Chinese Communist Revolution

The Chinese Communist Revolution, led by the Communist Party of China and Chairman Mao Zedong, resulted in the proclamation of the People's Republic of China, on 1 October 1949. The revolution began in 1946, at the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War (1945–49). [3] In China, the revolutionary period is known as the War of Liberation (simplified Chinese: 解放战争; traditional Chinese: 解放戰爭; pinyin: Jiěfàng Zhànzhēng).

Chinese Communist Revolution
反共衛國戡亂戰爭
解放战争
新民主主义革命
第二次国共内战

(Second Kuomintang-Communist Civil War)
Part of the Chinese Civil War (since 1927)
Part of the Cold War (1947–1950)
People's Liberation Army occupied the presidential palace 1949

People's Liberation Army occupies the Presidential Palace in Nanjing. April, 1949
Date1945–1950[note 1]
     (4 years, 4 months and 1 week) (Kuomintang Islamic insurgency against the People's Republic of China's rule continued in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Yunnan until 1958)
Location
China
Result
Belligerents
  • Flag of the Chinese Communist Party (Pre-1996).svg Communist Party
  • Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg Eighth Route Army (until 1947)
  • Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg New Fourth Army (until 1947)
  • Communist militia, etc.
  • Flag of the People's Liberation Army.svg People's Liberation Army (since 1947)
  •  People's Republic of China (since Oct. 1, 1949)
  •  Republic of China
  • Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg Nationalist Party (Kuomintang)
  • Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg National Revolutionary Army (until 1947)
  • ROC Ministry of National Defense Flag.svg Republic of China Armed Forces (since 1947 Constitution)
  •  Republic of China on Taiwan (after 1949 retreat)
  • Commanders and leaders
  • Flag of the Chinese Communist Party (Pre-1996).svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
    Chairman Mao Zedong
  • Flag of the Chinese Communist Party (Pre-1996).svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
    Commander-in-Chief Zhu De
  • Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg Flag of the Republic of China.svg
    President and Director-General Chiang Kai-shek
  • Strength
  • 1,270,000 regulars (1945-09)
  • 2,800,000 regulars (1948-06)
  • 4,000,000 regulars (1949-06)
  • 4,300,000 (1946-07)
  • 3,650,000 (1948-06)
  • 1,490,000 (1949-06)
  • Casualties and losses
    250,000 in three campaigns 1.5 million in three campaigns[2]

    Historical background

    Growing Inequality and Foreign Colonialism

    The historical development of China resulted in sharp contradictions in society. Under the Qing dynasty, high rates of rent, usury and taxes concentrated wealth into the hands of a tiny minority of village chiefs and landlords. According to one statistic, "Ten percent of the agricultural population of China possessed as much as two-thirds of the land."[4]

    Simultaneously, China was under heavy colonialist pressure by the Western powers and the Japanese (the Century of Humiliation), as exemplified by the Opium Wars, the unequal treaties or the Boxer Rebellion. This extreme internal inequality and external aggression led to a national and class consciousness among vast swaths of the population.

    Owing to these reasons and decline of the Qing state, a peasant revolt led to the Xinhai Revolution which ended 2,000 years of imperial rule and marked the beginning of China's early republican era.[5] However, the resulting nationalist revolutionary regime was unable to form a stable national government and carry out land reforms. Its main leader, Sun Yat-sen, bowed down and was forced to seek asylum in Japan.[4]

    Following the end of World War I and October Revolution in Russia, labor struggles intensified in China. Workers were fighting for better wages, freedom of association, freedom of speech, and better welfare. In Shanghai alone, there were over 450 strikes between 1919 and 1923.[6]

    May Fourth Movement

    Although China joined the Allies by declaring war on Germany,[7] the nation suffered humiliation from Japan at the Treaty of Versailles, which led to the May Fourth Movement, a series of massive student protests in China.

