The Chinese People's Armed Police Force Coast Guard Crops (Chinese: 中国人民武装警察部队海警总队; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Wǔzhuāng Jǐngchá Bùduì Hǎijǐng Zǒngduì), also called China Coast Guard Bureau (Chinese: 中国海警; pinyin: Zhōngguó Hǎijĭng Jú; literally: 'China Maritime Police Bureau') abbreviated as China Coast Guard (Chinese: 中国海警; pinyin: Zhōngguó Hǎijĭng; literally: 'China Maritime Police') or Haijing (Chinese: 海警; pinyin: Hǎijĭng; literally: 'Maritime Police') serves as a coordinating agency for maritime search and rescue and law enforcement in the territorial waters of the People's Republic of China which administers Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. It is currently the world's largest coast guard.
The China Coast Guard was formerly the maritime branch of the People's Armed Police (PAP) Border Security Force under the Ministry of Public Security until 2013. In March 2013, China announced it would form a unified Coast Guard commanded by the State Oceanic Administration. The new Coast Guard has been in operation since July 2013. As of July 1, 2018, the China Coast Guard was transferred from civilian control of the State Council and the State Oceanic Administration, to the People's Armed Police, ultimately placing it under the command of the Central Military Commission.
The formal name of the orgnazition is "Chinese People's Armed Police Force Coast Guard Crops" (PAPCGC), but "China Coast Guard Bureau/China Coast Guard" (CCGB/CCG) is retained for general use.
|Chinese People's Armed Police Force |
Coast Guard Crops
(China Coast Guard Bureau)
Emblem of China Coast Guard
|Active||July 2013 ~ Mar 2018 |
Mar 2018 ~ (Reorganisation)
|Allegiance||Communist Party of China|
|Role||Coastal defense, maritime law enforcement, search and rescue|
|Size||16,296 personnel (~2018)|
|Part of|| People's Armed Police|
State Oceanic Administration
PAP Border Security Force
(under the Ministry of Public Security)
|Colours||Blue, White, Red|
|Fleet||Multiple patrol boats|
164 cutters (~2018)
|Director||PAP Maj Gen Wang Zhongcai |
|Political commissar||PAP Maj Gen Wang Liangfu|
The CCG is known to perform mostly coastal and oceanic search and rescue or patrols, including anti-smuggling operations. During wartime it may be placed under the operational control of the People's Liberation Army Navy.
Roles of the CCG are diverse but include:
After the reform in 2018, CCG consists commands (subbureaus) and divisions (local bureaus). The name in the parentheses is for general use.
The Chinese Coast Guard conducts periodic joint-training sessions with other navies, including the US Coast Guard service. The Chinese Coast Guard also participates in the annual North Pacific Coast Guard Agencies Forum in Alaska, along with US, Canadian, Japanese, South Korean, and Russian Coast Guards. As part of an exchange program, members of the Chinese Coast Guard service have been assigned to serve on U.S. Coast Guard cutters.
The CCG has received quite a few large patrol ships that would significantly enhance their operations. Hai Guan (customs), militia, police and other services operate hundreds of small patrol craft. For maritime patrol services, these craft are usually quite well armed with machine guns and 37mm AA guns. In addition, these services operate their own small aviation units to assist their maritime patrol capabilities. CCG operates a handful of Harbin Z-9 helicopters, and a maritime patrol aircraft based on the Harbin Y-12 transport.
Chinese Coast Guard ships are painted white with blue stripe and wording China Coast Guard in English and Chinese.
Typical Coast Guard ships include the 130 ton Type 218 patrol boat (100 boats), armed with twin 14.5mm machine guns, assorted speedboats, and few larger patrol ships. Up until very recently, the largest ship in Chinese Coast Guard service was the 1,500 ton Type 718 cutter (31101 Pudong).
In March 2007, it was reported that the PLAN had transferred 2 Type 728 cutter (44102, ex-509 Changde; 46103, ex-510 Shaoxing) to the Coast Guard and re-numbered them as 1002 & 1003. At the time these ships were the largest vessels in the China Coast Guard inventory.
In May 2017, it was reported that China had deployed the 12,000 ton China Coast Guard (CCG) 3901 cutter No. 1123 to patrol its claimed islands in the disputed South China Sea. The CCG 3901 cutter is the world's biggest coast guard cutter, and is much larger than the U.S. Navy's 9,800 ton Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruisers and its 8,300-9,300 ton Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyers. The CCG 3901 cutter is armed with 76mm H/PJ-26 rapid fire naval guns, two auxiliary guns, and two anti-aircraft guns.
Legislation passed by the National People’s Congress (NPC) on 22 June will implement changes announced in March that the CCG will come under the control of the People’s Armed Police Force (PAPF) and, ultimately, the command of China’s Central Military Commission (CMC).
