Chinese Dream

The Chinese Dream (simplified Chinese: 中国梦; traditional Chinese: 中國夢; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mèng) is a term popularized after 2013 within Chinese society that describes a set of personal and national ethos and ideals in China and the Government of China.[1] It is used by journalists, government officials, and activists to describe the role of the individual in Chinese society as well as the goals of the Chinese nation.[2]

The phrase is closely associated with Xi Jinping, who is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (Paramount leader). Xi began promoting the phrase as a slogan in a high-profile visit to the National Museum of China in November 2012 after taking the office of general secretary.[3] Since then, use of the phrase has become widespread in official announcements and the embodiment of the political ideology of the leadership under Xi Jinping. Xi said that young people should "dare to dream, work assiduously to fulfill the dreams and contribute to the revitalization of the nation".[4] According to the party's theoretical journal Qiushi, the Chinese Dream is about Chinese prosperity, collective effort, socialism, and national glory.[5] The relationship between the phrase and the American Dream has been debated.


Chinese literature

The phrase "China Dream" (中国梦), and the associated idea of a collective hope for restoring China's lost national greatness, have ancient origins in Chinese literary and intellectual history.[6] In the Classic of Poetry (Shi Jing), the poem "Flowing Spring" (下泉) describes a poet waking up in despair after dreaming of the former Western Zhou dynasty. During the troubled Southern Song dynasty, the poet Zheng Sixiao wrote a poem in which he coined the phrase "Heart full of [the] China Dream (中国梦), the ancient poem 'Flowing Spring.'"[7] Moreover, popular patriotic literary and theatrical works in early 20th century China also made reference to a "China Dream," before the concept of the "American Dream" was invented in 1931.[6]

US literature

In 2008, architect Neville Mars, author Adrian Hornsby, and the Dynamic City Foundation published "The Chinese Dream – a society under construction".[8] The book investigates China's initial wave of rapid urbanization as it transitions to a socialist-market economy. Maps of the emerging spatial forms and analysis of the economic development processes that have originated within the extreme conditions of the 1980s and 1990s are combined with progressive planning concepts and personal portraits of a rapidly changing society. As such it synthesizes a body of research to tackle the main paradoxes at the heart of China's struggle for change and a more equitable and sustainable future.

According to Mars, "The present is so all-consuming that fast realities threaten to eclipse the slow dream of tomorrow." The overarching premise of the book is that China reveals a direct correlation between its shifting urban forms and its waning societal objectives. In that sense the book has arguably been prophetic. Written eight years ahead of the 12th FYP that holds the same thematic title "The Chinese Dream" (Chinese: 中国梦; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mèng) it introduces the notion that China's highly fragmented, sclerotic urban patterns determine a path of increasing inefficiency and energy-dependence. Mars introduces the term "MUD", or Market-driven Unintentional Development to describe this new hybrid urban condition, and suggests that planning itself needs to be radically redefined in order to be effective and not contribute to the extreme ex-urbanization. The conclusion of the book is "No New Cities" (杜绝新城), and a call for models of upgrading of existing urban centers and suburbs.

In 2010, author Helen H. Wang published her first book The Chinese Dream.[9] The book is based on over 100 interviews of the new members of the middle class in China. In the book, Wang did not define the Chinese Dream; rather, she conveyed the hopes and dreams of the Chinese people through intimate portraits of this growing demographic.

The Chinese Dream has won Eric Hoffer Book Awards. In 2011, the book was translated into Chinese《中国梦》and published in China. In 2012, the second edition of The Chinese Dream with a foreword by Lord Wei was published. In the foreword, Wei wrote:

The Chinese Dream today as portrayed in Helen's book speaks of a changing China that is discovering consumerism, that is increasingly globalised, and also at a cross roads. Will her path in years to come continue to be one that resembles that of Western countries with all the benefits of further urbanization,wealth, and industrialization, but at the same time challenges in managing scarce resources, population migration, and the social problems that affluence can bring, elsewhere called 'Affluenza'? Or will the Chinese people themselves inside and outside China create a new sustainable Chinese Dream, based on their ancient values of respect for culture, family, and nature, harnessing technology and creativity?[8]

In September 2012, Helen H. Wang gave a copy of her book The Chinese Dream to Tom Friedman at a dinner in Shanghai hosted by Peggy Liu, chairwoman of Joint US-China Collaboration on Clean Energy (JUCCCE).