    Mao Zedong claimed that the May Fourth Movement started the birth of communism in China:[8]

    The May Fourth Movement twenty years ago marked a new stage in China's bourgeois-democratic revolution against imperialism and feudalism. The cultural reform movement which grew out of the May Fourth Movement was only one of the manifestations of this revolution. With the growth and development of new social forces in that period, a powerful camp made its appearance in the bourgeois-democratic revolution, a camp consisting of the working class, the student masses and the new national bourgeoisie. Around the time of the May Fourth Movement, hundreds of thousands of students courageously took their place in the van. In these respects the May Fourth Movement went a step beyond the Revolution of 1911.[9]

    Founding of the Communist Party of China

    The Communist Party of China was founded in 1921. After a period of slow growth and alliance with the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party), the alliance broke down and the Communists fell victim in 1927 to a purge carried out by the Kuomintang under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek.[10] After 1927, the Communists retreated to the countryside and built up local bases throughout the country and continued to hold them until the Long March. During the Japanese invasion and occupation, the Communists built more secret bases in the Japanese occupied zones and relied on them as headquarters.[11]

    Chinese Civil War, 1945–1949

    The Nationalists had an advantage in both troops and weapons, controlled a much larger territory and population, and enjoyed broad international support. The Communists were well established in the north and northwest. The best-trained Nationalist troops had been killed in early battles against the better equipped Japanese Army and in Burma, while the Communists had suffered less severe losses. The Soviet Union, though distrustful, provided aid to the Communists, and the United States assisted the Nationalists with hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of military supplies, as well as airlifting Nationalist troops from central China to Manchuria, an area Chiang Kai-shek saw as strategically vital to retake. Chiang determined to confront the PLA in Manchuria and committed his troops in one decisive battle in the autumn of 1948. The strength of Nationalist troops in July 1946 was 4.3 million, of which 2.3 million were well-trained and ready for country-wide mobile combat.[12][13][14] However, the battle resulted in a decisive Communist victory and the Nationalists were never able to recover from it.

    Result

    On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek, 600,000 Nationalist troops, and about two million Nationalist-sympathizer refugees retreated to the island of Taiwan. After that, resistance to the Communists on the mainland was substantial but scattered, such as in the far south. An attempt to take the Nationalist-controlled island of Kinmen was thwarted in the Battle of Kuningtou. In December 1949 Chiang proclaimed Taipei, Taiwan the temporary capital of the Republic, and continued to assert his government as the sole legitimate authority of all China, while the PRC government continued to call for the unification of all China. The last direct fighting between Nationalist and Communist forces ended with the Communist capture of Hainan Island in May 1950, though shelling and guerrilla raids continued for a number of years. In June 1950, the outbreak of the Korean War led the American government to place the United States Seventh Fleet in the Taiwan Strait to prevent either side from attacking the other.[15]

    Declaration

    Below is the speech Mao Zedong had proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949 on top of the Tiananmen:

    The people throughout China have been plunged into bitter suffering and tribulations since the Chiang Kai-shek Kuomintang reactionary government betrayed the fatherland, colluded with imperialists, and launched the counter-revolutionary war. Fortunately our People's Liberation Army, backed by the whole nation, has been fighting heroically and selflessly to defend the territorial sovereignty of our homeland, to protect the people's lives and property, to relieve the people of their sufferings, and to struggle for their rights, and it eventually wiped out the reactionary troops and overthrew the reactionary rule of the Nationalist government. Now, the People's War of Liberation has been basically won, and the majority of the people in the country have been liberated. On this foundation, the first session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference , composed of delegates of all the democratic parties and people's organization of China, the People's Liberation Army, the various regions and nationalities of the country, and the overseas Chinese and other patriotic elements, has been convened.

    Representing the will of the whole nation, [this session of the conference] has enacted the organic law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, elected Mao Zedong as chairman of the Central People's Government; and Zhu De, Lui Shaoqi, Song Qingling, Li Jishen, Zhang Lan, and Gao Gang as vice chairmen [of the Central People's Government]; and Chen Yi, He Long, Li Lisan, Lin Boqu, Ye Jianying, He Xiangning, Lin Biao, Peng Dehuai, Liu Bocheng, Wu Yuzhang, Xu Xiangqian, Peng Zhen, Bo Yibo, Nie Rongzhen, Zhou Enlai, Dong Biwu, Seypidin, Rao Shushi, Tan Kah-kee [Chen Jiageng], Luo Ronghuan, Deng Zihui, Ulanhu, Xu Deli, Cai Chang, Liu Geping, Ma Yinchu, Chen Yun, Kang Sheng, Lin Feng, Ma Xulun, Guo Moruo, Zhang Yunyi, Deng Xiaoping, Gao Chongmin, Shen Junru, Shen Yanbing, Chen Shutong, Szeto Mei-tong [Situ Meitang], Li Xijiu, Huang Yanpei, Cai Tingkai, Xi Zhongxun, Peng Zemin, Zhang Zhizhong, Fu Zuoyi, Li Zhuchen, Li Zhangda, Zhang Nanxian, Liu Yazi, Zhang Dongsun, and Long Yun as council members to form the Central People's Government Council, proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China and decided on Beijing as the capital of the People's Republic of China.

