Chinese nationality

Chinese nationality may refer to:

See also

Apostolic Nunciature to China

The Apostolic Nunciature to China is the diplomatic mission of the Holy See to the Republic of China, now commonly known to most of the world as Taiwan, which as far as the Vatican is concerned, is the state of "China". Due to this difference in diplomatic recognition of "China", unlike most of other countries who recognize the People's Republic of China (PRC) as "China" and whose embassies are located in Beijing, People's Republic of China (PRC), the Apostolic Nunciature to China is located in Taipei, Taiwan.

The rank of a nuncio is equivalent to that of an ambassador. The post is currently vacant and the mission is headed by a chargé d'affaires. The office of the nunciature is located at 7-1, Lane 265, Heping East Road Section 2, Daan District, Taipei.

British National (Overseas)

British National (Overseas), commonly abbreviated as BN(O), is a class of British nationality that was granted by voluntary registration to British Dependent Territories citizens who were Hong Kong residents prior to the transfer of sovereignty in 1997. Individuals with this nationality are British nationals and Commonwealth citizens, but not British citizens. The status itself does not grant right of abode in either the United Kingdom or Hong Kong, but most BN(O)s possess either the right of abode or right to land in Hong Kong. Nationals of this class are subject to immigration controls when entering the United Kingdom and do not have the automatic right to live or work there.This nationality was created to allow Hong Kong residents to retain a relationship with the United Kingdom after the territory was returned to China. BN(O)s enjoy British consular protection when travelling outside of Hong Kong. However, since most BN(O)s also hold Chinese nationality, they cannot access this protection within mainland China and Macau due to the master nationality rule.

British nationality law and Hong Kong

British nationality law as it pertains to Hong Kong has been unusual ever since Hong Kong became a British colony in 1842. From its beginning as a sparsely populated trading port to today's cosmopolitan international financial centre and world city of over seven million people, the territory has attracted refugees, immigrants and expatriates alike searching for a new life.

Citizenship matters were complicated by the fact that British nationality law treated those born in Hong Kong as British subjects (although they did not enjoy full rights and citizenship), while the People's Republic of China did not recognise Hong Kongers with Chinese ancestry as British. The main legal rationale for the Chinese position was that recognising these people as British could be seen as tacit acceptance of a series of treaties which China considers "unequal" – including the ones which ceded the Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula and the land between the Kowloon Peninsula and the Sham Chun River and neighbouring islands (i. e. the New Territories) to the UK. The main political reason was to prevent the vast majority of Hong Kong residents from having any recourse to British assistance (e.g. by claiming consular assistance or protection under an external treaty) after the handover of Hong Kong.

China Family Panel Studies

China Family Panel Studies (CFPS, Chinese: 中国家庭追踪调查) is a nationally representative, biennial longitudinal general social survey project designed to document changes in Chinese society, economy, population, education, and health. The CFPS was launched in 2010 by the Institute of Social Science Survey (ISSS) of Peking University, China. The data were collected at the individual, family, and community levels and are targeted for use in academic research and public policy analysis. CFPS focuses on the economic and non-economic well-being of the Chinese people, and covers topics such as economic activities, educational attainment, family relationships and dynamics, migration, and physical and mental health. The themes cover social, economic, education, health and so forth.


Chinese can refer to:

Something of, from, or related to China

Chinese people, people of Chinese nationality, or one of several Chinese ethnicities

Zhonghua minzu, the supra-ethnic Chinese nationality

Han Chinese, the dominant ethnic group in China, Singapore, and Taiwan

Ethnic minorities in China, non-Han Chinese people in China

Overseas Chinese, people of Chinese ancestry outside China Mainland, such as Taiwan

Chinese language, a language or family of languages spoken predominantly in China

Standard Chinese, the standard form of Chinese in China, Taiwan and Singapore

Varieties of Chinese, the dialects or languages grouped under "Chinese"

Written Chinese, the writing system used for Chinese

Chinese cuisine, styles of food originating from China

American Chinese cuisine

Chinese people

Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation. Han people, the largest ethnic group in China, at about 92% of the population, are often referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English, however there are dozens of other related and unrelated ethnic groups in China.

Ethnic minorities in China

Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC). China officially recognises 55 ethnic minority groups within China in addition to the Han majority. As of 2010, the combined population of officially recognised minority groups comprised 8.49% of the population of mainland China. In addition to these officially recognised ethnic minority groups, there are Chinese nationals who privately classify themselves as members of unrecognised ethnic groups (such as Jewish, Tuvan, Oirat, Ili Turki, and Japanese).

The ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the PRC reside within mainland China and Taiwan, whose minorities are called the Taiwanese aborigines. The Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan officially recognises 14 Taiwanese aborigine groups, while the PRC classifies them all under a single ethnic minority group, the Gaoshan. Hong Kong and Macau do not use this ethnic classification system, and figures by the PRC government do not include the two territories.

