Chinese Tatars

The Chinese Tatars (simplified Chinese: 塔塔尔族; traditional Chinese: 塔塔爾族; pinyin: Tǎtǎ'ěrzú; Tatar: Cyrillic Кытай татарлары, Latin Qıtay tatarları) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.

Their ancestors are Volga Tatars tradesmen who settled mostly in Xinjiang and Crimean Tatars who suffered from Joseph Stalin's expulsion at 1940s.

The number of Chinese Tatars is close to 5000 as of the year 2000, and they live mainly in the cities of Yining, Tacheng, and Ürümqi in Xinjiang.

Chinese Tatars speak an archaic variant of the Tatar language, free from 20th-century loanwords and use the Arabic variant of the Tatar alphabet, which declined in the USSR in the 1930s. Being surrounded by speakers of other Turkic languages, Chinese Tatar partially reverses the Tatar high vowel inversion. They do have a writing system.

Chinese Tatars are Sunni Muslims.[1]

Jadid schools were founded in Xinjiang for Chinese Tatars.[2]

Chinese Tatars
Total population
5,000 (2000 est.)
Regions with significant populations
China: Xinjiang
Languages
Tatar, Mandarin
Religion
Islam

See also

References

  1. ^ "Joshua Project - Tatar of China Ethnic People Profile".
  2. ^ Ondřej Klimeš (8 January 2015). Struggle by the Pen: The Uyghur Discourse of Nation and National Interest, c.1900-1949. BRILL. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-90-04-28809-6.
Burhan Shahidi

Burhan Shahidi (Uyghur: بۇرھان شەھىدى‎, ULY: Burhan Shehidi; برهان شهيدي ; simplified Chinese: 包尔汉•沙希迪; traditional Chinese: 包爾漢•沙希迪; pinyin: Bāo'érhàn•Shāxīdí; Russian: Бурхан Шахиди; Tatar: Borhan Şähidi) (October 3, 1894 – August 27, 1989), also spelled Bao Erhan, was a political leader in Xinjiang, China during the 20th century.

Chinese Turks

Chinese Turks may refer to:

Turks in the Tang military

Chinese Tatars

Few of several states ruled by ethnically Turkic families during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of China

Later Tang

Later Jin

Later Han

Salars, Uyghurs, Western Yugurs, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, and other ethnic groups in China that speak Turkic languages

Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu: دہلی سلطنت‬) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols (from the Chagatai Khanate), and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, and his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, and the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world. The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, and the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language. The Delhi Sultanate was also responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's potentially devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the Delhi Sultanate also caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, the Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.

Demographics of China

The demographics of China demonstrate a large population with a relatively small youth component, partially a result of China's one-child policy. China's population reached the billion mark in 1982.

In 2019, China's population stands at 1.418 billion, the largest of any country in the world. According to the 2010 census, 91.51% of the population was Han Chinese, and 8.49% were minorities. China's population growth rate is only 0.59%, ranking 159th in the world. China conducted its sixth national population census on 1 November 2010. Unless otherwise indicated, the statistics on this page pertain to mainland China only; see also Demographics of Hong Kong and Demographics of Macau.

Dughlats

The Dughlat clan (Kazakh: Дулат, Duǵlat, Dulu, Doly, lit. 'ruthless or fierce warrior'; Mongolian: Dolood/sevens, Doloo/seven; Middle Mongolian: Doluga, Dolugad; Dulğat) was a Mongol (later Turko-Mongol) clan that served the Chagatai khans as hereditary vassal rulers of the several cities of the western Tarim Basin from the 14th century until the 16th century. The most famous member of the clan, Mirza Muhammad Haidar, was a military adventurer, historian, and the ruler of Kashmir (1541–1551). His historical work, the Tarikh-i Rashidi, provides much of the information known about the family.

Jadid

The Jadids were Muslim modernist reformers within the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century. They normally referred to themselves by the Turkic terms Taraqqiparvarlar ('progressives'), Ziyalilar ('intellectuals'), or simply Yäşlär/Yoshlar ('youth'). Jadids maintained that Muslims in the Russian Empire had entered a period of decay that could only be rectified by the acquisition of a new kind of knowledge and modernist, European-modeled cultural reform. Although there were substantial ideological differences within the movement, Jadids were marked by their widespread use of print media in promoting their messages and advocacy of the usul ul-jadid or "new method" of teaching in the maktabs of the empire, from which the term Jadidism is derived. A leading figure in the efforts to reform education was the Crimean Tatar Ismail Gasprinski who lived from 1851–1914. Intellectuals such as Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy (author of the famous play The Patricide and founder of one of Turkestan's first Jadid schools) carried Gaspirali's ideas back to Central Asia. Jadid members were recognized and honored in Uzbekistan after the fall of the Soviet Union.

List of Turkic dynasties and countries

The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both. There are currently six recognized Turkic sovereign states. Additionally, there are six federal subjects of Russia in which a Turkic language is a majority, and three where Turkic languages are the minority, and also Crimea, a disputed territory between Ukraine and Russia where Turkic languages are the minority. There have been numerous Turkic confederations, dynasties, and empires throughout history across the Eurasian continent.

