Chinchilla

Chinchillas are either of two species of crepuscular rodents of the parvorder Caviomorpha. They are slightly larger and more robust than ground squirrels, and are native to the Andes mountains in South America.[3] They live in colonies called "herds" at high elevations of up to 4,270 m (14,000 ft). Historically, chinchillas lived in an area that included parts of Bolivia, Peru, Argentina, and Chile, but today, colonies in the wild are known only in Chile.[4] Along with their relatives, viscachas, they make up the family Chinchillidae. They are also related to the chinchilla rat.

The chinchilla has the densest fur of all mammals that live on land. In the water, the sea otter has a denser coat.[5] The chinchilla is named after the Chincha people of the Andes, who once wore its dense, velvet-like fur.[6] By the end of the 19th century, chinchillas had become quite rare after being hunted for their ultra-soft fur.[7] Most chinchillas currently used by the fur industry for clothing and other accessories are farm-raised.[8] Chinchillas are sometimes kept as pets, and may be considered a type of pocket pet.

Chinchillas
Chinchilla lanigera (Wroclaw zoo)-2
Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1782). Zoo of Wrocław (Poland)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Chinchillidae
Subfamily: Chinchillinae
Genus: Chinchilla
Bennett, 1829
Species[1][2]
Range of Chinchilla lanigera and Chinchilla brevicaudata
Range of Chinchilla lanigera and Chinchilla chinchilla.
  Chinchilla chinchilla
  Chinchilla lanigera

Species

Chinchilla - croquis comparatif
Comparison of chinchilla species

The two living species of chinchilla are Chinchilla chinchilla[1][2] (formerly known as Chinchilla brevicaudata) and Chinchilla lanigera.[9] C. chinchilla has a shorter tail, a thicker neck and shoulders, and shorter ears than C. lanigera. The former species is currently facing extinction; the latter, though rare, can be found in the wild.[10] Domesticated chinchillas are thought to have come from the C. lanigera species.[11]

Distribution and habitat

Habitat du Chinchilla lanigera - Auco
Andean chinchilla habitat in Chile

Formerly, chinchillas occupied the coastal regions, hills, and mountains of Chile, Peru, Argentina, and Bolivia. Overexploitation caused the downturn of these populations, As early as 1914, one scientist claimed that the species was headed for extinction. Five years of fieldwork (published in 2007) in Jujuy Province, Argentina, failed to find a single specimen. Populations in Chile were thought extinct by 1953, but the animal was found to inhabit an area in the Antofagasta Region in the late 1900s and early 2000s. The animal may be extinct in Bolivia and Peru, though one specimen found (in a restaurant in Cerro de Pasco) may hail from a native population.[4]

In their native habitats, chinchillas live in burrows or crevices in rocks. They are agile jumpers and can jump up to 6 ft (1.8 m). Predators in the wild include birds of prey, skunks, felines, snakes and canines. Chinchillas have a variety of defensive tactics, including spraying urine and releasing fur if bitten.[12] In the wild, chinchillas have been observed eating plant leaves, fruits, seeds, and small insects.[10]

In nature, chinchillas live in social groups that resemble colonies, but are properly called herds. Herd sizes can range from 14 members up to 100, this is both for social interaction as well as protection from predators.[13] They can breed any time of the year. Their gestation period is 111 days, longer than most rodents. Due to this long pregnancy, chinchillas are born fully furred and with eyes open. Litters are usually small in number, predominantly two.[14]

Conservation

Both species of chinchilla are currently listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to a severe population loss approximated at a 90% global population loss over the last 15 years.[1] The severe population decline has been caused by chinchilla hunting by humans. Until 1996, they were listed as Indeterminate on the IUCN Red List. In 2006, the long-tailed subspecies was listed as "Vulnerable" while the short-tailed subspecies was listed as "Critically Endangered". By 2008, both were listed as "Critically Endangered", and in 2016 they were reclassified as "Endangered" due to limited recovery in some areas.[15][16]