The New York Times

Thomas Friedman Key Note Address at the National Conference on the Creative Economy
Thomas Friedman's New York Times article has been credited with popularizing the phrase "Chinese Dream" in China.

The British publication The Economist credits a column written by the American journalist Thomas Friedman for popularizing the term in China. A translation of Friedman's article, "China Needs Its Own Dream", published in The New York Times (October 2012) was widely popular in China.[3] Friedman attributes the phrase to Peggy Liu, the founder of the environmentalist NGO JUCCCE. According to Friedman in the magazine Foreign Policy, "I only deserve part credit... the concept of 'China Dream' was created by my friend Peggy Liu, as the motto for her NGO about how to introduce Chinese to the concept of sustainability."[10]

James Fallows of The Atlantic has pointed out that the phrase has frequently been used in the past by journalists. He mentions Deborah Fallow's book Dreaming in Chinese, his own article "What Is the Chinese Dream?", and Gerald Lemos' book The End of the Chinese Dream as examples.[11] In response to Fallows, The Economist cites an article in the Xinhua Daily Telegraph that directly credits Friedman.[12]

"Will the next Chinese leader have a dream that is different from the American dream?" [a paraphrase of a line in Mr Friedman's column]. In a year of political transition, the world's gaze is focused on the east. On the eve of the 18th [Communist Party] congress [at which Mr Xi had been appointed as party chief two weeks earlier] the American columnist Thomas Friedman wrote an article devoted to analysis of the "Chinese dream" titled "China Needs Its Own Dream". It expressed the hope that [the dream would be one that] "marries people's expectations of prosperity with a more sustainable China". Suddenly the "Chinese dream" became a hot topic among commentators at home and abroad.

— Xinhua Daily Telegraph[12]

The Economist writes that references to Friedman's article have also appeared in other Chinese media outlets, including a translation in The References News, in an article written for China's State Council Information Office, on the cover of the magazine Oriental Outlook as the main caption, in a magazine article published by Frontline, and in an article for a local newspaper written by China's ambassador to Romania, Huo Yuzhen.[12] In the preface of the Oriental Outlook "Chinese Dream" issue, the editor states that "the 18th national congress of the Chinese Communist Party convened November 8th. "Does the next generation of Chinese leaders have a 'Chinese Dream' that is different from the "American Dream"?.... This was a question raised by one of America's most influential media figures, Thomas Friedman."[12]

Xi Jinping

Xi Jiping cropped
Xi Jinping, Chinese leader, adopted "Chinese Dream" as a slogan in 2013.

Just after becoming General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in late 2012, Xi announced what would become the hallmark of his administration. "The Chinese Dream," he said, is "the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation." Xi's Chinese Dream is described as achieving the Two Centenaries: the material goal of China becoming a "moderately well-off society" by 2021, the 100th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party, and the modernization goal of China becoming a fully developed nation by about 2049, the 100th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic.[13]

In May 2013, Xi Jinping called upon young people "to dare to dream, work assiduously to fulfill the dreams and contribute to the revitalization of the nation". He called upon all levels of the Party and the government to facilitate favorable conditions for their career development. Xi told young people to "cherish the glorious youth, strive with pioneer spirit and contribute their wisdom and energy to the realization of the Chinese dream".[4]

According to Robert Lawrence Kuhn, who is an international investment banker and the author of "How China's Leaders Think: The Inside Story of China's Reform and What This Means for the Future", the Chinese Dream has four parts: Strong China (economically, politically, diplomatically, scientifically, militarily); Civilized China (equity and fairness, rich culture, high morals); Harmonious China (amity among social classes); Beautiful China (healthy environment, low pollution). Khun states that "a moderately well-off society" is where all citizens, rural and urban, enjoy high standards of living. This includes doubling the 2010 G.D.P. per capita (approaching $10,000 per person) by about 2020 and completing urbanization (roughly one billion people, 70 percent of China's population) by about 2030. "Modernization" means China regaining its position as a world leader in science and technology as well as in economics and business; the resurgence of Chinese civilization, culture and military might; and China participating actively in all areas of human endeavor.[14]

Reporters have noted that, "Mr Xi had seen the American dream up close, having spent a couple of weeks in 1985 with a rural family in Iowa. (He revisited them during a trip to America last year as leader-in-waiting.)"[15]

The concept of Chinese Dream is very similar to the idea of the "American Dream". It stresses the importance of entrepreneurial spirit. It also glorifies a generation of self-made men and women in post-reform China such as those rural immigrants who moved to the urban centers and achieved magnificent improvement in terms of their living standards and social life. Chinese Dream can be interpreted as the collective consciousness of Chinese people during the era of social transformation and economic progress.