    The Central People's Government Council of the People's Republic of China took office today in the capital and unanimously made the following decisions: to proclaim the establishment of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; to adopt the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference as the policy of the government; to elect Lin Boqu from among the council members as secretary general of the Central People's Government Council; to appoint Zhou Enlai as premier of the Government Adminstration Council of the Central People's Government and concurrently minister of Foreign Affairs, Mao Zedong as chairman of the People's Revolutionary Military Commission of the Central People's Government, Zhu De as commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army, Shen Junru as president of the Supreme People's Court of the Central People's Government, and Luo Ronghuan as procurator general of the Supreme People's Procuratorate of the Central People's Government, and to charge them with the task of the speedy formation of the various organs of the government to carry out the work of the government. At the same time, the Central People's Government Council decided to declare to the governments of all other countries that this government is the sole legal government representing all the people of the People's Republic of China. This government is willing to establish diplomatic relations with any foreign government that is willing to observe the principles of equality, mutual benefit, and mutual respect of territorial integrity and sovereignty.

    — Mao Zedong
    Chairman
    The Central People's Government the People Republic of China[16]

    Notes

    1. ^ The conflict did not have an official end date; however, historians generally agree that the war subsided after the People's Republic of China took the Mosquito Tail Islet, the last island held by the Republic of China in the Wanshan Archipelago.[1]

    See also

    References

    Citations

    1. ^ Westad, Odd (2003). Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946–1950. Stanford University Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-8047-4484-3.
    2. ^ Lynch, Michael (2010). The Chinese Civil War 1945–49. Osprey Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-84176-671-3.
    3. ^ “Chinese Civil War of 1945–49”, Dictionary of Wars (2007), Third Edition, George Childs Cohn, Ed., pp. 121–122.
    4. ^ a b Roberts, John Peter (2016-01-21). China: From Permanent Revolution to Counter-Revolution. Wellred. ISBN 9781900007634. Ten percent of the agricultural population of China possessed as much as two-thirds of the land. In the province of Shansi, 0.3% of the families possessed one quarter of the land. In Chekiang, 3.3% of the families possessed half the land, while 77% of the poor peasants possessed no more than 20% of the land.
    5. ^ Li, Xiaobing. [2007] (2007). A History of the Modern Chinese Army. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2438-7, ISBN 978-0-8131-2438-4. pg 13. pg 26–27.
    6. ^ Dirlik, Arif (1989). The Origins of Chinese Communism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195054545.
    7. ^ Chan, John. "The tragedy of the 1925-1927 Chinese Revolution". www.wsws.org. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
    8. ^ "World Policy Journal - Summer 2005". World Policy. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
    9. ^ The May Fourth Movement (May 1939)
    10. ^ Hunt, Michael H. (2015). The World Transformed 1945 to the present. Oxford University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-19-937102-0.
    11. ^ Patrick Fuliang Shan, “Local Revolution, Grassroots Mobilization and Wartime Power Shift to the Rise of Communism,” in Xiaobing Li (ed.), Evolution of Power: China’s Struggle, Survival, and Success, Lexington and Rowman & Littlefield, 2013, pp. 3-25.
    12. ^ 《中华民国国民政府军政职官人物志》 (in Chinese). p. 374.
    13. ^ 《国民革命与统一建设:20世纪初孙中山及国共人物的奋斗》 (in Chinese). p. 12.
    14. ^ 《国民革命与黃埔军校:纪念黃埔军校建校80周年学術论文集》 (in Chinese). p. 450.
    15. ^ "Army Department Teletype conference, ca. June 1950". Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. US Department of Defense. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
    16. ^ [1] – Proclamation of the Central People's Government the People Republic of China – The People's Daily, 2 October 1949

    Sources

    • Franke, Wolfgang, A Century of Chinese Revolution, 1851–1949 (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1970).

    Further reading

    A Touch of Green

    A Touch of Green (Chinese:一把青) is a 2015 Taiwanese period drama television series produced by Public Television Service, based on the 1971 short story of the same name by Pai Hsien-yung (which was included in his bilingual collection Taipei People). The story follows a group of Republic of China Air Force pilots and their women during the Chinese Communist Revolution (1945–49) in mainland China and the White Terror period (1949–87) in Taiwan.

    A Touch of Green won 6 awards at the 2016 Golden Bell Awards, including Best TV Series, Best Directing (Tsao Jui-yuan), and Best Actor (Wu Kang-jen).