Roles with humans

Chinchilla Ushuaia 2006
Chinchilla fur coat and accessories

Fur industry

The international trade in chinchilla fur goes back to the 16th century. Their fur is popular in the fur trade due to its extremely soft feel, which is caused by the sprouting of 60 hairs (on average) from each hair follicle. The color is usually very even, which makes it ideal for small garments or the lining of large garments, though some large garments can be made entirely from the fur. A single, full-length coat made from chinchilla fur may require as many as 150 pelts, as chinchillas are relatively small.[17] Their use for fur led to the extinction of one species, and put serious pressure on the other two. Though it is illegal to hunt wild chinchillas, the wild animals are now on the verge of becoming extinct because of continued illegal hunting. Domesticated chinchillas are still bred for fur.[18]

As pets

The domestic chinchilla is descended from Chinchilla lanigera, the long-tailed Chinchilla, and the more common one in the wild after the other species, Chinchilla chinchilla, or short-tailed Chinchilla, has been hunted nearly to extinction. So they have thinner bodies, longer tails and larger ears.

Chinchilla-Soelvmarmorert
Silver mosaic chinchilla

Chinchillas are popular pets, but require much care. They should only be purchased by experienced pet owners who are aware of their needs. Chinchillas must have extensive exercise and dental care,[19] due to their teeth continually growing throughout their life span, and since they lack the ability to sweat, temperatures need to be carefully controlled.[20] They should be kept in an environment of 60 to 70 °F (16 to 21 °C). Their cage should always be placed in a well-lit area, but not placed in direct sunlight or in drafts.[21]

The animals instinctively clean their fur by taking dust baths, in which they roll around in special dust made of fine pumice, a few times a week; they do not bathe in water. If they get wet, they should be dried off immediately or else their fur will grow fungus and they can possibly get a skin infection. Their thick fur resists parasites, such as fleas, and reduces loose dander.[22]

In scientific research

Chinchillas have been used in research since the 1950s. Since the 1970s, the prime interest in chinchillas by researchers is their auditory system.[23] Other research fields in which chinchillas are used as an animal model include the study of Chagas disease, gastrointestinal diseases, pneumonia, and listeriosis, as well as of Yersinia and Pseudomonas infections.[24]

Veterinary medicine

Fractures

Chinchillas live active lives and can recover well from physical injury.[25] Treating any bone fractures or wounds in chinchillas is done much in the same way as with any other animal.[26] In treating wounds, they should be cleaned and ointments used for simple wounds.[25] If a wound is dressed then it may be necessary to put the animal into a neck collar to prevent licking at the wound.[25]

Fractures are problematic, because chinchillas will want to sit on their hind legs and eat with their front paws, so many types of injuries will disturb their natural eating behavior.[25] An animal with a cast may be comforted by hand feeding.[25]

If a limb fracture does not heal properly a veterinarian may recommend an amputation.[25] Chinchillas are able to live happily in captivity if an injury results in the need for amputation of an arm or leg.[25]

Convulsions

Chinchilla breeders sometimes report seeing their animals have convulsions. Typically this happens only irregularly and then only for a few seconds, and not more than a few minutes at the most.[27] Convulsions are a symptom that can have many causes, including a brain problem such as hemorrhaging, a vitamin or dietary element deficiency in the diet, or some kind of nervous system injury.[27] If convulsions are observed after chinchillas mate then it is not unlikely that they are related to a circulatory problem.[27]

As a general treatment for all kinds of convulsions, taking extra care to keep the animal's stress lowered is the best response.[27] Giving vitamin B, cardiac medication, or a calcium injection may be indicated.[27]

Some chinchillas who are kept in groups have stress convulsions during feeding if they see other chinchillas getting food first.[28] It helps the animals to be fed their food in a way that allows them to either be first or to not see others eating when they have to wait their turn.[28]

Infectious diseases

TurboHome
A standard domestic chinchilla

Infectious diseases are better prevented than treated.[29] Prevention strategies should include keeping the chinchilla accommodations clean, giving them a climate matching their natural one, providing an optimum diet, and immunization when appropriate.[29]

Listeriosis is not a typical chinchilla disease, but in group housing conditions it can spread as a digestive tract disease in a community.[30] If it is identified, then all chinchillas in the community should be treated.[31] Hygiene standards should be raised during treatment and subsequently.[31]