As an aspect of political thought in contemporary China, the emergence of Chinese Dream indicates a diversion of political ideology from egalitarianism to a relatively more libertarian individualist approach. It is worth noting that the concept is still based on collectivism rather than individualism for it sees the subject of Chinese Dream as the people of China as a whole instead of specific individuals.

The idea was put forward by the new CPC general secretary Xi Jinping on 29 November 2012 and repeated by him on numerous important occasions. The Communist Party's propaganda chief, Liu Yunshan, has directed that the concept of the Chinese dream be incorporated into school textbooks.[16]

In an article for the Huffington Post, French sinologist David Gosset (高大伟) presented the idea that the Liyuan Style is an illustration of the China Dream.[17] China's new First Lady Peng Liyuan is at the intersection of what Gosset calls "Modern China", "Civilizational China" and "Global China".

Huang Yongjun, the general manager of New Classic Press (UK)

Huang Yongjun, the founder and general manager of New Classic Press (UK) is a major advocator of the "China Dream" in the United Kingdom. The New Classic Press is an effort to "explain China to the world" by Huang.[18]


The Chinese Dream is vaguely defined, and has led to multiple interpretations describing the phrase's meaning.[19]

Compared to the American Dream

Author Helen H. Wang was one of the first to connect the Chinese Dream with the American Dream. In her book The Chinese Dream,[8] Wang wrote: "The Chinese Dream, taking its title from the American Dream, alluding to an easily identifiable concept..." Wang attempts to demonstrate that the Chinese people have similar dreams as those of the American people. "This new [Chinese] middle class," Wang wrote, "which barely existed a decade ago, will reach the size of more than two Americas in a decade or two. They number in the hundreds of millions, with the same hopes and dreams that you and I have: to have a better life, to give our children an even better life...". Wang has also claimed that "Chinese people must define their own dream".[20]

Sustainable development

The China Dream has been defined as sustainable development.[21] Peggy Liu and the NGO JUCCCE coined the phrase "China Dream" as a movement based on sustainability,[22] which was later popularized in China through a New York Times article and adopted by Xi Jinping.[10] Pollution and food safety are popular concerns in China.[22] Cities are frequently covered by smog and the country's rivers are polluted with industrial waste.[23] China's rising middle class is expected to increase by 500 million people by 2025 and will continue to put a strain on the country's dwindling resources.[21] According to Liu, the Chinese Dream of sustainability can be achieved through the promotion of green technologies and the reduction of widespread conspicuous consumption.[22] China's high growth has caused widespread environmental damage, and without environmental reforms, the deterioration could threaten the legitimacy of the Communist Party.[21] The Chinese Dream is a dream of a prosperous lifestyle reconciled with a sustainable lifestyle.[22]

National renewal

The Chinese Dream has been viewed as a call for China's rising international influence. Xi Jinping refers to the dream as a form of national rejuvenation.[24] Young Chinese are envious of America's cultural influence and hope that China could one day rival the US as a cultural exporter.[25] Members of Chinese military support China's military development, opining that the "strong-nation dream of a great revival of the Chinese people" can only result from a "strong-army dream". Former United States Secretary of State John Kerry has promoted the idea of a "Pacific Dream" to accommodate China's rise through regional collaboration over shared interests like the environment and economic growth.[12]

Individual dreams

Many Chinese have interpreted the Chinese dream as the pursuit of individual dreams. Evan Osnos of The New Yorker concludes that "Xi Jinping has sought to inspire his people by raising the flag of the China Dream, but they have interpreted it as China Dreams—plural."[24] The Chinese Dream is defined according to an individual's personal aspirations and desires, which may lead to "the proliferation of 1.3 billion China Dreams."[24] Sujian Guo and Baogang Guo argue, "To a great extent, the American dream has been exported to China and has become the Chinese dream."[26] But according to official party journal Qiushi, the Chinese Dream is not about individual glory, but about collective effort.[5] Measuring public sentiment on Sina Weibo, Christopher Marquis and Zoe Yang of found that the Chinese Dream refers more to the common goods bestowed by civil society than it does to individual achievements.[27]. A main aim of the Chinese state propaganda is therefore the construction of links between individual and national aspirations, which also signifies the convergence of the values of the market economy and state nationalism. This is evident in Chinese entertainment television. In a genre of reality shows in public speaking, for example, contestants frequently connect between their "dreams" and the triumph of China and further emphasize the legitimacy of the Chinese Communist Party in delivering a better future.[28]

