China–Australia Free Trade Agreement

The China–Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA) is a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the governments of Australia and China. Since negotiations began, 21 negotiating rounds have been completed.[1] The deal was completed on 17 November 2014 and details released two days later,[2] nearly 10 years after its first round of negotiations that began on 23 May 2005[3] after a joint feasibility study. The free trade agreement was signed between the two countries on 17 June 2015.[4] Following the usual treaty making process the agreement came into force on 20 December 2015, after the Chinese Government completed its domestic legal and legislative processes and the Australian Parliament’s Joint Standing Committee on Treaties and the Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee finished a review.[4][5]

ABS-5368.0-InternationalTradeInGoodsServicesAustralia-MerchandiseExportsCountryCountryGroupsFobValue-China-A1829030C
Monthly value of Australian merchandise exports to China (A$ millions) since 1988
ABS-5439.0-InternationalMerchandiseImportsAustralia-CountryCountryGroupsCustomsValue-China-A1829346X
Monthly value of Chinese merchandise exports to Australia (A$ millions) since 1988

Background

According to the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, in 2014, China was Australia's largest export market for both goods and services, accounting for nearly a third of total exports, and a growing source of foreign investment.[6]


Australia's Prime Minister Tony Abbott and Chinese President Xi Jinping announced the conclusion of negotiations for the China–Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA) on 17 November 2014. A Declaration of Intent to work towards signature of the Agreement was signed by Australia's Trade and Investment Minister Andrew Robb and China's Commerce Minister Gao Hucheng.[6]

Provisions

Upon full implementation of the agreement, 95 percent of Australian exports to China will be tariff free. These will include many agricultural products, including beef and dairy. In addition, there will be liberalization of market access for Australia's services sector, and investments by private companies from China under 1,078 million AUD will not be subject to FIRB approval. In addition there will be an Investor State Dispute Settlement mechanism under the treaty.[2]

There will be a Work and Holiday Agreement in which Australia will grant up to 5,000 visas to Chinese nationals for work and holiday makers.[7] The free trade agreement was signed in Canberra, Australia between the two countries on 17 June 2015.[4] The agreement will follow the usual treaty making process whereby it will come into force when China will complete its domestic legal and legislative processes and in Australia, review by the Australian Parliament’s Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, and the Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Twenty-first round of negotiations". Australian Government. September 2014. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b Robb, Andrew; Abbott, Tony (17 November 2014). "Landmark China-Australia Free Trade Agreement" (Press release). Australian Government. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016.
  3. ^ Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (26 May 2005), Australia-China FTA Negotiations, archived from the original on 15 December 2010
  4. ^ a b c d Robb, Andrew (17 June 2015). "Australia signs landmark trade agreement with China" (Press release). Australian Government. Archived from the original on 30 April 2016.
  5. ^ "China-Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA)". Australian Trade Commission. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  6. ^ a b "China-Australia Free Trade Agreement". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  7. ^ http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/chafta/fact-sheets/Pages/key-outcomes.aspx

External links

2015 Canning by-election

The 2015 Canning by-election was held for the Australian House of Representatives on Saturday 19 September from 8 am to 6 pm WST. The by-election in the seat of Canning was triggered by the death of sitting Liberal MP Don Randall on 21 July 2015.Speaker of the House of Representatives Tony Smith issued the writ for the by-election on 17 August 2015. Due to the requirement that the by-election must be held with at least 33 days' notice, the date set for polling day was the earliest possible day for holding it: 19 September. The electoral roll in Canning closed on 24 August and candidate nominations closed on 27 August.Twelve candidates contested the election. Edith Cowan University political analyst Harry Phillips said despite the Liberals holding Canning since the 2001 election, it would still be a "hotly contested seat".

2015 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 2015 in Australia.

Abbott Government

The Abbott Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 28th Prime Minister Tony Abbott. The government was made up of members of the Liberal–National Coalition. The Leader of The Nationals, Warren Truss, served as Deputy Prime Minister. Following the 2013 Australian federal election held on 7 September, the Coalition defeated the second Rudd Government, ending six years of Labor Government. The Abbott Government was sworn into office on 18 September 2013. Less than two years later on 14 September 2015, Malcolm Turnbull defeated Abbott in a leadership ballot, 54 votes to 44 and the Turnbull Government became the executive government of Australia.

In economic policy, the Abbott Government aimed to rein in a budget deficit that reached A$48.5 billion by June 2014. It concluded free trade agreements with China, Japan and South Korea. It removed the Rudd-Gillard era Resource Super Profits Tax and carbon pricing. It established the National Commission of Audit to advise on restoring the Budget to surplus; instituted the Royal Commission into trade union governance and corruption; founded the Medical Research Future Fund; and produced White Papers on Developing Northern Australia and the Agricultural Competitiveness. Treasurer Joe Hockey delivered two Budgets, the first focused on expenditure reduction measures, but faced a hostile reception in the Senate and media. Partial deregulation of universities, and a $7 contribution to doctor visits were proposed, but blocked by the Senate. The second Budget emphasised stimulus for the small business sector.