Pasteurella can be contracted from food and then transmitted among a group of chinchillas.[31] Symptoms include apathy, digestive disorder, and fever.[32]

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are widely distributed in nature and can affect chinchillas like many other animals.[33] They can cause wide deaths in populations of chinchillas and spontaneous abortion in pregnant chinchillas.[33]

Respiratory tract infections can be caused by many pathogens, but, regardless of cause, usually result in difficult breathing and a nasal discharge.[34] Young chinchilla are more likely to be affected and these infections are unlikely to result in an epidemic, even if transmissible.[34]

Gastrointestinal disorders are observed as either constipation or diarrhea.[34] These are almost always the result of a problem with the diet, but if the diet is optimal, they could be the symptom of an infectious disease.[35] Problems with diet should be excluded before other treatments, and perhaps the regular food stock should be discarded and replaced on the presumption that it has spoiled.[35] Constipation in chinchillas is difficult to observe in groups because it may not be obvious than an animal is not contributing to the population's waste.[35] If it is identified, mild treatments include feeding paraffin to soften the feces.[35] An experienced hand may massage the chinchilla to assist with a bowel movement.[35]

Mental health

Chinchillas are easily distressed and when they are unhappy they may have physical symptoms.[36] In protecting their health, care should be taken not to disturb them, and many things disturb them.[36] Humans who monitor the chinchillas can often have intuitive ideas about recent changes which might be disturbing chinchillas who exhibit new symptoms, as chinchillas are sensitive enough to physically react when something new is bothering them.[36] It is not appropriate to suddenly change a chinchilla's regular diet, especially when they are sick, as this upsets them.[36] Sick chinchillas may quit eating if they are stressed, which can make them even more weak.[37]

Chinchillas which live in communities and their breeding must not be disturbed in February to March or from August to September, as they are especially sensitive in these breeding seasons.[37] Chinchillas are social animals and are likely to be upset to have their breeding mate changed in breeding season.[37] They are known to be disturbed by a change of diet in these times, so care should be taken by breeders that the food given at the beginning of these times is in ample supply and can be given without change for the duration of the season.[37]

Pharmaceutical treatment

Chinchillas may be treated with chloramphenicol, neomycin, or spectinomycin for digestive problems.[37] Sulfonamides dissolved in drinking water may be used.[38] Colistin can be an effective antibiotic.[38]

References

  1. ^ a b c Roach, N. & Kennerley, R. (2016). "Chinchilla chinchilla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T4651A22191157. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T4651A22191157.en.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ a b Woods, C. A. and Kilpatrick, C. W. (2005). Infraorder Hystricognathi. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 1538–1599. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
  3. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chinchilla" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 232.
  4. ^ a b Patton, James L.; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.; D'Elía, Guillermo (2015). Rodents. Mammals of South America. 2. University of Chicago Press. pp. 765–768. ISBN 9780226169576.
  5. ^ Harding, Naomi (June 8, 2016). "Which land mammal has the thickest fur?". animalanswers.co.uk. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  6. ^ "What Is A Chinchilla?". Davidson Chinchillas. Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
  7. ^ "Chinchilla Facts – The Top 10 Interesting Facts About Chinchillas". Chinchilla.co. Retrieved 2013-12-01.
  8. ^ Jiménez, Jaime E. (1996). "The extirpation and current status of wild chinchillas Chinchilla lanigera and C. brevicaudata" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 77 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(95)00116-6.
  9. ^ "All You Need to Know About Caring for Chinchillas". Apbc.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-12-01.
  10. ^ a b "Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera)". Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
  11. ^ Chinchillas, Chinchillidae, Chinchilla lanigera, Chinchilla brevicaudata. Animal-world.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-07.
  12. ^ "Is a Chinchilla the pet for me?". Fantastic Chinchillas. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
  13. ^ "Chinchilla Habitat". Chinchilla Chronicles. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  14. ^ "The Chinchilla". Chinchilla Lexicon. 2003-05-01. Archived from the original on 2008-02-04. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
  15. ^ "Chinchilla lanigera (Chinchilla, Long-tailed Chinchilla)". www.iucnredlist.org.
  16. ^ "Chinchilla chinchilla (Short-tailed Chinchilla)". www.iucnredlist.org.
  17. ^ Alderton, David. Rodents of the World, 1996, page 20. ISBN 0-8160-3229-7
  18. ^ Chinchillas Endangered Species Handbook. Endangeredspecieshandbook.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-07.
  19. ^ "Teeth". Homepage.ntlworld.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  20. ^ Heat Stroke. Chin-chillas.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-07.
  21. ^ Dillon, Ashley (April 26, 2016). "5 Things to Know Before Getting a Chinchilla". collegemanorvet.com. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  22. ^ Chinchillas: The keystone cops of rodents!. Petstation.com (1995-03-01). Retrieved on 2011-12-07.
  23. ^ Suckow, Mark A.; Stevens, Karla A.; Wilson, Ronald P. (2012). The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents. Academic Press. p. 949ff. ISBN 9780123809209.
  24. ^ "In Scientific Research". University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Kraft 1987, p. 91.
  26. ^ Kraft 1987, p. 10.
  27. ^ a b c d e Kraft 1987, p. 93.
  28. ^ a b Kraft 1987, p. 94.
  29. ^ a b Kraft 1987, p. 96.
  30. ^ Kraft 1987, p. 98.
  31. ^ a b c Kraft 1987, p. 99.
  32. ^ Kraft 1987, p. 100.
  33. ^ a b Kraft 1987, p. 101.
  34. ^ a b c Kraft 1987, p. 103.
  35. ^ a b c d e Kraft 1987, p. 104.
  36. ^ a b c d Kraft 1987, p. 111.
  37. ^ a b c d e Kraft 1987, p. 112.
  38. ^ a b Kraft 1987, p. 113.