Economic and political reform

Some government officials and activists view the Chinese Dream as a need for economic and political reform.[29] Sustaining China's economic growth requires economic reform encompassing urbanization, the reduction of government bureaucracy, and weakening the power of special interests.[29][30] Chinese liberals have defined the Chinese Dream as a dream of constitutionalism. Southern Weekly, a liberal newspaper based in Guangzhou, attempted to publish an editorial titled "The Chinese dream: a dream of constitutionalism" which advocated the separation of powers, but was censored by the authorities.[19] Both Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang support economic reform, but have shied away from discussing political reform. Premier Li has said that "But however deep the water may be, we will wade into the water. This is because we have no alternative. Reform concerns the destiny of our country and the future of our nation."[29] According to official party sources, the Chinese Dream is the "essence of Socialism with Chinese characteristics".[1]

In October 2013, Britain's Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, described the Chinese Dream as a political reform that includes "rebalancing from investment to consumption".[31]

See also


  1. ^ a b Central Party School/Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. "The Chinese Dream infuses Socialism with Chinese characteristics with New Energy". Qiushi. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  2. ^ "Chasing the Chinese dream", The Economist, 4 May 2013, pp. 24–26].
  3. ^ a b "Xi Jinping and the Chinese Dream," The Economist May 4, 2013, p 11 (editorial)
  4. ^ a b Yang Yi, "Youth urged to contribute to realization of 'Chinese dream'", Xinhuanet 4 May 2013
  5. ^ a b Shi, Yuzhi (20 May 2013). "Archived copy" 中国梦区别于美国梦的七大特征 [Seven reasons why the Chinese Dream is different from the American Dream]. Qiushi (in Chinese). Central Party School/Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ a b Ryan Mitchell, "Clearing Up Some Misconceptions About Xi Jinping’s ‘China Dream", HuffPost, 20 August 2015
  7. ^ Qiangan, Wang. "The Origin of the Words" China Dream." Contemporary China History Studies 6 (2013): 020.
  8. ^ a b c Neville Mars; Adrian Hornsby (2008). The Chinese Dream – a society under construction.
  9. ^ Helen H. Wang (2012) [2010]. The Chinese Dream: The Rise of the World's Largest Middle Class. ASIN 1452898049.CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link)
  10. ^ a b Fish, Isaac Stone (3 May 2013). "Thomas Friedman: I only deserve partial credit for coining the 'Chinese dream'". Foreign Policy.
  11. ^ Fallows, James (3 May 2013). "Today's China Notes: Dreams, Obstacles". The Atlantic.
  12. ^ a b c d e "The role of Thomas Friedman". The Economist. 6 May 2013.
  13. ^ Kuhn, Robert Lawrence (4 June 2013). "Xi Jinping's Chinese Dream" – via The New York Times.
  14. ^ "Understanding the Chinese dream".
  15. ^ "Chasing the Chinese dream," The Economist 4 May 2013, p 25]
  16. ^ "Chasing the Chinese dream," The Economist 4 May 2013, pp 24–26]
  17. ^ Gosset, David (22 May 2013). "The China Dream and the Liyuan Style". HuffPost. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  18. ^ "Huang Yongjun: the man who brought the "China dream" to the UK". Zentopia Culture. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  19. ^ a b "Chasing the Chinese dream". The Economist. 4 May 2013.
  20. ^ Helen H. Wang (Feb. 2013), "Chinese People Must Define Their Own Dream", Forbes.
  21. ^ a b c Friedman, Thomas (2 October 2012). "China Needs Its Own Dream". The New York Times.
  22. ^ a b c d Liu, Peggy (13 June 2012). "China dream: a lifestyle movement with sustainability at its heart". The Guardian.
  23. ^ Rachman, Gideon (6 May 2013). "The Chinese dream is smothered by toxic smog". Financial Times.
  24. ^ a b c Osnos, Evan (26 March 2013). "Can China deliver the China dream(s)?". The New Yorker.
  25. ^ Tatlow, Didi Kirsten (12 January 2011). "Nationalistic and Chasing the 'Chinese Dream'". The New York Times.
  26. ^ Sujian Guo; Baogang Guo (2010). Greater China in an Era of Globalization. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 20. ISBN 9780739135341.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ Hizi, Gil (2018) "Speaking the China Dream: self-realization and nationalism in China’s public-speaking shows". Continuum.
  29. ^ a b c Jane, Cai (18 March 2013). "Xi Jinping outlines his vision of 'dream and renaissance'". South China Morning Post.
  30. ^ Bishop, Bill (13 May 2013). "As China's Economy Stumbles, Government Eyes Reform". The New York Times.
  31. ^ "Chancellor's speech to students at Peking University". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 16 October 2013. China too is striving under its new leadership to achieve more balanced and sustainable growth – and for you that means the opposite. Rebalancing from investment to consumption. This is part of Xi's vision to achieve the 'China Dream'.