    Big Circle Gang

    Tai Huen Chai (大圈仔), Big Circle Boys, is perhaps the most progressive of the organised Triads formed since the Chinese Communist Revolution of 1949. The Big Circle Gang or BCG (大圈幫) is the designation given to the soldier members of the group, they mainly use black and grey as their clothing. The highest ranks, considered equivalent to Commanding Officer or Commissar, are generally involved in legitimate business, gambling, and in the position of Lutsze-yeh (a managing or controlling lawyer's clerk). All races are also welcome to join in BCG. The gang can also be identified with its number affiliation 187, B=18, C=3, G=7. This is considered to be one of the largest Asian gangs.

    Chinese Revolution

    The Chinese Revolution can refer to:

    Xinhai Revolution or 1911 Revolution: the October 10, 1911 uprising against the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China in 1912.

    Second Chinese Revolution, the 1913 rebellion against Yuan Shikai

    Northern Expedition, a military campaign by Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces against the Beiyang government in 1926–28, leading to the establishment of the Nationalist government in Nanking.

    Chinese Civil War, the conflict between the Nationalist government and the Communists from 1927–49

    Chinese Communist Revolution, the victory of the Communist Party of China in the final stage of the Chinese Civil War in 1949

    Episcopal Diocese of Taiwan

    The Episcopal Diocese of Taiwan (臺灣聖公會) is the Anglican diocese in Taiwan and a member diocese of the Episcopal Church of the United States. It was established in 1954, five years after Chinese Episcopalians fled from mainland China to Taiwan following the Chinese Communist Revolution in 1949.

    It is a diocese of Province 8 of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.

    Jiefang

    Jiefang, generally a spelling without tonemarks of Jiěfàng (Chinese: 解放; literally: 'liberation'), may refer to:

    Jiefang Daily, newspaper of the Shanghai Committee of the Communist Party of China

    FAW Jiefang, a truck manufacturing company

    Jiefang CA-30, military truck

    the Chinese Communist Revolution, common known in China as the “liberation”

    Lovers Under the Rain

    Lovers Under the Rain is a 1986 Taiwanese television drama series based on Chiung Yao's 1964 romance novel Fire and Rain. Mainly set in 1960s Taipei, the story follows a young girl Lu Yi-ping as she plotted revenge against her father—formerly a warlord in Northeast China who had 9 wives before fleeing the Chinese Communist Revolution for Taiwan—and his entire household, including her kind half-sister Lu Ru-ping.

    The second Chiung Yao adaptation starring Leanne Liu and Chin Han after the highly successful How Many Red Sunsets (1985), this drama proved even a bigger hit, capturing over 42% of the Taiwanese audiences.

    New Communist movement

    The New Communist Movement (NCM) was a political movement of the 1970s and 1980s in the United States. The term refers to a specific trend in the U.S. New Left which sought inspiration in the socialist revolutions such as the Russian Revolution, the Chinese Communist Revolution, and the Cuban Revolution, and wanted to do so independently of already-existing U.S. communist groups.

    Northern Shaanxi

    Shaanbei (simplified Chinese: 陕北; traditional Chinese: 陝北; pinyin: Shǎnběi) is the northern portion of Shaanxi province in Northwest China, and is a natural as well as cultural area, forming part of the Loess Plateau. As it includes Yan'an, it is known as the birthplace of the Chinese Communist revolution.

    Period of mobilization for the suppression of Communist rebellion

    Period of mobilization for the suppression of Communist rebellion (Chinese: 動員戡亂時期; pinyin: Dòngyuán Kānluàn Shíqí; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tōng-oân Kham-loān sî-kî) is a political term used by the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China to indicate the country's entering into a state of emergency with the raising Chinese Civil War. The term aimed to mobilize the people and resources under Kuomintang's control to fight with the Communist Party of China rebellion.

    The term was announced in July 1947 by Chiang Kai-shek, the chairman of the Nationalist Government, as an administrative order. As the situations worsen by time, it was then turned into a constitutional amendment named Temporary Provisions against the Communist Rebellion (動員戡亂時期臨時條款) in May 10, 1948. With the progression Chinese Communist Revolution, the Temporary Provisions were no longer valid in most of the Chinese territory after the Communist's armed forces expelled the Kuomintang's armed forces. However, it was still enforced by the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China regime in Taiwan until the early 1990s.