Sources

  • Kraft, Helmut (1987). Diseases of Chinchillas. Translated by U. Erich Friese. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. ISBN 978-0866224925.
  • Saunders, Richard. "Veterinary Care Of Chinchillas." In Practice (0263841X) 31.6 (2009): 282–291. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Apr. 2016.

External links

2010 Costa Rican general election

Costa Rica held parliamentary and presidential elections on 7 February 2010. The ruling party before the election, the center-left National Liberation Party, put forward former Vice-President Laura Chinchilla as its presidential candidate, while the libertarian, Movimiento Libertario nominated former legislator Otto Guevara. Opinion polls before voting started consistently put Chinchilla as the front-runner, a trend confirmed in the election-night count, which showed her garnering 46.76% of the vote.The election was supervised by observers from several countries, as well as from the Organization of American States. The incumbent President, Óscar Arias, was ineligible to run for a second consecutive term.

Caviomorpha

Caviomorpha is the rodent infraorder or parvorder that unites all New World hystricognaths. It is supported by both fossil and molecular evidence. The Caviomorpha was for a time considered to be a separate order outside the Rodentia, but is now accepted as a genuine part of the rodents. Caviomorphs include the extinct Heptaxodontidae (giant hutias) and extant families of chinchilla rats, hutias, guinea pigs and the capybara, chinchillas and viscachas, tuco-tucos, agoutis, pacas, pacaranas, spiny rats, New World porcupines, coypu and octodonts (Vassallo and Antenucci, 2015).

Chinchilla, Pennsylvania

Chinchilla is a village and census-designated place in Scott and South Abington Townships, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania. The CDP's population was 2,098 at the time of the 2010 United States Census. It was known as Leach's Flats until supposedly renamed by a postmaster in the 1880s after her chinchilla-fur shawl. Chinchilla is located in the gorge of the Leggetts Creek, which flows southward into the Lackawanna River on the north side of Scranton. Interstate 81 and U.S. Route 6/11 use the gorge between Scranton and Clarks Summit. It has its own post office, zipcode is 18410.

Chinchilla, Queensland

Chinchilla is a town and a locality in the Western Downs Region, Queensland, Australia. At the 2016 census, Chinchilla had a population of 6,612.The town (approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi) west-northwest of Brisbane) was established in 1877. As the railway pushed west across the Darling Downs from Toowoomba and Dalby, a temporary construction camp was established on the banks of Charley's Creek which developed into a town.Agriculture is the mainstay of the community, with beef and pork production, wool growing, and horticulture traditionally underwriting the local economy. However, with the recent resources boom, the Kogan Creek Power Station (and other coal and gas projects) have begun to inject welcome cash into the town and Chinchilla is experiencing mass growth and development. House prices in Chinchilla have boomed as a result of the need to house new workers.Chinchilla is known as the 'Melon Capital of Australia', and plays host to a Melon Festival every second year in February – the next is to be held in 2019.