Further reading

External links

Africans in Guangzhou

Africans in Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: 广州非裔; traditional Chinese: 廣州非裔, more commonly 广州黑人; 廣州黑人; 'Black people in Guangzhou') are Africans who travel to or reside in Guangzhou, China for short and long term periods.

Beginning during the late 1990s economic boom, an influx of thousands of African traders and business people, predominantly from West Africa, arrived in Guangzhou and created an African community in the middle of the southern Chinese metropolis. At 2012, there was an estimation of more than 100,000 Africans living in Guangzhou. Since 2014, the city's African population has significantly declined due to strict immigration enforcement by Chinese authorities and economic pressures in home countries including depreciation of the Nigerian naira and Angolan kwanza.

American Dream

The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States, the set of ideals (democracy, rights, liberty, opportunity and equality) in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, as well as an upward social mobility for the family and children, achieved through hard work in a society with few barriers. In the definition of the American Dream by James Truslow Adams in 1931, "life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement" regardless of social class or circumstances of birth.The American Dream is rooted in the Declaration of Independence, which proclaims that "all men are created equal" with the right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." Also, the U.S. Constitution promotes similar freedom, in the Preamble: to "secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity".

Borders of China

China shares international borders with 14 sovereign states. In addition, there is a 30-kilometre (19 mi) border with the special administrative region of Hong Kong, which was a British dependency before 1997, and a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) border with Macau, a Portuguese territory until 1999. With a land border of 22,117 kilometres (13,743 mi) in total it also has the longest land border of any country.

Chinese Dream Show

Chinese Dream Show (Chinese: 中国梦想秀; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mèngxiǎng Xiù) is a Chinese reality talent show that premiered on 2 April 2011 on the Zhejiang Television network. Program recording was done in Hangzhou. This show is now airing at 21:10(UTC+8) every Friday on Zhejiang Television network.

Chinese Folk Temples' Management Association

The Chinese Folk Temples' Management Association (中国民间寺庙文化管理协会 Zhōngguó mínjiān sìmiào wénhuà guǎnlǐ xiéhuì) is an organisation for the registration, standardisation and administration of the folk religious temples of China; such temples are considered the primary carriers of traditional culture. It was formally established at the end of 2015, with the approval of the government of China, with the purpose of creating a "Harmonious Society" realising the "Chinese Dream" with Chinese characteristics (gods). In its function, the organisation may be compared to Japan's Association of Shinto Shrines.

The association has links with the Chinese Water-Wind Philosophy Association (中国风水家协会 Zhōngguó fēngshuǐ jiā xiéhuì) and with the Chinese Yijing Philosophy Association (中国易经哲学家协会 Zhōngguó Yìjīng zhéxué jiā xiéhuì). The association was founded in Henan province, and is responsible towards the Ministry of Culture. In other areas of China, different measures for the administration of folk religious temples have been taken in the 2010s; for instance, in Zhejiang province 34,880 folk religious temples, mediated by a variety of local associations, have come under the aegis of the Bureau of Folk Faith of the provincial Bureau of Ethnic and Religious Affairs.

Chinese Marxist philosophy

Chinese Marxist Philosophy is the philosophy of dialectical materialism that was introduced into China in the early 1900s and continues in the Chinese academia to the current day.