Abbott campaigned in opposition and in office to halt the people smuggling trade, and unauthorised maritime arrivals ceased during his term of office under Operation Sovereign Borders. In foreign policy, Australia continued its military engagement in the Mid-East, amid the worsening Syrian conflict. In 2015, The Abbott Government agreed to resettle an additional 12,000 refugees from the region. Abbott and Foreign Minister Julie Bishop challenged Russia at the United Nations over the shooting down of Malaysian Flight MH17 in Ukraine. The Government launched the New Colombo Plan to encourage educational exchange with the Indo-Pacific region.

Domestically, Abbott campaigned for recognition of Indigenous Australians in the Australian Constitution, flagging a referendum for 2017, and promised a plebiscite on the issue of same-sex marriage. Air and road infrastructure was prioritised. Abbott had to negotiate a hostile Senate. The Palmer United Party had emerged at the 2013 election, but fractured soon after. The Liberal Party faced Cabinet leaks and early leadership instability, after a poorly received first Budget and amid media criticism. Abbott became the shortest-serving Australian Prime Minister since William McMahon, when his government was succeeded by the Turnbull Government. Turnbull cited Newspoll results and "economic leadership" as reasons for mounting his challenge against Abbott.

Andrew Robb

Andrew John Robb (born 20 August 1951) is a former Australian Trade Minister and was the Liberal Party member for the Division of Goldstein in the House of Representatives. Robb announced his retirement from politics on the 10 February 2016. Robb was succeeded in the portfolio by The Hon Steven Ciobo MP on the 18 February 2016. A former federal director of the Liberal Party, he was first elected to parliament at the 2004 federal election, having previously managed the party's successful campaign at the 1996 federal election, which ended 13 years of Labor government.

Australian Greens

The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a green political party in Australia.

The party was formed in 1992 and is a confederation of eight state and territorial parties. In addition to environmentalism, the party cites four core values: ecological sustainability, social justice, grassroots democracy and peace and non-violence.Party constituencies can be traced to various origins – notably the early environmental movement in Australia and the formation of the United Tasmania Group (UTG), one of the first green parties in the world, but also the nuclear disarmament movement in Western Australia and sections of the industrial left in New South Wales. Co-ordination between environmentalist groups occurred in the 1980s with various significant protests. Key people involved in these campaigns included Bob Brown and Christine Milne who went on to contest and win seats in the Tasmanian Parliament and eventually form the Tasmanian Greens; both Brown and Milne subsequently became leaders of the federal party.

Following the 2016 federal election, the Australian Greens have nine senators and one member in the lower house, 23 elected representatives across state and territory parliaments, more than 100 local councillors, and over 15,000 party members (as of 2016).

Australia–China relations

Australia–China relations, often known as the Sino–Australian relations, refers to the relations between the Commonwealth of Australia and China. The first Chinese consulate in Australia was established in 1909, and diplomatic relations were established in 1941. Australia continued to recognise the Republic of China government after it lost the Chinese Civil War and retreated to Taiwan in 1949, but switched recognition to the People's Republic of China on 21 December 1972. The relationship between China and Australia has grown considerably over the years. Both countries are actively engaged economically, culturally and politically which spans numerous organizations such as APEC, East Asia Summit and the G20. China is Australia's largest trading partner, and has invested in Australian mining companies to help meet the needs of its growing economy.

Relations between the two countries began to deteriorate in 2018 due to growing concerns of Chinese political influence in various sectors of Australian society including the Government, universities and media as well as China's stance on the South China Sea dispute.

Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia

The Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia (CEPEA) is a Japanese led proposal for trade co-operation, free trade agreement, among the 16 present member countries of the East Asia Summit. All those movements and efforts were taken over by the following Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.rajit

