Chilkoot Trail

The Chilkoot Trail is a 33-mile (53 km) trail through the Coast Mountains that leads from Dyea, Alaska, in the United States, to Bennett, British Columbia, in Canada.

It was a major access route from the coast to Yukon goldfields in the late 1890s. The trail became obsolete in 1899 when a railway was built from Dyea's neighbor port Skagway along the parallel White Pass trail.[2] The Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site was designated a U.S. National Historic Landmark in 1978. In 1987, the trail was designated a National Historic Site of Canada.[3] In 1998, the centennial of the gold rush, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia merged with the U.S. park to create the Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park.

Chilkoot trail
Chilkoot-trail
1. Dyea, 2. Finnegan's Point, 3. Canyon City, 4. Pleasant Camp, 5. Sheep Camp, 6. Scales, 7. Chilkoot Pass, 8. Stone Crib, 9. Happy Camp, 10. Deep Lake, 11. Lake Lindemann, 12. Bare Loon Lake, 13. Lake Bennett
Length33 miles
SummitChilkoot Pass; 1067 m / 3,525 feet[1]
LegacyTrail for Klondike Gold Rush (1896–1899)
UseTourist attraction
LocationSoutheast Alaska - Northwest British Columbia
PortSkagway
AKMap-doton-ChilkootPass
Official nameChilkoot Trail National Historic Site of Canada
Designated1987
Official nameChilkoot Trail and Dyea Site
Designated1978

History

Indigenous use

Tlingit Indians used the trail as a vital trade route to trade for resources available in the interior. As pressures from American settlers and the Hudson's Bay Company weakened the traditional Tlingit trading system, the Chilkoot Trail slowly became utilized by explorers and prospectors.

Klondike era

ChilkootPass GoldenStairs2
Chilkoot Pass during gold rush. March–April 1898

The Klondike Gold Rush (1896–1899) transformed the Chilkoot Trail into a mainstream transportation route to Canada's interior. The gold rush was primarily focused in the region around Dawson City in Yukon and the Yukon River. Of the several overland routes, the Chilkoot Trail was the most direct, least expensive, and, soon enough, most popular.

The other primary route to the headwaters of the Yukon River, however, was also based out of Skagway: the rival White Pass route. The White Pass route was slightly longer but less rigorous and steep, whereas the Chilkoot was shorter and more difficult. Skagway, because of its deepwater harbor, served as the principal port for both routes (nearby Dyea, the beginning of the Chilkoot Trail, was built on the extensive, shallow Taiya River delta).

Prospectors who chose the Chilkoot were ferried to Dyea by small boat or ferry. Soon, both Skagway and Dyea were bustling tent cities as sensationalist headlines of the gold rush spurred men from across the United States to leave their jobs and families and gain passage up the Inside Passage to Skagway.

As it became apparent that many of the prospectors who chose the Chilkoot simply were not going to survive the arduous terrain and harsh weather, Canada's North-West Mounted Police (now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police) declared that prospectors could only enter Canada if they had at least one ton of gear (enough to supply a prospector for one year. See also: Klondike supply list).

Prospectors ferried the gear from campsites along the trail, slowly moving closer to the headwaters of the Yukon. With all the equipment and supplies being transported, alternative methods, especially those with a little supplemental income, sprouted up. Many prospectors purchased pack animals (although that method was more commonly used on the rival White Pass), and many others paid Tlingit Indians to haul gear on a per-pound rate from campsite to campsite.

Tramways

Aerial tramway companies soon were hauling tons of gear over the head of the prospectors every day. By the end of the Chilkoot Trail's heyday, there were five distinct tramway operations on different parts of the trail competing for the influx of gear and money in the region. Many of the trams constituted world-class engineering feats of the era.

