Chin

The chin or the mental region is the area of the face below the lower lip and including the mandibular prominence.[1][2] It is formed by the lower front of the mandible.

Chin
Mental region (chin)
Chin or mental region labeled in purple
Details
ArteryInferior alveolar artery
NerveMental nerve
Identifiers
LatinMentum
MeSHD002680
TAA01.1.00.011
FMA46495
Anatomical terminology

Evolution

The theory of evolution consists of two main points : “All life on Earth is connected and related to each other”; the diversity of life that is seen in the current world is a product of the “modifications of population by natural selection, where some traits were favored in and environments over others”.[3] Similar to every species and their evolving characteristics, hominids have evolved in such a way where natural selection favored the trait of having a chin.

The difference from the modern human beings skull and the Neanderthal-era human being skull is apparent as the modern human being has a point on the chin whilst the Neanderthal-era human being does not. The reasons to this adaptation are still unclear, however there are few explanations that are debated amongst scholars who are interested in this topic.

One of the most popular theories explaining the evolution of the chin seen in human beings is that it helps support the jaw against certain mechanical stresses. Ionut Ichim, a PhD student at the University of Otago published a journal in Medical Hypotheses in 2007 claiming that the evolution of the chin occurred as a response to the unique form of speech of human beings creating stress on the jaw from certain movements by the tongue muscles.[4]

Nathan Holton, a scholar from the University of Iowa states that, "In some ways, it seems trivial, but a reason why chins are so interesting is we’re the only ones who have them."[5] New research done by Holton shows that the evolution of this unique characteristic was formed, not by mechanical forces such as chewing, but perhaps from evolutionary adaptations involving face size and shape. Holton claims that this evolutionary adaptation occurred as our face became smaller compared to the Neanderthal-era human beings; the modern human head is approximately 15% shorter. Therefore through the change in size the chin became a factor that balanced the shape of the face.

Research on the evolution of the chin was further continued by the University of Iowa through another perspective. Opposing to Holtons scientific methods of the examination of the evolution of the chin, Robert Franciscus tackled the issue through an anthropological lens. Franciscus believed that the evolution of the chin was formed as a consequence of the change in lifestyle that was seen in human beings approximately 80,000 years ago. This was an era when human beings started to communicate more, turning their hunter-gatherer societies into agricultural societies where they increased their social networks. This decreased territorial disputes, as it further incentified the building of alliances in order to exchange goods and belief systems. Franciscus then believed that this change in the human environment reduced hormone levels, especially in men, resulting in the natural adaptation of the evolution of the chin.[5]

Another perspective on the evolution of the chin was built pointing that it may have been a cause of sexual selection. This is when certain traits and characteristics of a species evolve in specific ways because they are seen more attractive to the opposite sex. Zaneta Thayer, a graduate from Northwestern University, and Seth Dobson, a biological anthropologists at Dartmouth, examined the chin shapes of both sexes to inspect any differences in the chin. They found that the male chin was taller and more pronounced, whilst the female chin was smaller. They claim that this difference in the chin disproved theories of the evolution through mechanical stress, because if the chins were adaptations of mechanical stress both genders will have the same chin shapes.[4]

Overall, human beings are unique in the sense that they are the only species among hominids who have chins. In the novel, The Enduring Puzzle of the Human Chin, evolutionary anthropologists, James Pampush and David Daegling discuss various theories that have been raised to solve the puzzle of the chin. They conclude that, "Each of the proposals we have discussed falter either empirically or theoretically; some fail, to a degree, on both accounts… This should serve as motivation, not discouragement, for researchers to continue investigating this modern human peculiarity… perhaps understanding the chin will reveal some unexpected insight into what it means to be human."[6] Through the examination of various theories that are constantly being formed, the truth about the origins of the human chin will perhaps be unraveled in the close future.

Cleft chin

Cleft-Chin
Example of a cleft chin (William McKinley)
Human jawbone front
Human jaw front view

The terms cleft chin,[7] chin cleft,[7][8] dimple chin,[9][10] or chin dimple,[7] refer to a dimple on the chin. It is a Y-shaped fissure on the chin with an underlying bony peculiarity.[11] Specifically, the chin fissure follows the fissure in the lower jaw bone that resulted from the incomplete fusion of the left and right halves of the jaw bone, or muscle, during the embryonal and fetal development. For other individuals, it can develop over time, often because one half of the jaw is longer than the other, leading to facial asymmetry.[7]

A cleft chin is an inherited trait in humans, where the recessive gene causes the cleft chin, while the dominant presents without a cleft. However, it is also a classic example for variable penetrance[12] with environmental factors or a modifier gene possibly affecting the phenotypical expression of the actual genotype. Cleft chins are common among people originating from Europe and the Middle East.[13]

In Persian literature, the chin dimple is considered a factor of beauty, and is metaphorically referred to as "the chin pit" or "the chin well": a well in which the poor lover is fallen and trapped.[14]

Double chin

Joseph Urban-gezeichnet von R Swoboda, um 1900
Drawing circa 1900 depicting Joseph Urban as having a double chin.