Economy of Australia

The economy of Australia is a large mixed-market economy, with a GDP of A$1.69 trillion as of 2017. In 2018 Australia became the country with the largest median wealth per adult. Australia's total wealth was AUD$8.9 trillion as of June 2016. In 2016, Australia was the 14th-largest national economy by nominal GDP, 20th-largest by PPP-adjusted GDP, and was the 25th-largest goods exporter and 20th-largest goods importer. Australia took the record for the longest run of uninterrupted GDP growth in the developed world with the March 2017 financial quarter, the 103rd quarter and marked 26 years since the country had a technical recession (two consecutive quarters of negative growth).The Australian economy is dominated by its service sector, comprising 61.1% of the GDP and employing 79.2% of the labour force in 2016. East Asia (including ASEAN and Northeast Asia) is a top export destination, accounting for about 64% of exports in 2016. Australia has the eighth-highest total estimated value of natural resources, valued at US$19.9 trillion in 2016. At the height of the mining boom in 2009–10, the total value-added of the mining industry was 8.4% of GDP. Despite the recent decline in the mining sector, the Australian economy has remained resilient and stable and has not experienced a recession since July 1991.The Australian Securities Exchange in Sydney is the 16th-largest stock exchange in the world in terms of domestic market capitalisation and has the largest interest rate derivatives market in Asia. Some of Australia's large companies include but are not limited to: Wesfarmers, Woolworths, Rio Tinto Group, BHP Billiton, Commonwealth Bank, National Australia Bank, Westpac, ANZ, Macquarie Group, Telstra and Caltex Australia. The currency of Australia and its territories is the Australian dollar which it shares with several Pacific nation states.

Australia is a member of the APEC, G20, OECD and WTO. The country has also entered into free trade agreements with ASEAN, Canada, Chile, China, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Japan, Singapore, Thailand and the United States. The ANZCERTA agreement with New Zealand has greatly increased integration with the economy of New Zealand and in 2011 there was a plan to form an Australasian Single Economic Market by 2015.

History of trade of the People's Republic of China

Trade is a key factor of the economy of China. In the twenty-five years that followed after the Communist takeover in 1949, China's trade institutions developed into a partially modern but somewhat inefficient system. The drive to modernize the economy that began in 1978 required a sharp acceleration in commodity flows and greatly improved efficiency in economic transactions. In the ensuing years economic reforms were adopted by the government to develop a socialist market economy. This type of economy combined central planning with market mechanisms. The changes resulted in the decentralization and expansion of domestic and foreign trade institutions, as well as a greatly enlarged role for free markets in the distribution of goods, and a prominent role for foreign trade and investment in economic development.

In 2013 China surpassed the United States as the largest trading nation in the world and plays a vital role in international trade, and has increasingly engaged in trade organizations and treaties in recent years. China became a member of the World Trade Organization in 2001. China also has free trade agreements with several nations, including China–Australia Free Trade Agreement, China–South Korea Free Trade Agreement, ASEAN–China Free Trade Area, Switzerland and Pakistan.

Investor-state dispute settlement

Investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) or investment court system (ICS) is a system through which investors can sue nation states for alleged discriminatory practices. ISDS is an instrument of public international law and provisions are contained in a number of bilateral investment treaties, in certain international trade treaties, such as NAFTA (chapter 11), and the proposed TPP (chapter 9) and CETA (sections 3 and 4) agreements. ISDS is also found in international investment agreements, such as the Energy Charter Treaty. If an investor from one country (the "home state") invests in another country (the "host state"), both of which have agreed to ISDS, and the host state violates the rights granted to the investor under the treaty, then that investor may bring the matter before an arbitral tribunal.

While ISDS is often associated with international arbitration under the rules of ICSID (the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes of the World Bank), it often takes place under the auspices of international arbitral tribunals governed by different rules or institutions, such as the London Court of International Arbitration, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre or the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules.

Jacqui Lambie

Jacquiline Louise Lambie (born 26 February 1971) is an Australian politician who is the leader and founder of the Jacqui Lambie Network (JLN). She served as a Senator for Tasmania from 2014 to 2017. First elected as a member of the Palmer United Party (PUP), she received national prominence for her intense grassroots campaign and subsequently her display of aggressive and vociferous parliamentary behaviour, championing issues concerning foreign affairs, veterans' affairs, youth unemployment and the criticism of Islam. After persistent internal divisions, Lambie resigned from the PUP and sat as an independent before forming her own political party.

Lambie attended Devonport High School before joining the Australian Army in 1989. After basic training, she was assigned to the Royal Australian Corps of Transport in 1990. She remained with the Transport Corps for five years before being transferred to the Royal Australian Corps of Military Police, where she worked for another five years, achieving the rank of Corporal. Towards the conclusion of her military service, Lambie sustained a back injury during a field exercise, resulting in long-term detriments to her spine, and began receiving a military pension from the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA). She later applied for additional compensation on the grounds of claiming to suffer from depression, caused by her back pain. Following a private investigation, Lambie was accused of being a malingerer, and her pension was cancelled, prompting her to begin a six-year legal dispute with the DVA, beginning in 2000.