By definition, these ethnic minority groups, together with the Han majority, make up the greater Chinese nationality known as Zhonghua Minzu. Chinese minorities alone are referred to as "Shaoshu Minzu".

Gui Lin

Gui Lin (Chinese: 林桂; pinyin: Lín Guì, born 1 October 1993 in Nanning, China) is a table tennis player from Brazil. She was naturalized as a Brazilian in 2012 and was selected to be part of the Brazilian National Team competing in table tennis at the 2012 Summer Olympics. She was awarded 2 silver medals in her sport during the 2015 Pan American Games. She currently trains under the supervision of Pan-American Medalist Hugo Hoyama. She also holds Chinese nationality.

Hong Kong residents

Hong Kong residents (Chinese: 香港居民), also called Residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, according to the Hong Kong Basic Law include permanent residents and non-permanent residents. Rights of Hong Kong residents are protected by the Basic Law such as freedom of speech, freedom of movement and freedom of religious belief.


Laowai is the Mandarin pronunciation/transliteration of 老外 (pinyin: lǎowài, lit. "old foreign"), an informal term or slang for "foreigner" and/or non-Chinese national, usually neutral but possibly impolite or loose in some circumstances. Formal and polite Chinese terms for foreigner include wàiguórén (simplified Chinese: 外国人; traditional Chinese: 外國人; literally: "foreigner"), wàibīn (外宾; 外賓; "foreigner guest"), guójì yǒurén 国际友人; 國際友人; "international friend") and wàiguó pengyou (外國朋友; 外国朋友; "foreigner friend"). The term is typically used to refer to Europeans ('whites', 'Caucasians') especially, and to a lesser extent, Africans ('blacks'), Native Americans, Latin Americans and Middle Easterners. "Laowai" usually does not refer to ethnic Han of non-Chinese nationality or other East Asian ethnicities.

Macao Special Administrative Region Travel Permit

The Macao Special Administrative Region Travel Permit (Portuguese: Título de Viagem da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau; Traditional Chinese: 澳門特別行政區旅行證) is a biometric international travel document issued to non-permanent residents of Macau SAR holding Chinese nationality, who also possess a Macau SAR Non-Permanent Resident Identity Card, and are not eligible for any other type of travel document. Permanent residents of Macau of non-Chinese nationality are also eligible.

Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents

A Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents (simplified Chinese: 港澳居民来往内地通行证; traditional Chinese: 港澳居民來往內地通行證), also colloquially referred to as a Home Return Permit or Home Visit Permit (simplified Chinese: 回乡证; traditional Chinese: 回鄉證), is issued to Chinese nationals who are permanent residents of or settled in Hong Kong and Macau as the travel document to Mainland China. The permit is issued by the Bureau of Exit and Entry Administration of the Ministry of Public Security through China Travel Service sub-branches in Hong Kong and Macau and allows holders to travel freely to Mainland China.

The name "Home Return Permit" was chosen because it was used by Chinese émigrés in Hong Kong and Macau for visits to their families in Mainland China. Today, most holders of this permit are people with permanent residence status in Hong Kong and/or Macau, and the permit serves as a de facto identification card for Hong Kong and Macau residents in mainland China.

Nationality law of the People's Republic of China

The Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China regulates nationality of the People's Republic of China. Chinese nationality is usually obtained either by birth when at least one parent is of Chinese nationality or by naturalization.

The constitution of the People's Republic of China states that all persons holding nationality of China are citizens of China. Although in practice, the citizenship of Mainland China is the hukou, while the two special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau, each has its own rules on the rights of abode in these territories.

In theory, the Chinese Nationality Law is de jure applicable to Chinese nationals residing in all three constituents of the People's Republic of China, namely Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, and Macau SAR. Due to the complex history of Hong Kong and Macau SARs, however, special "explanations" of the Nationality Law were made in place by the National People's Congress before the Handover of Hong Kong and Macau. These interpretations, applicable only to permanent residents of Hong Kong or Macau, have created a separate class of Chinese nationality unique to those two SARs, which differs vastly, especially with the acquisition and loss of nationality, from the Chinese nationality of Mainland Chinese residents with hukou.

The law was adopted at the Third Session of the Fifth National People's Congress and promulgated by Order No. 8 of the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and effective as of September 10, 1980.

Orawee Sujjanon

Orawee Sujjanon (Thai: อรวี สัจจานนท์, sometimes Sutjahnon, Satchanont, or Sajjanont; RTGS: Orawi Satchanon) (born 9 March 1966) is a Thai lukgrung singer who has the alias "the singer with voice like a bell" (thai:นักร้องเสียงระฆังเเก้ว). Her nickname is Lek (Thai :เล็ก). Popularly known as Lek Orawee, she was born in Phrasamutchedi District, Samutprakan Province, Thailand. Her family are of Thai-Chinese nationality and her home is in Phasamutjade, Samutprakan. She graduated from Pranakorn Rajabhat University in 2003.

