly Taiwan) officially recognizes 14 tribes of Taiwanese aborigines, who together with unrecognized tribes comprise about 2% of the country's population.[8]

During the Qing dynasty the term "Chinese people" (Chinese: 中國之人 Zhōngguó zhī rén; Manchu: Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) was used by the Qing government to refer to all subjects of the empire, including Han, Manchu, and Mongols.[9]

Zhonghua minzu (simplified Chinese: 中华民族; traditional Chinese: 中華民族; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínzú), the "Chinese nation", is a supra-ethnic concept which includes all 56 ethnic groups living in China that are officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China. It includes established ethnic groups who have lived within the borders of China since at least the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911).[10] The term zhonghua minzu was used during the Republic of China from 1911–1949 to refer to a subset of five ethnic groups in China.[11] The term zhongguo renmin (Chinese: 中国人民), "Chinese people", was the government's preferred term during the life of Mao Zedong; zhonghua minzu is more common in recent decades.[12]

Nationality, citizenship and residence

The Nationality law of the People's Republic of China regulates nationality within the PRC. A person obtains nationality either by birth when at least one parent is of Chinese nationality or by naturalization. All people holding nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the Republic.[13] The Resident Identity Card is the official form of identification for residents of the People's Republic of China.

Within the People's Republic of China, a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport or Macao Special Administrative Region passport may be issued to permanent residents of Hong Kong or Macao, respectively.

The Nationality law of the Republic of China regulates nationality within the Republic of China (Taiwan). A person obtains nationality either by birth or by naturalization. A person with at least one parent who is a national of the Republic of China, or born in the ROC to stateless parents qualifies for nationality by birth.[14]

The National Identification Card is an identity document issued to people who have household registration in Taiwan. The Resident Certificate is an identification card issued to residents of the Republic of China who do not hold a National Identification Card.

The relationship between Taiwanese nationality and Chinese nationality is disputed.[15]

Overseas Chinese

Overseas Chinese refers to people of Chinese ethnicity or national heritage who live outside the People's Republic of China or Taiwan as the result of the continuing diaspora.[16] People with one or more Chinese ancestors may consider themselves overseas Chinese.[17] Such people vary widely in terms of cultural assimilation. In some areas throughout the world ethnic enclaves known as Chinatowns are home to populations of Chinese ancestry.

In Southeast Asia, Chinese people call themselves 華人 (Huárén), which is distinguished from (中國人) (Zhōngguórén) or the citizens of the People's Republic of China or the Republic of China.[18] This is especially so in the Chinese communities of Southeast Asia. The term Zhongguoren has a more political or ideological aspect in its use; while many in China may use Zhongguoren to mean the Chinese ethnicity, some in Taiwan would refuse to be called Zhongguoren.[19]

See also

For countries with significant populations

For countries with noteworthy populations

Other countries with Chinese populations

Related topics of interest

References

  1. ^ Harding, Harry (1993). "The Concept of "greater China": Themes, Variations and Reservations". The China Quarterly (136): 660–86. JSTOR 655587.
  2. ^ CIA Factbook: "Han Chinese 91.6%" out of a reported population of 1,379 billion (July 2017 est.)
  3. ^ a b Who are the Chinese people? (in Chinese). Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
  4. ^ a b "Han". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (Tenth ed.). Merriam-Webster. 1993.
  5. ^ "Chinese". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (Tenth ed.). Merriam-Webster. 1993.
  6. ^ Yang, Miaoyan (2017). Learning to Be Tibetan: The Construction of Ethnic Identity at Minzu. Lexington Books (published March 17, 2017). p. 7. ISBN 978-1498544634.
  7. ^ "World's Most Typical Person: Han Chinese Man". China Real Time. Wall Street Journal. March 4, 2011. Retrieved 2014-07-23.
  8. ^ Copper, John F. (2014). Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-4422-4307-1.
  9. ^ Zhao, Gang (2006). "Reinventing China: Imperial Qing ideology and the rise of Modern Chinese national identity in the early twentieth century" (PDF). Modern China. Sage. 32 (3): 3–30. doi:10.1177/0097700405282349. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2016.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  10. ^ "Brief Introduction Chinese nationality". Chinatraveldepot.com. Retrieved 2014-07-23.
  11. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
  12. ^ Jenner, W.J.F. (2004). "Race and history in China". In Alan Lawrance. China Since 1919: Revolution and Reform: a Sourcebook. Psychology Press. pp. 252–255. ISBN 978-0-415-25141-9.
  13. ^ "Constitution of the People's Republic of China (Article 33)". People's Daily Online. May 2, 1982. Retrieved 2014-07-23.
  14. ^ "Nationality Act". Laws & Regulations Database of the Republic of China. 2006-01-27. Retrieved 2014-07-23.
  15. ^ "Nationality Act". National Immigration Agency, immigration.gov.tw. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  16. ^ Barabantseva, Elena (2010). Overseas Chinese, Ethnic Minorities and Nationalism: De-Centering China. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-92736-2.
  17. ^ Park, Yoon Jung (2008). A Matter of Honour: Being Chinese in South Africa. Lexington Books. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-7391-3553-2.
  18. ^ Beeson, Mark (2008). Contemporary Southeast Asia. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-137-06880-4.
  19. ^ Hui-Ching Chang, Richard Holt. Language, Politics and Identity in Taiwan: Naming China. Routledge. pp. 162–164. ISBN 9781135046354.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