Attempting to seek Liberal preselection after joining the party in 2011, and previously working as a staff member of Labor senator Nick Sherry, Lambie joined the Palmer United Party (PUP), led by Australian billionaire Clive Palmer. She was elected to the Senate at the 2013 federal election. Her term began in July 2014. In November 2014, Lambie resigned from the Palmer United Party to sit in the Senate as an independent.In May 2015, Lambie formed the Jacqui Lambie Network political party with herself leader. She was elected to a six-year term in her own right at the 2016 federal election (a double dissolution). In November 2017, she was revealed to hold British dual citizenship, inherited from her Scottish-born father. As part of the parliamentary eligibility crisis, she announced her resignation on 14 November 2017. After a recount, she was expected to be replaced by Devonport Mayor Steve Martin, who had been second on the JLN ticket in the 2016 federal election. He survived a challenge to his own eligibility, on a different constitutional ground, but refused to step down so as to create a casual Senate vacancy to which Lambie could be appointed. She expelled him from the party for disloyalty.

List of bilateral free-trade agreements

This is list of free-trade agreements between two sides, where each side could be a country (or other customs territory), a trade bloc or an informal group of countries.

Note: Every customs union, common market, economic union, customs and monetary union and economic and monetary union is also a free-trade area.

For fully multilateral agreements (not included below) see: List of multilateral free-trade agreements.

For a general explanation, see free-trade area.

Ric Wells

Ric Lawson Wells (born 20 October 1955) was an Australian diplomat and senior career officer with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT). He was a Deputy Secretary of DFAT and, before that, Australia’s Ambassador to France from 2011 until 2014.

Turnbull Government

The Turnbull Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 29th Prime Minister of Australia, Malcolm Turnbull, from 2015 to 2018. It succeeded the Abbott Government, which brought the Coalition to power at the 2013 Australian federal election. The Government consisted of members of Australia's Liberal-Nationals Coalition. Turnbull took office by challenging his leader, Tony Abbott, in an internal leadership ballot. Warren Truss, the leader of the Nationals, served as Deputy Prime Minister until he retired in 2016 and was replaced by Barnaby Joyce. Joyce resigned in February 2018 and the Nationals' new leader Michael McCormack became Deputy Prime Minister. The Turnbull Government concluded with Turnbull's resignation ahead of internal leadership ballot which saw him succeeded as Prime Minister by Scott Morrison and the Morrison Government.

In mounting his 2015 public challenge for the leadership, Turnbull cited extended poor polling in Newspoll by the Abbott Government and said Australia needed a new style of "economic leadership". Turnbull appointed Morrison as Treasurer in an expanded ministry, promoting several key supporters. Julie Bishop remained as Minister for Foreign Affairs. Conservatives Tony Abbott, Eric Abetz and Kevin Andrews were sent to the backbench. Joe Hockey left Parliament. The Turnbull Government continued a number of Abbott Government initiatives, promising a plebiscite legalising same-sex marriage, concluding Abbott era initiatives on an anti-domestic violence campaign, funding the National Disability Insurance Scheme, signing a China free trade deal, and reforming Senate voting.The April 2016 refusal of the Senate to pass the Government's bill to re-establish a watchdog for the construction industry provided Turnbull with a double dissolution trigger. An election was held on 2 July, and the government was returned with its majority in the House of Representatives reduced to one seat. The 2016 election saw a resurgence of the right wing Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party, and discontented conservative Liberal Senator Cory Bernardi left the party and established the Australian Conservatives soon after. The now elected Turnbull Government secured passage of the Registered Organisations and Australian Building and Construction Commission legislation. In 2017, it announced Federal funds for expansion of Snowy Hydro. In June 2017, it introduced the "Gonski 2.0" reforms to schools funding. Factional strains continued.

Turnbull's ousting of Abbott had divided the Liberal Party rank and file and tensions continued in the parliamentary Party. Abbott said Turnbull supporters had plotted against him. The Government reached the 30-consecutive-Newspoll-losses benchmark Turnbull had used to unseat Abbott, in April 2018. The Parliament faced a period of instability under the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, and the Turnbull Government briefly lost its parliamentary majority and Deputy Prime Minister Joyce. Joyce was re-elected, but in February 2018 Turnbull denounced him and forced his resignation after the press reported on an office affair he had been conducting with a staffer. By-election losses in July 2018 further diminished Turnbull's authority. Dissent from conservative MPs over issues such as energy prices and immigration levels grew during Turnbull's final months. On 21 August, Turnbull announced a leadership spill ahead of his 39th consecutive Newspoll loss, which he narrowly won against Peter Dutton. Turnbull resigned three days later after narrowly losing the confidence of his Party room. Turnbull blamed Abbott, Dutton and conservative media commentators.

Wear it Purple Day

Wear it Purple Day is an annual LGBTIQA+ awareness day especially for young people, based in Australia. Supporters wear purple to celebrate diversity and young people from the LGBTIQA+ community.

The Day is organised by Wear it Purple, a student run, not-for-profit organisation, providing presentations and workshops.Businesses, councils, schools, community groups and clubs can participate by wearing purple and hosting events.

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