Chinchilla Airport

Chinchilla Airport (IATA: CCL, ICAO: YCCA) is an airport serving Chinchilla, Queensland, Australia.

The airport is served by 2-3 weekday charter flights to Taroom and Brisbane operated by Skytrans Airlines using their Dash-8-100 aircraft.

Chinchilla de Montearagón

Chinchilla de Montearagón, more commonly just Chinchilla (Arabic: جنجالة‎), is a municipality in the province of Albacete in Castile-La Mancha, (Spain) in the region of La Mancha Montearagón.

Chinchilla rat

Chinchilla rats or chinchillones are members of the family Abrocomidae. This family has few members compared to most rodent families, with only nine known living species. They resemble chinchillas in appearance, with a similar soft fur and silvery-grey color, but have a body structure more like a short-tailed rat. They are social, tunnel-dwelling animals, and live in the Andes Mountains of South America. They are probably herbivorous, although this is not clear.They can be described as medium-sized. Stiff hairs project over the three middle digits of the rear feet. Their massive skulls narrow in the facial areas. Some molecular work, suggests that, despite their appearance, they may be more closely related to octodontoids such as degus, nutria, and tuco-tucos than they are to chinchillas and viscachas.

Condamine River

The Condamine River, part of the Balonne catchment that is part of the Murray-Darling Basin, drains the northern portion of the Darling Downs, an area of sub-coastal southern Queensland, Australia. The river is approximately 500 kilometers (310 mi) long and rises on Mount Superbus, South East Queensland's highest peak, on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range, approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the east coast of Queensland, and then flows north west across the Darling Downs, then west. The Condamine River is a tributary of the Darling River.

Laura Chinchilla

Laura Chinchilla Miranda (Spanish: [ˈlawɾa tʃinˈtʃiɟa miˈɾanda]; born 28 March 1959) is a Costa Rican politician who was President of Costa Rica from 2010 to 2014. She was one of Óscar Arias Sánchez's two Vice-Presidents and his administration's Minister of Justice. She was the governing PLN candidate for President in the 2010 general election, where she won with 46.76% of the vote on 7 February. She was the eighth woman president of a Latin American country and the first woman to become President of Costa Rica. She was sworn in as President of Costa Rica on May 8, 2010.She currently teaches at Georgetown University and is a member of the board of the Inter-American Dialogue. She is also the titular of the Cathedra José Bonifácio, at the University of São Paulo, since April, 2018.

List of rabbit breeds

As of 2017, there were at least 305 breeds of domestic rabbit in 70 countries around the world. A rabbit breed is a distinct variety created through natural selection or, more often, though selective breeding for specific characteristics, including size, fur (length, quality, or color), feed conversion ratio, climate adaptability, or temperament. Groups such as the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA) and the British Rabbit Council (BRC) coordinate and standardize the desired qualities of their recognized breeds, through promotion and exhibition. Each rabbit breed is considered to benefit when a reputable breeder strives to emulate the purpose for the breed, often defined by the individual breed standard by which it may be judged. The global diversity of breeds reflects the breadth of the rabbit's unique qualities. Listed below are 191 of the world's modern-day rabbit breeds.

Long-tailed chinchilla

The long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera), also called the Chilean, coastal, common chinchilla, or lesser chinchilla, is one of two species of rodents from the genus Chinchilla, the other species being Chinchilla chinchilla. Wild populations of C. lanigera occur in Aucó, near Illapel, IV Región, Chile (31°38’S, 71°06’W), in Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas and in La Higuera, about 100 km (62 mi) north of Coquimbo (29°33’S, 71°04’W)

Chilean chinchillas were reported from Talca (35°30’S), Chile, reaching north to Peru and eastward from Chilean coastal hills throughout low mountains. By the mid-19th century, Chilean chinchillas were not found south of the Choapa River.