External links

Cheung Po Tsai

Cheung Po Tsai (Chinese: 張保仔; 1783–1822) was a navy colonel of the Qing Dynasty and former pirate. "Cheung Po Tsai" literally means "Cheung Po the Kid". He was known to the Portuguese Navy as Quan Apon Chay during the Battle of the Tiger's Mouth.

Chinese

Chinese can refer to:

Something of, from, or related to China

Chinese people, people of Chinese nationality, citizenship, or one of several Chinese ethnicities

Zhonghua minzu, the supra-ethnic Chinese nationality

Han Chinese, the dominant ethnic group in China, Singapore, and Taiwan

Ethnic minorities in China, non-Han Chinese people in China

Citizens of the People's Republic of China

Overseas Chinese, people of Chinese ancestry outside China Mainland, such as Taiwan

Chinese language, a language spoken predominantly in China in different mutually intelligible and unintelligible varieties and forms, sharing the same written standard but with disparate regional written vernaculars

Standard Chinese, the standard form of Chinese in China, Taiwan and Singapore

Varieties of Chinese, the topolects grouped under Chinese

Written Chinese, the writing system used for Chinese

Chinese cuisine, styles of food originating from China

American Chinese cuisine

Chinese Indonesians

Chinese Indonesians (Indonesian: Orang Indonesia keturunan Tionghoa) or (in Indonesia) simply Orang Tionghoa (simplified Chinese: 中华; traditional Chinese: 中華; pinyin: Zhōnghuá; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tiong-hôa), are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, primarily the Han Chinese. Many people who identify, or are identified, as "Chinese Indonesian" are of mixed Chinese and local ancestry.

Chinese people have lived in the Indonesian archipelago since at least the 13th century. Many came initially as sojourners (temporary residents), intending to return home in their old age. Some, however, stayed in the region as economic migrants. Their population grew rapidly during the colonial period when workers were contracted from their home provinces in southern China. Discrimination against Chinese Indonesians has occurred since the start of Dutch colonialism in the region, although government policies implemented since 1998 have attempted to redress this. Resentment of ethnic Chinese economic aptitude grew in the 1950s as native Indonesian merchants felt they could not remain competitive. In some cases, government action propagated the stereotype that ethnic Chinese-owned conglomerates were corrupt. Although the 1997 Asian financial crisis severely disrupted their business activities, reform of government policy and legislation removed a number of political and social restrictions on Chinese Indonesians.

The development of local Chinese society and culture is based upon three pillars: clan associations, ethnic media, and Chinese-language schools. These flourished during the period of Chinese nationalism in the final years of China's Qing Dynasty and through the Second Sino-Japanese War; however, differences in the objective of nationalist sentiments brought about a split in the population. One group supported political reforms in China, while others worked towards improved status in local politics. The New Order government (1967–1998) dismantled the pillars of ethnic Chinese identity in favor of assimilation policies as a solution to the "Chinese Problem".