China Marine Surveillance (CMS; Chinese: 中国海监; pinyin: Zhōngguó Hǎijiān) was a maritime surveillance agency of China.Patrol vessels from China Marine Surveillance are commonly deployed to locations in the South China Sea and East China Sea where China has territorial disputes over islands with its neighbors. The CMS has played a central role in China's increasing assertiveness in the South China Sea, encountering opposition from Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam in the disputed territories, as China tries to lock up natural resources to meet its demands as the world's largest energy consumer.One senior US naval intelligence officer has suggested that the mission of China Marine Surveillance is to "harass other nations into submitting to China's expansive claims."The agency has been disbanded in July 2013 and has now been merged, along other similar three agencies, with the China Coast Guard.China Maritime Safety Administration
The Maritime Safety Administration of the People's Republic of China (CMSA; simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国海事局; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國海事局; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Hǎishìjú) is a government agency which administers all matters related to maritime and shipping safety, including the supervision of maritime traffic safety and security, prevention of pollution from ships, inspection of ships and offshore facilities, navigational safety measures (including Search and Rescue, Aids to Navigation and the GMDSS), administrative management of port operations, and law enforcement on matters of maritime safety law. It was also responsible for marine accident investigation. It is headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing.In October 1998, it was formed by the merger of the China Ship Inspection Bureau and the China Port Supervision Bureau into a comprehensive agency of maritime affairs, subordinate to the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China.
The China MSA was the only maritime administrative agency that was not merged into the new China Coast Guard in June 2013. The CMSA retains its safety and control ("traffic police") remit, while the new CCG concentrates all other law enforcement and policing duties.Coast Guard Administration (Taiwan)
The Coast Guard Administration of the Ocean Affairs Council (CGA; Chinese: 海洋委員會海巡署; pinyin: Hǎiyángwěiyuánhuì Hǎixúnshǔ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hái-iûⁿ Úi-oân-hōe Hái-sûn-sú), aka Taiwan Coast Guard or R.O.C. Coast Guard, is charged with maintaining law and order, protecting the resources of the territorial waters of the Republic of China (Taiwan), which surrounds Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu Islands, Green Island, Orchid Island, Dongsha Islands, and Nansha Islands as well as providing a first line of defense along coastal areas against smugglers and illegal immigrants. The CGA is considered a civilian law enforcement agency under the administration of Ocean Affairs Council of the Executive Yuan, though during emergencies it may be incorporated as part of the Republic of China Armed Forces.Haijian 110
Haijian 110 (Chinese: 中国海监 110) is a China Marine Surveillance (CMS) ship in the 1st Marine Surveillance Flotilla of the North China Sea Fleet. She was commissioned on November 12, 2012. Haijian 110 was formerly a tug boat Beituo 710 (Chinese: 北拖 710) in the North China Sea Fleet of PLA Navy. She was decommissioned from the China's armed forces, retrofitted for maritime law enforcement purposes, and recommissioned to CMS.She was renamed China Coast Guard 1310 in 2013.Haijian 15
Haijian 15 (Chinese: 中国海监 15) is a China Marine Surveillance (CMS) ship in the 1st Marine Surveillance Flotilla of its North China Sea Fleet. She is the first ship of the second building plan that includes seven new CMS ships. Haijian 15 was christened and commissioned on January 6, 2011 at her home port of Qingdao. Haijian 15 has been frequently conducting cruise operations in disputed waters around the Diaoyu Islands. In 2012 alone, Haijian 15 has been deployed to waters around the Diaoyu Islands four times, for 103 days in total. She once sailed to a position that is 1.55 nm away from the main island, Diaoyu Island, and personnel on board raised China's national flag to assert China's claim of sovereignty over the Diaoyu Islands.Haijian 15 was renamed CCG-1115 under the newly established China Coast Guard.Haijian 26
Haijian 26 (Chinese: 中国海监 26) is a China Marine Surveillance (CMS) ship in the 1st Marine Surveillance Flotilla of the North China Sea Fleet. Haijian 26 has been conducting periodic, regular cruise operations in the disputed waters around the Diaoyu Islands. On May 27, 2013, Haijian 26 cruise group (including Haijian 26, 46, and 66) entered the disputed waters around the Diaoyu Islands to expel fishing boats sailed by Japanese right-wing Ganbare Nippon activists.This class also includes Haijian 75, Haijian 66, and Haijian 23.