Marxist philosophy was initially imported into China between 1900 and 1930, in translations from German, Russian and Japanese. The Chinese translator of the Origin of Species, Ma Junwu, was also the first one who introduced Marxism into China. For Ma, evolutionism and Marxism are the secrets of social development. This was before the formal dialectical materialism of the Communist Party, in which many independent radical intellectuals embraced Marxism. Many of them would later join the Party. Chinese Dialectical Materialism began to be formalized during the 1930s, under the influence of Mitin's New Philosophy. In the late 1930s, Chairman Mao Zedong would begin to develop his own sinified version of Dialectical Materialism that was independent of the Soviet Philosophy. Maoist Dialectics remained the dominant paradigm into the 1970s, and most debates were on technical questions of dialectical ontology. In the 1980s the Dengist reforms led to a large-scale translation and influence of works of Western Marxism and Marxist Humanism.

Confidence doctrine

The Confidence Doctrine (Chinese: 自信论) is a signature political philosophy of Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. It calls for Communist Party members, government officials, and the Chinese people to be "confident in our chosen path, confident in our political system, and confident in our guiding theories." Initially, the doctrine was termed the Three Confidences (三个自信), although Xi Jinping seems to have injected a 'fourth' confidence, "confidence in our culture," into the mix in December 2014. Along with the Four Comprehensives and the Chinese Dream, it has, since 2013, become a central theme in political slogans of the Communist Party of China, often recited at official meetings, conferences, and by state-owned media.

The doctrine was first discussed at the 18th Party Congress held in November 2012 in a speech by then party General Secretary Hu Jintao. The origin of the theory is said to be Yi Junqing, an official later disgraced for corruption who served as the head of the Compilation and Translation Bureau.According to several portraits of Xi by both domestic and foreign observers, Xi Jinping has a deeply held belief that the Communist Party and the institutions it has created is the best institution to govern China and the best institution to guide China's development. Throughout the period that the Communist Party was the ruling party of China, the party has constantly faced challenges and doubts, both domestically and internationally, about its continuing legitimacy to govern, and pressures for political reform. While the Communist Party has long criticized "western-style democracy and separation of powers" as unsuitable for the Chinese environment, the Confidence Doctrine introduces a novel approach to the issue by emphasizing self-confidence over the criticism of external forces.

Dan Washburn

Daniel Christopher Washburn (born October 31, 1973, Danville, Pennsylvania) is an American writer and journalist. He is the author of The Forbidden Game: Golf and the Chinese Dream, named one of the best books of 2014 by The Financial Times. Washburn is represented by the New York-based literary agent Zoe Pagnamenta.Washburn has written for Slate, Financial Times Weekend Magazine, The Atlantic, Foreign Policy, Golf World, Golf Digest,, and other publications.

Washburn's work was featured in the 2008 book, Inside The Ropes: Sportswriters Get Their Game On, and the 2013 anthology Unsavory Elements: Stories of Foreigners on the Loose in China.From 2002 to 2011, Washburn was based in Shanghai, China, where he was known for his various websites. He is founding editor of Shanghaiist, part of the Gothamist network of city websites.Prior to moving to Shanghai, Washburn was a sports writer for The Times in Gainesville, Georgia. He won the Georgia Sports Writers Association's top prize in outdoors writing four years in a row. In 2001, he was named Georgia's top sports columnist.Washburn is currently Chief Content Officer at Asia Society in New York City. He lives in Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn.

East China

East China or Eastern China (simplified Chinese: 华东; traditional Chinese: 華東; pinyin: Huádōng) is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.

An abolished concept, for economical purposes the region was defined from 1961 to 1978 by the Chinese Central Government to include the provinces of (in alphabetical order) Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong and Zhejiang, as well as the municipality of Shanghai. Since the Chinese government claims Taiwan and the few outlying islands of Fujian (Kinmen and Matsu) governed by the Republic of China (Taiwanese government) as its territory, the claimed "Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China" was once classified in this region.

Harmonious Society

The Harmonious Society (Chinese: 和谐社会; pinyin: héxié shèhuì) has been a socioeconomic vision in China.

The concept of social harmony dates back to ancient China, to the time of Confucius. As a result, the philosophy has also been characterized as a form of New Confucianism. In modern times, it developed into a key feature of General Secretary Hu Jintao's signature ideology of the Scientific Development Concept developed in the mid-2000s, being re-introduced by the Hu–Wen Administration during the 2005 National People's Congress.