The Chinese Indonesian population of Sumatra accounts for nearly half of the group's national population. They are generally more urbanized than Indonesia's indigenous population but significant rural and agricultural communities still exist throughout the country. Declining fertility rates have resulted in an upward shift in the population pyramid, as the median age increases. Emigration has contributed to a shrinking population, and communities have emerged in more industrialized nations in the second half of the 20th century. Some have participated in repatriation programs to the People's Republic of China, while others emigrated to neighbouring Singapore and Western countries to escape anti-Chinese sentiment. Among the overseas residents, their identities are noticeably more Indonesian than Chinese.

Chinese people in Finland

Chinese people in Finland form one of the largest immigrant groups in Finland. As of 2017 there were 11,825 speakers of Chinese in Finland. About 60% of them reside in Capital Region (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen). As of 2017 there were 8,742 Chinese citizens living in Finland. From 1990 to 2017 a total number of 2,460 Chinese citizens have been granted Finnish citizenship.

Chinese people in Pakistan

The Chinese people in Pakistan (Urdu: چینی‎) comprise one of the country's significant expatriate communities. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor has raised the expatriate population, which has grown from 20,000 in 2013 to 60,000 in 2018.

Ching Shih

Ching Shih (Chinese: 鄭氏; literally: 'widow of Zheng') (born Shih Yang (Chinese: 石陽; 1775–1844), a.k.a. Cheng I Sao (Chinese: 鄭一嫂), was a pirate leader who terrorized the China Seas during the Jiaqing Emperor period of the Qing dynasty in the early 19th-century. She commanded over 300 junks (traditional Chinese sailing ships) manned by 20,000 to 40,000 pirates:71—men, women, and even children. She entered into conflict with the major nations, such as the British Empire, the Portuguese Empire, and the Qing dynasty.Ching Shi and her crew's exploits had since been featured in numerous books, novels, video games, and films about piracy, pirates and their way of life in China as well as worldwide. She is widely considered to be the most successful pirate in history, based on the fact that she commanded the largest crew ever assembled, and that she died in her own bed as a free woman.

Choo Chiat Goh

Choo Chiat Goh is a Chinese ballet dancer, choreographer, and the founder of the renowned Goh Ballet Academy.

Goh was born into a family of 10 children. His parents were Chinese, and spoke Mandarin. He trained at the Royal Ballet, and became a principal dancer of the Beijing Ballet.One of Goh's sisters, Soonee Goh, trained at the Royal Ballet School in London and co-founded the Singapore Ballet Academy in Singapore. Another sister, Soo Khim Goh, trained at the Australian Ballet, and was the co-founder of the Singapore Dance Theatre in 1988.

Chui A-poo

Chui A-poo (Chinese: 徐亞保; died 1851) was a 19th-century Qing Chinese pirate who commanded a fleet of more than 50 junks in the South China Sea. He was one of the two most notorious South China Sea pirates of the era, along with Shap Ng-tsai.In September 1849, his fleet, which was based in Bias Bay east of Hong Kong, was destroyed by British and Chinese warships. More than 400 pirates were killed and Chui was seriously wounded.

Although he managed initially to escape, he was betrayed and handed over to the British. He was wanted with a bounty of $500 for the gruesome murder of two officers His punishment was lifelong exile to Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania), but he hanged himself in his cell before it could be carried out.

Confucius

Confucius ( kən-FEW-shəs; 551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known in the West as Neo-Confucianism, and later New Confucianism (Modern Neo-Confucianism).

Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death.

Confucius's principles have commonality with Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor veneration, and respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives, recommending family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do unto others what you do not want done to yourself", the Golden Rule. He is also a traditional deity in Daoism.

Confucius is widely considered as one of the most important and influential individuals in shaping human history. His teaching and philosophy greatly impacted people around the world and remains influential today.