A double chin is a layer of subcutaneous fat around the neck that sags down and creates a wrinkle, creating the appearance of a second chin. This fat pad is sometimes surgically removed and the corresponding muscles under the jaw shortened.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Full Definition of chin". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
  2. ^ O'Loughlin, Michael McKinley, Valerie Dean (2006). Human anatomy. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. pp. 400–01. ISBN 0-07-249585-5.
  3. ^ Than Ker. (2018, February 26). What is Darwin’s Theory of Evolution?. LiveScience. Retreieved July 28, 2018 from https://www.livescience.com/474-controversy-evolution-works.html
  4. ^ a b Wayman Erin. (2012, January 4). Why Do Humans Have Chins?. Smithsonian. Retrieved July 28, 2018 from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-do-humans-have-chins-15140492/
  5. ^ a b University of Iowa. (2015, April 13). Why we have chins: Our chin comes from evolution, not mechanical forces. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2018 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150413183745.htm
  6. ^ Gauger Ann. (2016, February 11) On the origin of Chins. Evolution News. Retrieved July 28, 2018 from https://evolutionnews.org/2016/02/on_the_origin_o_8/
  7. ^ a b c d Mammalian Phenotype Browser: Cleft chin
  8. ^ Sharks of the world, Vol. 2, p. 143; by Leonard J. V. Compagno, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2001.
  9. ^ Rob Roy, p. 229 (in 1872 edition, pub. Osgood); by Sir Walter Scott, 1817.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 119000
  12. ^ Starr, Barry. "Ask a Geneticist". Understanding Genetics. TheTech. Archived from the original on 2007-05-13. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  13. ^ Günther, H. "Anomalien und Anomaliekomplexe in der Gegend des ersten Schlundbogens". Zeitschrift für menschliche Vererbungs- und Konstitutionslehre. 23: 43–52.; Lebow, M.R.; Sawin, P.B. "Inheritance of human facial features: a pedigree study involving length of face, prominent ears and chin cleft". Journal of Heredity. 32: 127–32. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a105016.
  14. ^ چاه زنخدان the chin well Archived 2014-08-08 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Larkin, Dimitrije E. Panfilov ; translated by Grahame (2005). Cosmetic surgery today. Stuttgart: Thieme Medical Publishers. p. 64. ISBN 1-58890-334-6.
Ab Darusheh-ye Chin

Ab Darusheh-ye Chin (Persian: ابدروشه چين‎, also Romanized as Āb Darūsheh-ye Chīn; also known as Āb Darūsheh, Āb Dorūshak, and Āb-e Dorūsheh) is a village in Chin Rural District, Ludab District, Boyer-Ahmad County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 107, in 17 families.

Aksai Chin

Aksai Chin (Chinese: 阿克赛钦; pinyin: Ākèsài Qīn; Uyghur: ﺋﺎﻗﺴﺎﻱ ﭼﯩﻦ‎;Hindi-अक्साई चिन) is a disputed border area between China and India. It is largely part of Hotan County, which lies in the southwestern part of Hotan Prefecture of Xinjiang Autonomous Region in China, with a small portion on the southeast and south sides lying within the extreme west of the Xizang Autonomous Region. But it is also claimed by India as a part of the Ladakh region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. In 1962, China and India fought a brief war in Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, but in 1993 and 1996, the two countries signed agreements to respect the Line of Actual Control.

Chin State

Chin State (Burmese: ချင်းပြည်နယ်; MLCTS: hkyang: pranynai, pronounced [tɕʰɪ́ɴ pjìnɛ̀]) is a state in western Myanmar. The 36,019-square-kilometre (13,907 sq mi) Chin State is bordered by Sagaing Division and Magway Division to the east, Rakhine State to the south, Bangladesh to the south-west, and the Indian states of Mizoram to the west and Manipur to the north. The population of Chin state is about 478,801 in 2014 census. The capital of the state is Hakha. The state is a mountainous region with few transportation links. Chin State is sparsely populated and remains one of the least developed areas of the country. Chin State has the highest poverty rate of 73% as per the released figures from the first official survey.The official radio broadcasting dialect of Chin is Falam. There are 53 different subtribe and languages in Chin State. There are nine townships in Chin State. Hakha, Thantlang, Falam, Tedim, Tonzang, Matupi, Mindat, Kanpetlet and Paletwa townships. In 1926,it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma until 1948,January 4.