Haijian 26 was renamed China Coast Guard 1126 in July 2013.Haijian 51
Haijian 51 (Chinese: 中国海监 51) is a China Marine Surveillance (CMS) ship in the 5th Marine Surveillance Flotilla of the East China Sea Fleet. She was christened and commissioned on November 11, 2005 at her 5th Marine Surveillance Flotilla's dock in Shanghai. The first captain was He Xuming (Chinese: 何旭明).Haijian 51 was renamed CCG-2151 in July 2013, under a unified, newly established China Coast Guard, integrating the former China Marine Surveillance, China Fishery Authority, General Administration of Customs, Public Security Border Troops.Haixun-class cutter
The Haixun-class cutter (Type 718 Cutter) is a single-ship class of cutter used by the China Coast Guard. A single ship, 1001 Haijing, was launched in 2006 and performs law enforcement patrols from Shanghai to protect Chinese sovereignty. It is the coast guard's most modern vessel.Liu Cigui
Liu Cigui (Chinese: 刘赐贵; born 18 September 1955) is a Chinese politician. He is the current Communist Party Secretary of Hainan province. His former positions include Governor of Hainan, Director of the State Oceanic Administration and China Coast Guard and mayor of the cities of Xiamen and Longyan in Fujian province.Luconia Shoals
The Luconia Shoals, divided into the North and South Luconia Shoals, and sometimes known as the Luconia Reefs, are one of the largest and least-known reef complexes in the South China Sea. Some geographers classify the shoals as the southernmost part of the Spratly Islands.Maritime law enforcement agencies in China
China used to operated several separate maritime law enforcement agencies. These services operated ships as well as their own small aviation units to assist their maritime patrol capabilities. These agencies were often referred to as the "Five Dragons".In March 2013, China announced it would form a unified Coast Guard commanded by the State Oceanic Administration. The new Coast Guard has been in operation since July 2013.Militia (China)
The Militia (Chinese: 民兵; pinyin: Mínbīng) or China Militia (Chinese: 中国民兵; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínbīng) is the militia part of the armed forces of China, other two parts being the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and the People's Armed Police (PAP). The Militia is under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and serves as an auxiliary and reserve force for the PLA. It is one of the largest militias in the world.National Defense Mobilization Department of the Central Military Commission
The National Defense Mobilization Department of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委国防动员部) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms.
Its current director is Lt. Gen. Sheng Bin.Office for International Military Cooperation of the Central Military Commission
The Office for International Military Cooperation of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委国际军事合作办公室) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms. Its first and current director is Rear Admiral Guan Youfei.Paramilitary forces of China
The Paramilitary forces of China are composed of three main forces, the People's Liberation Army reserve force, the People's Armed Police (PAP), and the Militia, and they act as auxiliaries to the active forces of the People's Liberation Army. They generally perform a wide range of roles. Altogether, the paramilitary has 17,835,000 troops, as of 2018.People's Armed Police
The Chinese People's Armed Police Force (abbreviated: PAP) is a Chinese paramilitary police (Gendarmerie) force primarily responsible for internal security, riot control, antiterrorism, law enforcement, and maritime rights protection in China, as well as providing support to the PLA Ground Force during wartime.Unlike the regular People's Police of the Ministry of Public Security, the PAP is part of the armed forces and reports to the Central Military Commission. PAP officers wear olive green instead of the blue uniforms of the People's Police.
The PAP is estimated to have a total strength of 1.5 million. It was established in its current form in 1982, but similar security forces have operated since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. During the long Maoist era, the PAP's predecessors were the Chinese People's Public Security Force, initially under the Ministry of Public Security, and later the Public Security Corps which was under the command of the PLA.People's Liberation Army Navy Coastal Defense Force
The People's Liberation Army Navy Coastal Defense Force is one of five branches of the People's Liberation Army Navy. The Coastal Defence Force is a land-based fighting force with a strength of 25,000 personnel, they serve to defend China's coastal areas from invasion via amphibious landings or air-attack. Throughout the 1960s to 1980s, the Coastal Defense Force was focused on defending China's coast from a possible Soviet sea-borne invasion. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the threat of an amphibious invasion of China has diminished and therefore the branch is often considered to no-longer be a vital component of the PLAN. Especially as the surface warships of the PLAN continue to improve in terms of anti-ship and air-defence capabilities.Today the primary weapons of the coastal defense troops are the HY-2, YJ-82, C-602 and YJ-18 anti-ship missiles.Type 053 frigate
The Type 053 frigates were a family of Chinese ships that served with the People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force, and a small number of foreign navies.
The designation of ships and subclasses is somewhat confusing. Chinese nomenclature temporarily changed during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, and some subclasses gained different NATO reporting names.
This article covers the entire Type 053 family except for the final two subclasses, the Type 053H2G and Type 053H3 frigates.Type 056 corvette
The Type 056 (NATO reporting name: Jiangdao) is a class of corvette deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). They replace older patrol craft and some of the Type 053H frigates. The first Type 056 entered service in February 2013. An anti-submarine warfare (ASW) variant, commonly known as Type 056A, has also entered service.Two 1800 ton patrol variant, P18N has been delivered to Nigeria and four 1300 ton corvette variant has been sold to Bangladesh.
Places adjacent to China Coast Guard