Han Chinese

The Han Chinese, Hanzu, Han people (UK: ; US: ; Chinese: 漢人; pinyin: Hànrén; literally: 'Han people' or 漢族, pinyin: Hànzú, literally "Han ethnicity" or "Han ethnic group"), are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China. They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population. The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese people are mostly concentrated in mainland China (about 92% of the total population) and in Taiwan (about 95% of the population). Han Chinese people also make up three quarters of the total population of Singapore.The Han Chinese people trace a common ancestry to the Huaxia, a name for the initial confederation of agricultural tribes living along the Yellow River. The term Huaxia represents the collective neolithic confederation of agricultural tribes Hua and Xia who settled along the Central Plains around the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in northern China. The two tribes were the ancestors of the modern Han Chinese people that gave birth to Chinese civilization. In addition, the Huaxia (literally "the civilized Xia people") was distinctively used to represent the Huaxia as a civilized ethnic group in contrast to what was perceived of different ethnic groups as barbaric peoples around them. In many overseas Chinese communities, the term Hua Ren (华人; 華人; Huárén) may be used for people of Chinese ethnicity as distinct from Zhongguo Ren (中国人) which refers to citizens of China. The term Zhongguo Ren also includes people of non-Han ethnicity. Han people (汉人; 漢人; Hànrén) may also be used for people of ethnic Chinese descent around the world.The Han Chinese people are bound together with a common genetic stock and a shared history inhabiting an ancient ancestral territory spanning more than four thousand years, deeply rooted with many different cultural traditions and customs. The Huaxia tribes in northern China experienced a continuous expansion into southern China over the past two millennia. Huaxia culture spread from its heartland from the Yellow River Basin southward, absorbing various non-Chinese ethnic groups that became sinicised over the centuries at various points in China's history. The Han dynasty is considered to be the one of the first great eras in Chinese history as it made China the major regional power in East Asia and projected much of its influence on its neighbours while rivalling the Roman Empire in population size and geographical reach. The Han dynasty's prestige and prominence influenced many of the ancient Huaxia to begin identifying themselves as "The People of Han". To this day, Han Chinese people have since taken their ethnic name from this dynasty, and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters".

Hong Kong people

Hongkongers (Chinese: 香港人), also known as Hong Kongese and Hong Kong people, are people who originate from Hong Kong. These terms are a special identity for those who hold the legal residency in Hong Kong. Most of the Hongkongers were born and bred, or at least bred in Hong Kong sharing the same set of core values of Hong Kong. The terms itself have no legal definition by the Hong Kong Government; more precise terms such as Hong Kong Permanent Resident (Chinese: 香港永久性居民; Cantonese Yale: Hèunggóng Wínggáusing Gēuimàhn) and Hong Kong Resident (香港居民; Hèunggóng Gēuimàhn) are used in legal contexts. However, the word "Hongkonger" was officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary in March 2014.Hong Kong people do not comprise one particular ethnicity, and people that live in Hong Kong are independent of Chinese citizenship and residency status. The majority of Hongkongers are of Chinese descent and are ethnic Chinese (with most having ancestral roots in the province of Guangdong); however there are also Hongkongers of, for example, Indian, Filipino, Nepalese, Indonesian, Pakistani, Vietnamese and British descent. Expatriates from many other countries live and work in the city.

During the years leading up to the 1997 handover of sovereignty from Britain to China, many residents left Hong Kong and settled in other parts of the world. As a result, there are groups of Hongkongers that hold immigrant status in other countries. Some who emigrated during that period have since returned to Hong Kong. Due to China's "one country, two systems" policy, Hong Kong is a highly autonomous region and operates largely independently of China, having its own passport, currency, flag, and official languages (Cantonese and English instead of Mandarin). Furthermore, due to increasing social and political tensions between Hong Kong and Mainland China and desinicisation in the territory, a recent poll found that most Hong Kong people identify themselves as Hongkongers, with an estimated figure of over 40 percent, while less than 27 percent identify themselves as Hongkongers in China and less than 18 percent as solely Chinese.

Hua Mulan

Hua Mulan (Chinese: 花木蘭) is a legendary Chinese warrior from the Northern and Southern dynasties period (420–589) of Chinese history, originally described in the Ballad of Mulan (Chinese: 木蘭辭; pinyin: Mùlán cí). In the ballad, Hua Mulan, disguised as a man, takes her aged father's place in the army. Mulan fought for twelve years and gained high merit, but she refused any reward and retired to her hometown.

The historic setting of Hua Mulan is in the Northern Wei (386–536). Over a thousand years later, Xu Wei's play from the Ming dynasty places her in the Northern Wei, whereas the Qing dynasty Sui Tang Romance has her active around the founding of the Tang c. 620. In 621, the founder of the Tang dynasty was victorious over Wang Shichong and Dou Jiande, the latter was the father of Dou Xianniang, another female warrior who became Mulan's laotong in the Sui Tang Romance.The Hua Mulan crater on Venus is named after her.