Guqin

The guqin ([kùtɕʰǐn] (listen); Chinese: 古琴) is a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family. It has been played since ancient times, and has traditionally been favoured by scholars and literati as an instrument of great subtlety and refinement, as highlighted by the quote "a gentle man does not part with his qin or se without good reason," as well as being associated with the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius. It is sometimes referred to by the Chinese as "the father of Chinese music" or "the instrument of the sages". The guqin is not to be confused with the guzheng, another Chinese long zither also without frets, but with moveable bridges under each string.

Traditionally, the instrument was simply referred to as the "qin" (琴) but by the twentieth century the term had come to be applied to many other musical instruments as well: the yangqin hammered dulcimer, the huqin family of bowed string instruments, and the Western piano are examples of this usage. The prefix "gu-" (古; meaning "ancient") was later added for clarification. Thus, the instrument is called "guqin" today. It can also be called qixian-qin (七絃琴; lit. "seven-stringed zither"). Because Robert Hans van Gulik's book about the qin is called The Lore of the Chinese Lute, the guqin is sometimes inaccurately called a lute. Other incorrect classifications, mainly from music compact discs, include "harp" or "table-harp".

The guqin is a very quiet instrument, with a range of about four octaves, and its open strings are tuned in the bass register. Its lowest pitch is about two octaves below middle C, or the lowest note on the cello. Sounds are produced by plucking open strings, stopped strings, and harmonics. The use of glissando—sliding tones—gives it a sound reminiscent of a pizzicato cello, fretless double bass or a slide guitar. The qin is also capable of many harmonics, of which 91 are most commonly used and indicated by the dotted positions. By tradition the qin originally had five strings, but ancient qin-like instruments with 10 or more strings have been found. The modern form has been standardized for about two millennia.

Hu Jintao

Hu Jintao (; Chinese: 胡锦涛; pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo; Mandarin: [xǔ tɕìn.tʰáu]; born 21 December 1942) is a retired Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012. He held the offices of General Secretary of the Communist Party from 2002 to 2012, President of the People's Republic from 2003 to 2013 and Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2004 to 2012. He was a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body, from 1992 to 2012.

Hu participated in the Communist Party for most of his career, notably as Party Committee Secretary for Guizhou province and the Tibet Autonomous Region, and then later First Secretary of the Central Secretariat and Vice-President under former leader Jiang Zemin. Hu is the first leader of the Communist Party without any significant revolutionary credentials.

During his term in office, Hu reintroduced state control in some sectors of the economy that were relaxed by the previous administration, and was conservative with political reforms. Along with his colleague Premier Wen Jiabao, Hu presided over nearly a decade of consistent economic growth and development that cemented China as a major world power. He sought to improve socio-economic equality domestically through the Scientific Outlook on Development, which aimed to build a "Harmonious Socialist Society" that was prosperous and free of social conflict. Under his leadership, the authorities also cracked down on social disturbances, ethnic minority protests, and dissident figures. In foreign policy, Hu advocated for "China's peaceful development", pursuing soft power in international relations and a corporate approach to diplomacy. Throughout Hu's tenure, China's influence in Africa, Latin America, and other developing regions increased.Hu possessed a low-key and reserved leadership style. His tenure was characterized by collective leadership and consensus-based rule. These traits made Hu a rather enigmatic figure in the public eye. His administration was known for its focus more on technocratic competence than persona. At the end of his tenure, Hu won praise for retiring voluntarily from all positions. He was succeeded by Xi Jinping.

Jin dynasty (265–420)

The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (; Chinese: 晉朝; pinyin: Jìn Cháo, sometimes distinguished as the Sima Jin (司马晋) or Liang Jin (两晋, "Two Jins") was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420. It was founded by Sima Yan, son of Sima Zhao, who was made Prince of Jin and posthumously declared the founder of the dynasty. It followed the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD), which ended with the conquest of Eastern Wu by the Jin.

There are two main divisions in the history of the dynasty. The Western Jin (266–316) was established as a successor state to Cao Wei after Sima Yan usurped the throne, and had its capital at Luoyang or Chang'an (modern Xi'an); Western Jin reunited China in 280, but fairly shortly thereafter fell into a succession crisis, civil war, and invasion by the "Five Barbarians (Wu Hu)." The rebels and invaders began to establish new self-proclaimed states in the Yellow River valley in 304, inaugurating the "Sixteen Kingdoms" era. These states immediately began fighting each other and the Jin Empire, leading to the second division of the dynasty, the Eastern Jin (317–420) when Sima Rui moved the capital to Jiankang (modern Nanjing). The Eastern Jin dynasty was eventually overthrown by the Liu Song.