    Peter Wang

    Peter Wang (Chinese: 王正方; pinyin: Wáng Zhèngfāng) is an American actor and director from Beijing. He is best known for writing and directing the 1986 film, A Great Wall, the first American feature to be co-produced by the People's Republic of China.Wang was born in Beijing but grew up in Taiwan following the Chinese Communist Revolution in 1949. Wang came to the United States in the 1970s to pursue a PhD in electro-optics at the University of Pennsylvania but during a teaching stint at San Mateo College in the Bay Area, he began acting at San Francisco's Asian Living Theatre. Wang's first film role came as Henry, a singing Chinatown chef, in Wayne Wang's Chan Is Missing (1982). In 1983, Wang and producer Shirley Sun partnered with the Chinese production company, Nanhai, and this led to Wang writing, directing and starring in A Great Wall. For 1988's sci-fi film The Laser Man, Wang revisited his experiences in graduate school where he had studied laser weapon research.

    Reverse Course

    Reverse Course was a change in US government and Allied Occupation policy toward Japan during the post-World War II reconstruction. Beginning roughly between 1947 and 1948, it lasted until the end of the occupation in 1952.The impetus for the Reverse Course divides between global events and developments within Japan. On the one hand, it is linked to the escalation of the Cold War, the Chinese Communist Revolution and the looming Korean War. On the other hand, due to domestic inflation, the growth of poverty, and the expansion of leftist parties, Japan seemed ripe for communism to both the Japanese government and the leaders of the occupation—especially to the leader of the occupation, Douglas MacArthur. The Reverse Course resembled Europe’s Marshall Plan.

    The occupation had begun with various moves toward democratization, including land reform, the purge of officials responsible for Japan's ultra-nationalism, and the suppression of both the zaibatsu and the yakuza. This extended to Japan's new constitution, which included an article that barred the government from maintaining a standing army. This constitution and related policies had been written by Rooseveltian New-Dealers. The Reverse Course changed such policies in favor of the containment policy.

    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kunming

    The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kunming (Latin: Coenmimen(sis), Chinese: 昆明) is an archdiocese located in the city of Kunming in China.

    The Archdiocese has not had a legitimate, Vatican-appointed Archbishop since 1952, when French Archbishop Alexandre Derouineau was expelled from China in the aftermath of the Chinese Communist Revolution.The government of the People's Republic of China installed Father Kong Lingzhong as archbishop in 1962 and Father Joseph Ma Yinglin as archbishop in 2006. Neither government appointment is considered legitimate by the Vatican since they were not appointed by the papacy.In 2000, the Vatican appointed Lawrence Zhang Wen-Chang as Apostolic Administrator of Kunming. He served until his death in 2012.

    Ruth Weiss

    Ruth F. Weiss, also known as Wèi Lùshī (魏璐诗) (December 11, 1908 – March 6, 2006), was a Jewish Austrian-Chinese educator, journalist, and lecturer. She was the last surviving European eyewitness of the Chinese Communist Revolution and the beginnings of the People’s Republic of China.

    Shangri-La Hotel Singapore

    Shangri-La Hotel, Singapore is a five-star deluxe hotel located on Orange Grove Road, Orchard Road, Singapore.Opened on 23 April 1971, the hotel is the flagship and the first hotel of Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts. The hotel has 747 guestrooms and suites spread over the Tower Wing, Garden Wing and Valley Wing, 127 serviced apartments, and 55 condominium units.

    The hotel is the annual host of a meeting of defence ministers, permanent heads of ministries, and military chiefs of 28 Asia-Pacific states since 2002 that has become known as the Shangri-La Dialogue. On 7 November 2015, the hotel served as the venue of a historic meeting between the People's Republic of China's paramount leader Xi Jinping and the Republic of China's President Ma Ying-jeou, the first meeting between a Mainland China's and Taiwan's leader since the 1949 Chinese Communist Revolution.

    Shaoshan

    Shaoshan (Chinese: 韶山; pinyin: Sháoshān) is a county-level city in Hunan Province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Xiangtan. Qingxi Town is its seat.

    Located on the mid-eastern Hunan and the mid-north of Xiangtan, Shaoshan is bordered by Ningxiang County to the north, Xiangxiang City to the west and southwest, Xiangtan County to the east and southeast. It covers an area of 247.3 km2 (95.5 sq mi), as of 2015, it has a census registered population of 118,236 and a permanent resident population of 97,800. It is the smallest administrative unit by size or by population in the counties and county-level cities in Hunan province.As the birthplace of Mao Zedong, the founder of the People's Republic of China, Shaoshan was an important base during the Chinese Communist Revolution. It is also the birthplace of Mao's Family Restaurant, a restaurant chain that has spread to many other cities. Red tourism to Shaoshan and other places related to China's communist background has driven the local economy, while increasing people's understanding of China's revolutionary history.