Liang Daoming

Liang Daoming (Chinese: 梁道明; pinyin: Liáng Dàomíng; Cantonese Yale: Lèuhng Douh-mìng) was an abscondee of the Chinese Ming Dynasty who became king of Palembang in Srivijaya. He hailed from Guangdong province and was of Cantonese descent. According to the Ming records, he had thousands of followers and a sizable military contingent in Palembang. Liang Daoming's rule over Palembang was acknowledged by the Ming emperor and protected by Zheng He's armada (1403-1424).

List of Chinese by net worth

The following are partial lists of the Forbes list of Chinese billionaires (converted into USD) and is based on an annual assessment of wealth and assets compiled and published by Forbes magazine in 2017. In 2015 China had over 200 billionaires which put the country second in the world, after the United States.

Lists of people of the Three Kingdoms

The following are lists of people significant to the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of Chinese history. Their names in Mandarin pinyin are sorted in alphabetical order.

Fictional characters in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms and those found in other cultural references to the Three Kingdoms are listed separately in List of fictional people of the Three Kingdoms.

Mencius

Mencius ( MEN-shee-əs) or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302 BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.

Overseas Chinese

Overseas Chinese (traditional Chinese: 海外華人/海外中國人; simplified Chinese: 海外华人/海外中国人; pinyin: Hǎiwài Huárén/Hǎiwài Zhōngguórén) are people of ethnic Chinese birth or descent who reside outside the territories of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Although a vast majority are Han Chinese, the group represents virtually all ethnic groups in China.

Sun Tzu

Sun Tzu (; Chinese: 孫子; also rendered as Sunzi) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China. Sun Tzu is traditionally credited as the author of The Art of War, an influential work of military strategy that has affected Western and East Asian philosophy and military thinking. His works focus much more on alternatives to battle, such as stratagem, delay, the use of spies and alternatives to war itself, the making and keeping of alliances, the uses of deceit and a willingness to submit, at least temporarily, to more powerful foes. Sun Tzu is revered in Chinese and East Asian culture as a legendary historical and military figure. His birth name was Sun Wu and he was known outside of his family by his courtesy name Changqing. The name Sun Tzu by which he is best known in the Western World is an honorific which means "Master Sun".

Sun Tzu's historicity is uncertain. The Han dynasty historian Sima Qian and other traditional Chinese historians placed him as a minister to King Helü of Wu and dated his lifetime to 544–496 BC. Modern scholars accepting his historicity place the extant text of The Art of War in the later Warring States period based on its style of composition and its descriptions of warfare. Traditional accounts state that the general's descendant Sun Bin wrote a treatise on military tactics, also titled The Art of War. Since Sun Wu and Sun Bin were referred to as Sun Tzu in classical Chinese texts, some historians believed them identical, prior to the rediscovery of Sun Bin's treatise in 1972.

Sun Tzu's work has been praised and employed in East Asian warfare since its composition. During the twentieth century, The Art of War grew in popularity and saw practical use in Western society as well. It continues to influence many competitive endeavors in the world, including culture, politics, business and sports, as well as modern warfare.

Xiang Chinese

Xiang or Hsiang (Chinese: 湘; pinyin: xiāng; Mandarin pronunciation: [ɕi̯ɑ́ŋ]), also known as Hunanese (English: ), is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese, spoken mainly in Hunan province but also in northern Guangxi and parts of neighboring Guizhou and Hubei provinces. Scholars divided Xiang into five subgroups, Chang-Yi, Lou-Shao, Hengzhou, Chen-Xu and Yong-Quan. Among those, Lou-shao, also known as Old Xiang, still exhibits the three-way distinction of Middle Chinese obstruents, preserving the voiced stops, fricatives, and affricates. Xiang has also been heavily influenced by Mandarin, which adjoins three of the four sides of the Xiang speaking territory, and Gan in Jiangxi Province, from where a large population immigrated to Hunan during the Ming Dynasty.Xiang-speaking Hunanese people have played an important role in Modern Chinese history, especially in those reformatory and revolutionary movements such as the Self-Strengthening Movement, Hundred Days' Reform, Xinhai Revolution and Chinese Communist Revolution. Some examples of Xiang speakers are Mao Zedong, Zuo Zongtang, Huang Xing and Ma Ying-jeou.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.