The philosophy is recognized as a response to the increasing social injustice and inequality emerging in mainland Chinese society as a result of unchecked economic growth, which has led to social conflict. The governing philosophy was therefore shifted around economic growth to overall societal balance and harmony. Along with a moderately prosperous society, it was set to be one of the national goals for the ruling vanguard Communist Party.

The promotion of the "Harmonious Society" demonstrated that Hu Jintao's ruling philosophy had departed from that of his predecessors. Near the end of his tenure in 2011, Hu appeared to extend the ideology to an international dimension, with a focus on the international peace and cooperation, which is said to lead to a "harmonious world" whereas the administration of Hu's successor, Xi Jinping, has used the philosophy more sparingly, likely in favor of emphasizing his vision of the Chinese Dream.

Moderately prosperous society

Moderately prosperous society (Chinese: 小康社会; pinyin: xiǎokāngshèhuì) is a Chinese term, originally of Confucianism, used to describe a society composed of a functional middle-class. The term is best known in recent years through its use by Hu Jintao, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China between 2002 and 2012, when referring to economic policies intended to realize a more equal distribution of wealth.

In the usages (tifa) of current General Secretary Xi Jinping, the term "Chinese Dream" has gained somewhat greater prominence. During the annual National Party Congress meeting of 2015, Xi unveiled a set of political slogans called the Four Comprehensives, which include "Comprehensively build a moderately prosperous society."

Socialism with Chinese characteristics

The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (Chinese: 中国特色社会主义; pinyin: Zhōngguó tèsè shèhuìzhǔyì, literally zhōngguó tèsè, meaning "Chinese characteristics"; and shèhuì zhǔyì meaning "socialism") is a broad term for political theories and policies that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods. For instance, in this view Xi Jinping Thought is considered to represent Marxist–Leninist policies suited for China's present condition while Deng Xiaoping Theory was considered relevant for the period when it was formulated.The term entered common usage during the era of Deng Xiaoping and was largely associated with Deng's overall program of adopting elements of market economics as a means to foster growth using foreign investment and to increase productivity (especially in the countryside where 80% of China's population lived) while the Communist Party of China retained both its formal commitment to achieve communism and its monopoly on political power. In the party's official narrative, socialism with Chinese characteristics is Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese conditions and a product of scientific socialism. The theory stipulated that China was in the primary stage of socialism due to its relatively low level of material wealth and needed to engage in economic growth before it pursued a more egalitarian form of socialism, which in turn would lead to a communist society described in Marxist orthodoxy.

South China

South China (simplified Chinese: 华南; traditional Chinese: 華南; pinyin: Huánán) is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context.

Southwest China

Southwest China (Chinese: 西南; pinyin: Xīnán) is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the municipality of Chongqing, the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou, and the Tibet Autonomous Region.

The Forbidden Game (non-fiction book)

The Forbidden Game: Golf and the Chinese Dream is a non-fiction book by Dan Washburn, an American journalist who was based in Shanghai, China from 2002 to 2011. It was published by Oneworld Publications in 2014. In the book, Washburn uses the contradictory emergence of golf as a "metaphor for modern China." The Financial Times named The Forbidden Game one of the best books of 2014.

The Governance of China

The Governance of China is a Chinese political book in two volumes written by Xi Jinping, the general secretary of the Communist Party of China and current president of the People's Republic of China. The first volume was published in 2014, and the second volume was published in 2017. The work is a collection of several dozen speeches and writings by Xi on a variety of topics, which present an official party line for China's development in the 21st century. In these respects, Governance of China is a literary successor to Mao Zedong's Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung.

Two Centenaries

The Two Centenaries (Chinese: 两个一百年) is a set of goals advanced by General Secretary Xi Jinping following the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held in 2012. It is said to be the basic foundation for achieving the "Chinese Dream", another ideology advanced by Xi.The concept was first articulated at the 15th Party Congress held in 1997 during the term of then party General Secretary Jiang Zemin. However, apart from occasional pronouncements in party publications, this concept was not widely discussed again until Xi assumed the party leadership in 2012. Since then, it has become a major part of party slogans, often recited in news reports, at conferences, and training sessions for party officials.The "centenaries" refer to two 100-year anniversaries.