Ken Jeong

Kendrick Kang-Joh Jeong (born July 13, 1969) is an American comedian, actor and physician. He is best known for playing Ben Chang on the sitcom Community and the gangster Leslie Chow in The Hangover film series. He was the lead in the ABC sitcom Dr. Ken, in which he was also the creator, writer, and executive producer. Jeong is a licensed physician, but has stopped practicing in favor of his acting career.He currently appears as a panelist on the singing competition show The Masked Singer.

Kinmen

Kinmen or Quemoy (; Standard Mandarin Pīnyīn: Jīnmén; Hokkien POJ: Kim-mn̂g (locally) or Kim-mûi), officially Kinmen County, is two groups of islands governed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) and located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The county consists of the Kinmen Islands (including Great Kinmen and Lesser Kinmen) and the Wuqiu Islands more than 110 kilometres (68 mi) to the northeast. It is one of two counties under the streamlined Fujian Province of the Republic of China. The Kinmen Islands are located only about two kilometres (1.2 mi) east of the mainland city of Xiamen, and their strategic position has reflected the significant change of Cross-Strait relations from a battlefront to a trading point between China and Taiwan. Due to the ongoing issue of the political status of Taiwan, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has continuously claimed Kinmen County as part of its own Fujian Province, claiming the Kinmen Islands as a Jinmen County of Quanzhou prefecture-level city, and claiming the Wuqiu Islands as part of Xiuyu District in Putian prefecture-level city.

Kuki-Chin languages

The Kuki-Chin languages (also called Kukish or South-Central Tibeto-Burman languages) are a branch of 50 or so Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in northeastern India, western Burma and eastern Bangladesh. Most speakers of these languages are known as Kukī in Assamese and as Chin in Burmese; some also identify as Lushei. Mizo is the most widely spoken of the Kuki-Chin languages.

Kuki-Chin is sometimes placed under Kuki-Chin–Naga, a geographical rather than linguistic grouping.

Most Kuki-Chin languages are spoken in and around Chin State, Burma, with some languages spoken in Sagaing Division, Magway Region and Rakhine State as well. In Northeast India, many Northern Kuki-Chin languages are also spoken in Mizoram State and southern Manipur State, India, especially in Churachandpur District. Northwestern Kuki-Chin languages are spoken mostly in Chandel District, Manipur.

Kuki-Chin is alternatively called South-Central Trans-Himalayan (or South Central Tibeto-Burman) by Konnerth (2018).

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Paul Rudd

Paul Stephen Rudd (born April 6, 1969) is an American actor, comedian, writer, and film producer. Rudd studied theatre at the University of Kansas and the American Drama Academy, before making his acting debut in 1992 with NBC's drama series Sisters. He is known for his starring roles in the films Clueless (1995), Romeo + Juliet (1996), Wet Hot American Summer (2001), Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy (2004), The 40-Year-Old Virgin (2005), Knocked Up (2007), Role Models (2008), I Love You, Man (2009), This Is 40 (2012), The Perks of Being a Wallflower (2012), Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues (2013), The Fundamentals of Caring (2016), Mute (2018), and Ideal Home (2018). Beginning in 2015, Rudd has played Scott Lang/Ant-Man in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, appearing in Ant-Man (2015), Captain America: Civil War (2016), Ant-Man and the Wasp (2018), and the upcoming Avengers: Endgame (2019).

In addition to his film career, Rudd has appeared in numerous television shows, including the NBC sitcom Friends as Mike Hannigan, along with guest roles on Tim and Eric Awesome Show, Great Job! and Parks and Recreation (as businessman Bobby Newport) and hosting Saturday Night Live. Rudd received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on July 1, 2015.

Prognathism

Prognathism is a positional relationship of the mandible or maxilla to the skeletal base where either of the jaws protrudes beyond a predetermined imaginary line in the coronal plane of the skull. In general dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and orthodontics, this is assessed clinically or radiographically (cephalometrics). The word prognathism derives from Greek πρό (pro, meaning "forward") and γνάθος (gnáthos, "jaw"). One or more types of prognathism can result in the common condition of malocclusion, in which an individual's top teeth and lower teeth do not align properly.

Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: 秦始皇; literally: 'First Emperor of Qin", pronunciation ; 18 February 259 BC – 10 September 210 BC) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China. He was born Ying Zheng (嬴政) or Zhao Zheng (趙政), a prince of the state of Qin. He became Zheng, the King of Qin (秦王政) when he was thirteen, then China's first emperor when he was 38 after the Qin had conquered all of the other Warring States and unified all of China in 221 BC. Rather than maintain the title of "king" (王 wáng) borne by the previous Shang and Zhou rulers, he ruled as the First Emperor (始皇帝) of the Qin dynasty from 220 to 210 BC. His self-invented title "emperor" (皇帝 huángdì), as indicated by his use of the word "First", would continue to be borne by Chinese rulers for the next two millennia.

During his reign, his generals greatly expanded the size of the Chinese state: campaigns south of Chu permanently added the Yue lands of Hunan and Guangdong to the Chinese cultural orbit; campaigns in Central Asia conquered the Ordos Loop from the nomad Xiongnu, although eventually it would also lead to their confederation under Modu Chanyu. Qin Shi Huang also worked with his minister Li Si to enact major economic and political reforms aimed at the standardization of the diverse practices of the earlier Chinese states. He is traditionally said to have banned and burned many books and executed scholars, though a closer examination renders the account doubtful. His public works projects included the unification of diverse state walls into a single Great Wall of China and a massive new national road system, as well as the city-sized mausoleum guarded by the life-sized Terracotta Army. He ruled until his death in 210 BC during his fourth tour of Eastern China. His achievements made him one of the most respected and influential individuals in world history, and a legacy among the Chinese.

Sakhteman-e Jamshid-e Chin

Sakhteman-e Jamshid-e Chin (Persian: ساختمان جمشيدچين‎, also Romanized as Sākhtemān-e Jamshīd-e Chīn) is a village in Chin Rural District, Ludab District, Boyer-Ahmad County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Sino-Indian War

The Sino-Indian War (Hindi: भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict (simplified Chinese: 中印边境战争; traditional Chinese: 中印邊境戰爭; pinyin: Zhōng-Yìn Biānjìng Zhànzhēng), was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan border was the main pretext for war, but other issues played a role. There had been a series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when India had granted asylum to the Dalai Lama. India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed outposts along the border, including several north of the McMahon Line, the eastern portion of the Line of Actual Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1959.

Unable to reach political accommodation on disputed territory along the 3,225 kilometre (2000 mile) long Himalayan border, the Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962. Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang La in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre. The war ended when China declared a ceasefire on 20 November 1962, and simultaneously announced its withdrawal to its claimed 'line of actual control'.

Much of the battle took place in harsh mountain conditions, entailing large-scale combat at altitudes of over 4,000 metres (14,000 feet). The Sino-Indian War was also noted for the non-deployment of the navy or air force by either the Chinese or Indian side.

The buildup and offensive from China occurred concurrently with the 13-day Cuban Missile Crisis (16–28 October 1962) that saw both the United States and the Soviet Union confronting each other, and India did not receive assistance from either of these world powers until the Cuban Missile Crisis was resolved.

Sino-Indian border dispute

Sovereignty over two separated pieces of territory have been contested between China and India. Aksai Chin is located either in the Indian province of Jammu and Kashmir, or the Chinese province of Xinjiang, in the west. It is a virtually uninhabited high-altitude wasteland crossed by the Xinjiang-Tibet Highway. The other disputed territory lies south of the McMahon Line. It was formerly referred to as the North East Frontier Agency, and is now called Arunachal Pradesh. The McMahon Line was part of the 1914 Simla Convention between British India and Tibet, an agreement rejected by China.The 1962 Sino-Indian War was fought in both of these areas. An agreement to resolve the dispute was concluded in 1996, including "confidence-building measures" and a mutually agreed Line of Actual Control. In 2006, the Chinese ambassador to India claimed that all of Arunachal Pradesh is Chinese territory amidst a military buildup. At the time, both countries claimed incursions as much as a kilometre at the northern tip of Sikkim. In 2009, India announced it would deploy additional military forces along the border. In 2014, India proposed China should acknowledge "One India" policy to resolve the border dispute.

Zhenjiang

Zhenjiang, formerly romanized as Chinkiang, is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu Province, China. It lies on the southern bank of the Yangtze River near its intersection with the Grand Canal. It is opposite Yangzhou (to its north) and between Nanjing (to its west) and Changzhou (to its east). Zhenjiang was formerly the provincial capital of Jiangsu and remains as an important transportation hub.

The town is best known in China and abroad for its fragrant black vinegar, a staple of Chinese cooking.

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