No fossils are known.

Pablo Chinchilla

Pablo Chinchilla Vega (born December 21, 1978 in Escazú) is a Costa Rican footballer who currently is the player-manager of Austrian lower league side FC Koblach.

Persian cat

The Persian cat (Persian: گربه ایرانی Gorbe Irâni) is a long-haired breed of cat characterized by its round face and short muzzle. It is also known as the "Persian Longhair" in the English-speaking countries. In the Middle East region they are widely known as "Iranian cat" and in Iran they are known as "Shirazi cat". The first documented ancestors of the Persian were imported into Italy from Iran (historically known as Persia) around 1620. The exact history of the Persian cat does seem to be a bit of a mystery but many of these long-haired cats were seen in hieroglyphics. The story has it that these long-haired cats were then imported into Europe as their popularity grew and breeding took place in Italy and France.

The Persian cat was first presented at the world's first organised cat show in 1871 in London, England, before making its way to the United States of America in the early 1900s. The Persian cat breeding standards have always called for a cat with a short face, but it's important to note that the Persian cat originally had a much longer nose than the flat-faced Persians of today. Hereditary polycystic kidney disease is prevalent in the breed, affecting almost half the population in some countries.In 2015 it was ranked as the 2nd most popular breed in the United States according to the Cat Fanciers' Association. The first is the Exotic breed.

Shire of Chinchilla

The Shire of Chinchilla was a local government area in the Darling Downs region of Queensland, Australia. The shire, administered from the town of Chinchilla, covered an area of 8,700.3 square kilometres (3,359.2 sq mi), and existed as a local government entity from 1912 until 2008, when it amalgamated with the Town of Dalby and the Shires of Murilla, Tara and Wambo and the southern part of Taroom to form the Western Downs Region.

The economy of the area is largely reliant on primary production. Agriculture is the mainstay of the community, with beef and pork production, wool growing, and horticulture traditionally underwriting the local economy.

Short-tailed chinchilla

The short-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla, formerly known as Chinchilla brevicaudata), also called the Bolivian, Peruvian, or royal chinchilla, is an endangered species of rodent. Their original range included the Andes Mountains of Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The rodents were exploited for their luxurious fur, causing their numbers to dwindle greatly.

Traditional Persian

Traditional Persian is one of several names for a group of cats that are considered to be essentially the original breed of Persian cat, before the variety was selectively bred to have extreme features. Other everyday usage names are: Doll Face Persian, Classic Persian, Old Fashioned Persian, Long-nosed Persian, Old-style Longhair, Traditional Longhair and Original Longhair.

The physical appearance of this domestic cat breed barely changed when compared to photos dating back to the late 1800s. However, since some breeders in the United States and other parts of the world introduced the brachycephalic mutation into the breed, the short nose and clear break became shorter and higher. This resulted in the modification of the original Persian breed standard so that modern show quality Persians must have peke-faces. This resulted in the breed disappearing from cat shows.

However, this older form of Persian cat is immortalized in popular films like You Only Live Twice, Enter the Dragon, and (briefly) the Austin Powers movie franchise (which otherwise showcases the Sphynx breed).

Some "ultra-typed", "peke-face" or "flat-nose" Persian develop some problems such as teary eyes, breathing problems and undershot jaws.

Western Downs Region

Western Downs Region is a local government area in Queensland, Australia. The Western Downs Regional Council manages an area of 38,039 square kilometres (14,687 sq mi), which is approximately the same size as the country of Switzerland, although with a population at the last census of close to 33,000, it is over 235 times less densely populated.

The area is home to prime farming land and thus agriculture is a major industry in the area. Dalby, the biggest town in the region is home to the second largest cattle saleyards in Australia. The Dalby Saleyards process over 200,000 cattle annually in its state of the art facility which is comparable to Rockhampton and Casino.

The Western Downs Regional Council's Corporate Office is situated at 30 Marble Street, Dalby.

White tiger

The white tiger or bleached tiger is a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger, which is reported in the wild from time to time in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and Bihar in the Sunderbans region and especially in the former State of Rewa. Such a tiger has the black stripes typical of the Bengal tiger, but carries a white or near-white coat.

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