Politics of Hong Kong

The politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by its quasi-constitutional document, the Hong Kong Basic Law, its own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government and of the Special Administrative Region and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government.

On 1 July 1997, sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to China (PRC), ending over one and a half centuries of British rule. Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the PRC with a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign affairs and defence, which are responsibilities of the PRC government. According to the Sino-British Joint Declaration (1984) and the Basic Law, Hong Kong will retain its political, economic and judicial systems and unique way of life and continue to participate in international agreements and organisations as a dependent territory for at least 50 years after retrocession. For instance, the International Olympic Committee recognises Hong Kong as a participating dependency under the name, "Hong Kong, China", separate from the delegation from the People's Republic of China.

The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Hong Kong as "flawed democracy" in 2016.

South Asians in Hong Kong

Hong Kong has a long-established South Asian population. As of the 2016 by-census, there were at least 44,744 persons of South Asian descent in Hong Kong. Many trace their roots in Hong Kong as far back as when most of the Indian subcontinent was still under British colonial rule, and as a legacy of the British Empire, their nationality issues remain largely unsettled. However, recently an increasing number of them have acquired Chinese nationality.

Visa policy of China

Visitors to the Mainland of the People's Republic of China must obtain a visa from one of the Chinese diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. The two Special Administrative Regions – Hong Kong and Macau – maintain their own independent border control policy and thus have their own visa requirements.Chinese visas are issued both outside China, by the Chinese diplomatic missions, and in China, by the Exit and Entry Administrations (EEAs) of the county-level Public Security Bureaus (PSBs). In order to enter China, however, a non-Chinese national should apply to the visa-issuing authorities outside China for a Chinese visa. Because Hong Kong and Macau maintain their independent border control policies, ordinary Chinese visas are valid for Mainland China only and are not valid for Hong Kong or Macau, so travelers must apply for separate visas for Hong Kong or Macau should they require one for traveling to these regions.

The government of the People's Republic of China allows holders of normal passports issued by some countries to travel to Mainland China for tourism or business purposes for up to 15, 30 or 90 days without having to obtain a visa. Visitors of other nationalities, as well as residents of Hong Kong and Macau, are required to obtain either a visa or a permit prior to arrival, depending on their nationality. In order to increase the numbers of tourists visiting the country, some ports of entry of China allow nationals of certain countries to visit specified regions within 72 or 144 hours if they are in transit to a third country. In 2014 the PRC government announced its intention to sign mutual visa facilitation and visa-free agreements with more countries in the future. Since then, a number of such agreements were concluded with some countries.

All non-Chinese travelers as well as Hong Kong and Macau permanent residents who stay in Mainland China for more than 24 hours must register with the local PSBs. When staying in a hotel, the registration is usually done as a part of the check-in process. When staying in a private home, however, the visitor must physically report to the local PSB within 24 hours of arrival for cities or 72 hours for rural areas. All visa-free passengers, including those in transit who stay for more than 24 hours, must adhere to the rule, as failure to comply can result in a fine or being detained by PSB for up to 15 days. Since January 2018, persons who failed to register with the local PSBs will be banned from using visa-free transit for a period of 2 years from the day the offence was recorded.Starting from 9 February 2017, holders of non-Chinese travel documents aged between 14 and 70 will be fingerprinted upon entry, with the exception of holders of diplomatic passports. This new policy has started in Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport and will gradually roll out in all border checkpoints and international airports before the end of 2017.

Visa policy of Macau

The Government of the Macau Special Administrative Region allows citizens of specific countries/territories to travel to Macau for tourism or business purposes for periods ranging from 180 days to 14 days without having to obtain a visa. For other entry purposes, such as establishing residence on a long term basis, a different policy applies.

The Serviço de Migração (Immigration Department), under the Public Security Police Force, is the government agency responsible for immigration matters, whilst the Public Security Police Force itself is responsible for enforcing immigration laws in Macau.All visitors must hold a passport valid for 1 month.

Visa policy of Taiwan

Visitors to Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, or the ROC) must obtain a visa or authorization in advance, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or countries whose nationals are eligible for visa on arrival. All visitors must hold a passport valid for 6 months (except the citizens of Japan and the United States who are only required to hold a passport valid for the entire duration of stay).Taiwan has special entry requirements to current or former nationals of the People's Republic of China (PRC, commonly known as China) who reside or previously resided in Mainland China. Furthermore, nationals of certain countries must follow different requirements for applications of visitor visas.

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