The centenary of the founding of the Communist Party of China in 2021, at which point, a full Xiaokang society would have been achieved. While "Xiaokang" – roughly meaning "moderately well-off" – is a relatively abstract theory rooted in both Confucianism and socialist ideology, the party has outlined this in objective, quantitative terms: a doubling of the 2010 per capita income figures.

The centenary of the founding of the People's Republic of China in 2049, at which point, China will have become a "strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious, and modern socialist country."A columnist for Asia-Pacific current affairs publication The Diplomat suggested that Xi's emphasis on these goals gives objective evaluation criteria for the performance of the Communist Party prior to his departure from office, and that achieving these goals will be a major test to the legitimacy of Communist rule in the country.

Wang Huning

Wang Huning (Chinese: 王沪宁; born October 6, 1955) is a Chinese political theorist and one of the top leaders of the Communist Party of China, a current member of the party's Politburo Standing Committee (China's top decision-making body) and secretary of the party's Secretariat. He served as secretary of the Secretariat between 2007 and 2012, and as the head of the Central Policy Research Office since 2002. He was named chairman of Central Guidance Commission on Building Spiritual Civilization in November 2017.

Wang is believed to have been one of the principal architect behind the official political ideologies of three presidents: "Three Represents" by Jiang Zemin, the Scientific Development Concept by Hu Jintao, and the Chinese Dream of Xi Jinping.

As Xi's top foreign policy aide, he has been described as "China's Kissinger" by South Korean newspaper The Hankyoreh.

Xi Jinping

Xi Jinping (; Chinese: 习近平; Mandarin pronunciation: [ɕǐ tɕîn.pʰǐŋ]; born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC). Often described as China's "paramount leader" since 2012, he officially received the title of "core leader" from the CPC in 2016. As general secretary, Xi holds an ex-officio seat on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's top decision-making body.Xi is the first general secretary born after the Second World War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The son of Chinese Communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, he was exiled to rural Yanchuan County as a teenager following his father's purge during the Cultural Revolution, and lived in a cave in the village of Liangjiahe, where he worked as the party secretary. After studying at the Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student", Xi rose through the ranks politically in China's coastal provinces. Xi was governor of Fujian from 1999 to 2002, and governor, then party secretary of neighbouring Zhejiang from 2002 to 2007. Following the dismissal of the CPC Secretary of Shanghai Chen Liangyu, Xi was transferred to replace him for a brief period in 2007. He joined the Politburo Standing Committee and central secretariat in October 2007, spending the next five years as Chinese paramount leader Hu Jintao's presumed successor. Xi was vice president from 2008 to 2013 and vice chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2010 to 2012.

Since assuming power, Xi has introduced far-ranging measures to enforce party discipline and to ensure internal unity. His signature anti-corruption campaign has led to the downfall of prominent incumbent and retired Communist Party officials, including members of the Politburo Standing Committee. Described as a Chinese nationalist, he has tightened restrictions over civil society and ideological discourse, advocating Internet censorship in China as the concept of "internet sovereignty". Xi has called for further socialist market economic reforms, for governing according to the law and for strengthening legal institutions, with an emphasis on individual and national aspirations under the slogan "Chinese Dream". He has also championed a more assertive foreign policy, particularly with regard to China–Japan relations, China's claims in the South China Sea, and its role as a leading advocate of free trade and globalization. Xi has sought to expand China's African and Eurasian influence through the Belt and Road Initiative.Considered the central figure of the fifth generation of leadership of the People's Republic, Xi has significantly centralised institutional power by taking on a wide range of leadership positions, including chairing the newly formed National Security Commission, as well as new steering committees on economic and social reforms, military restructuring and modernization, and the Internet. Said to be one of the most powerful leaders in modern Chinese history, Xi's political thoughts have been written into the party and state constitutions, and under his leadership the latter was amended to abolish term limits for the presidency.Due to the accumulation of power, the significant increase of censorship and mass surveillance, the return to a cult of personality and the removal of term limits for the President in 2018 under his rule, Xi Jinping has been called a dictator by many observers. However, Xi Jinping remains widely popular in China. A YouGov poll released in July 2019 found that 22% of Chinese people list Xi as the person they admire the most.In 2017, The Economist named him the most powerful person in the world. In 2018, Forbes ranked him as the most powerful and influential person in the world, replacing Russian President Vladimir Putin who had been so ranked for five consecutive years.

Policies and theories
Diplomatic activities
New Zhijiang Army


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