List of contemporary ethnic groups

The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect; where the term "culture" specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors.

By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.

Oroqen people

The Oroqen people (simplified Chinese: 鄂伦春族; traditional Chinese: 鄂倫春族; pinyin: Èlúnchūn zú; Mongolian: Orčun; also spelt Orochen or Orochon) are an ethnic group in northern China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. As of the 2000 Census, 44.54% of the Oroqen lived in Inner Mongolia and 51.52% along the Heilongjiang River (Amur) in the province of Heilongjiang. The Oroqen Autonomous Banner is also located in Inner Mongolia.

The Oroqens are mainly hunters, and customarily use animal fur and skins for clothing. Many of them have given up hunting and adhered to laws that aimed to protect wildlife in the People's Republic of China. The government is said to have provided modern dwellings for those who have left behind the traditional way of life. The Oroqen are represented in the People's Congress by their own delegate and are a recognized ethnic minority.

Russians in China

Ethnic Russians (Russian: Pусские; simplified Chinese: 俄罗斯族; traditional Chinese: 俄羅斯族; pinyin: Éluósī-zú) or Russian Chinese are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized in China. Russians have been living in China for centuries and they are typically the descendants of Russians who settled in China since the 17th century. Ethnic Russians in China are Chinese citizens. Many of them are descendants from Cossacks.

There are currently over 15,000 ethnic Russians in China who are born and raised as Chinese citizens.

Shatuo

The Shatuo (Chinese: 沙陀; pinyin: shātuó or Chinese: 沙陀突厥; pinyin: shātuó tūjué, also: Shato, Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart ) were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century. They are noted for founding three of the five dynasties and one of the kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

State Anthem of the Republic of Tatarstan

The National Anthem of Tatarstan (Tatar: Татарстан Җөмһүрияте Дәүләт гимны; Russian: Гимн Татарстана) was originally adopted in 1993 without lyrics. The music was composed by Rustem Yakhin. The anthem eventually had lyrics, written by Ramazan Baytimerov.

Volga Tatars

The Volga Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group native to the Volga-Ural region of Russia. They are in turn subdivided into various subgroups. Volga Tatars are Russia's second-largest ethnicity, composing 53% of the population of Tatarstan and 25% of the population of Bashkortostan.

Xabib Yunich

Khabib Yunich (Tatar: Cyrillic Юнич Хәбиб Фазылҗан улы, Latin Yüniç Xäbib Fazılcan ulı, pronounced [jyˈniɕ xæˈbib fʌzɤɫˈʑɑn uɫɯ]; Uyghur: يۈنىچ خەبىب فازىلجانۇلى‎, pronounced [jyˈnit͡ʃ xæˈbib fɑzɯɫˈd͡ʒɑn uɫɯ] in Uyghur; 1905–1945) was a politician, pedagogue, and journalist in the Xinjiang province of western China. He was an ethnic Tatar, and a Muslim.

After returning to China from Turkey, where he studied, he organized the first Uyghur language gazette in the Ili district of Xinjiang, and was its editor from 1934 to 1944. He was also the first person to organize a public library in the city of Ghulja (Kuljia). In the 1940s, he taught at the Tatar school in Ghulja.

Yüniç was one of the few leaders of a movement for Xinjiang's independence. He was also one of the composers of the Declaration of the People's Republic of East Turkistan, the first ethnic Uighur state, albeit one of the earliest satellite states of the USSR. Yüniç was also an education minister of the unrecognized state, while working as an editor of the "Free East Turkistan Gazette". He died during a typhus epidemic. The Soviet Union later dropped its support for the secessionist state, which collapsed and was reabsorbed into China.

Xueyantuo

The Xueyantuo (薛延陀) (Seyanto, Se-yanto, Se-Yanto) or Syr-Tardush were an ancient Tiele Turkic people and Turkic khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of the Gokturks, later aligning with China's Tang Dynasty against the Eastern Gokturks. The Xueyanto homeland is near the Selenga River/Xueyanhe River (薛延河江/偰輦河江), so their tribe's name is Seyanto/Xueyantuo (薛延陀), Chinese Han characters underwent considerable changes according to changes in Chinese dynasties, so the tribe is variously known as Xueyantuo, Xueyanhe, Xienianhe, Seyanto, Selenga, Selyanha, etc.

İske imlâ alphabet

İske imlâ (Tatar: Иске имля, pronounced [isˈke imˈlʲæ]; "Old Orthography") is a variant of the Arabic script, used for the Tatar language before 1920, as well as for the Old Tatar language. This alphabet can be referred to as "old" only to contrast it with Yaña imlâ.

Additional characters that could not be found in Arabic and Persian were borrowed from the Chagatai language. The final alphabet was reformed by Qayum Nasiri in the 1870s. In 1920, it was replaced by the Yaña imlâ (which was not an Abjad, but derived from the same source).

This alphabet is currently used by Chinese Tatars, who speak an archaic variant of the Tatar language.

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