    Mao remains a popular figure in the area.

    Taking Tiger Mountain (By Strategy)

    Taking Tiger Mountain (By Strategy) is the second solo album by English musician Brian Eno (credited simply as "Eno"), released in November 1974 by Island Records. Unlike his debut album Here Come the Warm Jets, Eno used a core band of five instrumentalists (keyboards, guitars, bass, drums, and percussion) and used fewer guest musicians. Also participating was guitarist and co-writer Phil Manzanera, who had played with Eno in Roxy Music. To help guide the production of the album, Eno and Peter Schmidt developed instruction cards called Oblique Strategies to use through the creative process of the album.

    Taking Tiger Mountain (By Strategy) is a loose concept album with topics ranging from espionage to the Chinese Communist revolution. The album's music has an upbeat, bouncy sound but with dark lyrical themes. It did not chart in the United Kingdom or the United States, but received greater exposure from the music press. Since its release, the album has received critical attention, with varying opinions on its style and quality compared to Here Come the Warm Jets.

    White Snow, Red Blood

    White Snow, Red Blood is a book by Zhāng Zhènglóng (張正隆), a colonel in the People's Liberation Army, that was published in August, 1989 by the People's Liberation Army Publishing House. It concerns the history of the People's Liberation Army during the Chinese Communist Revolution. The book was severely criticized and suppressed in the spring of 1990, after about 100,000 copies had been sold.Based on records of the People's Liberation Army and interviews with surviving participants in the Chinese Communist Revolution the book contains information about events that are not usually included in official accounts of the Chinese Civil War such as the Siege of Changchun in 1948. Corruption in certain units of the PLA is also discussed. Among the controversial contents of the book were that the Red Army had committed atrocities during the Siege of Changchun, that senior Party leader Wang Zhen had smuggled opium during the Chinese Civil War, and that the "official" Chinese account of the "Lin Biao incident" was inaccurate.Because of its controversial content, the book and its author were attacked by conservative politicians inside China, notably Yang Shangkun and Wang Zhen. Yang, who was then President of the People's Republic of China, claimed that the book "insulted the Communist Party". Zhang was arrested in 1990 for publishing the book, and the book was censored in mainland China.Information about the contents of the book in the West is derived from a copy obtained by the Associated Press in Hong Kong in 1990. The book was reprinted in Hong Kong in 1991 as Xuěbái xiě hóng: guó gòng dōngběi dà juézhàn lìshǐ xiāng (雪白血紅: 國共東北大決戰歷史眞相 White snow red blood: A true history of the KMT-CPC battle for the Northeast) by Tiandi Press.

    Xiang Chinese

    Xiang or Hsiang (Chinese: 湘; pinyin: xiāng; Mandarin pronunciation: [ɕi̯ɑ́ŋ]), also known as Hunanese (English: ), is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese, spoken mainly in Hunan province but also in northern Guangxi and parts of neighboring Guizhou and Hubei provinces. Scholars divided Xiang into five subgroups, Chang-Yi, Lou-Shao, Hengzhou, Chen-Xu and Yong-Quan. Among those, Lou-shao, also known as Old Xiang, still exhibits the three-way distinction of Middle Chinese obstruents, preserving the voiced stops, fricatives, and affricates. Xiang has also been heavily influenced by Mandarin, which adjoins three of the four sides of the Xiang speaking territory, and Gan in Jiangxi Province, from where a large population immigrated to Hunan during the Ming Dynasty.Xiang-speaking Hunanese people have played an important role in Modern Chinese history, especially in those reformatory and revolutionary movements such as the Self-Strengthening Movement, Hundred Days' Reform, Xinhai Revolution and Chinese Communist Revolution. Some examples of Xiang speakers are Mao Zedong, Zuo Zongtang, Huang Xing and Ma Ying-jeou.

    Yan'an

    Yan'an (Chinese: 延安; Mandarin pronunciation: [jɛ̌n.án]) is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west. It administers several counties, including Zhidan (formerly Bao'an), which served as the headquarters of the Chinese Communists before the city of Yan'an proper took that role.

    Yan'an was near the endpoint of the Long March, and became the center of the Chinese Communist revolution from late 1935 to early 1947. Chinese communists celebrate Yan'an as the birthplace of the revolution.

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