Post-Klondike

After the Klondike Gold Rush, the trail became more or less deserted. Prospectors late to the gold rush now made their way to the Yukon on the new White Pass and Yukon Route narrow-gauge railroad, which took them all the way to Whitehorse, Yukon in the Yukon Territory. In 1969, the U.S. and Canadian governments jointly declared their intention to make Chilkoot Trail a component of a Klondike Gold Rush International Historic Park. The U.S. portion was eventually established in 1976 as Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, comprising part of Pioneer Square in downtown Seattle, Washington, various sites throughout Skagway, Alaska, the abandoned town site of Dyea, Alaska, and the U.S. portion of the Chilkoot Trail.

The Canadian portion of the trail was christened Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site, one of several sites that compose the Canadian national park associated with the Klondike. But not until the centennial of the gold rush, in 1998, was the dream of an international park realized, when Klondike Gold Rush NHP and Chilkoot Trail NHS were merged to form Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park.

Current status

ChilkootTrailSheepCamp
Briefing at Sheep Camp, 2016

The Chilkoot Trail is a popular recreational trail among residents of Southeast Alaska and Yukon Territory. The trail also attracts many tourists from abroad. To manage demand, and to prevent overuse and maintain the remote character of the trail, the National Park Service and Parks Canada allow no more than 50 backpackers to begin the trail each day by way of a permit system.

In return for these fees, both countries have full-time trail maintenance crews, ranger/warden stations, well-designed campgrounds, and have placed numerous interpretive signs adjacent to notable historical sites and objects.

The "official" hiking season (when rangers are on-duty and trail crew is on-site) varies, but usually begins in late May and ends in early September. Peak demand runs from June through August. Avalanche danger lingers into late May, as well as large snow fields that slow progress, whereas September is associated with rain and colder weather.

Running

The Chilkoot is also a challenging ultra-run. The fastest known time belongs to ultramarathoner Geoff Roes in 5 hours and 27 minutes.[4][5]

Route and attractions

The Chilkoot trail features a number of natural and historical sites as shown on the map. By following the numbers on the map from south to north, the hiker will go along the same route as the old prospectors. The trip normally takes three to five days[6] and to stay for the night, a number of designated campground are made. The trail is roughly divided into three climatic zones: coastal rainforest, high alpine (above tree limit) and boreal forest. In the end it is connected to White Pass historical railway leading back to Skagway the modern port of the trail. In the following, the points of the map are highlighted with bold letters.

Coastal rainforest zone

Dyea Alaska
Dyea, head of Lynn Canal, 2005

The trail begins in Dyea, a ghost town and campground, 15 minutes from Skagway. From the trailhead, the route winds through coastal rainforest along to the Taiya River. The first campsite is Finnegan's Point. This stretch of the trail is in flat terrain with no substantial obstacles.

The trail becomes noticeably cooler after Finnegan's Point owing to cool air sinking down from snow and ice fields in the surrounding mountains. Numerous streams also cascade down the mountain sides. This stretch of the trail contains the least amount of visible artifacts. The next camp is Canyon City. Many hikers, especially those desiring a more modest pace or those who have had a late start, stop at Canyon City the first night. The shelter located at Canyon City houses many gold rush-era artifacts.

Close to the Canyon City campsite are the Canyon City ruins. Canyon City was a tent city during the gold rush and its ruins—building foundations, a large restaurant stove, a large boiler—are still visible. The ruins are accessible by crossing the Taiya River by suspension footbridge.

ChilkootTrailUS1
Between Finnegan's Point and Canyon City, 2004

After Canyon City ruins, the trail diverges away from the river for the first time as the river disappears into a small canyon (Canyon City's namesake) and climbs up valley wall, traversing sub-alpine forest. For many sections of the trail, old telegraph and tram wires are exposed adjacent to the trail. For the gold rush prospectors, this section of the trail was one of the most difficult. In winter, when the Taiya River was frozen, the gold rush stampeders could easily travel up the ice highway; however, in the summer this segment was described as "the worst piece of trail on the road, fairly muddy with many boulders and with some short, steep ascents and descents in and out of small gulches."

The next landmark is Pleasant Camp. There is an informational trail sign at the original site of Pleasant Camp, a quarter mile before the present Pleasant Camp campground. Pleasant Camp marks the reunion of the trail with Taiya River and serves as a lightly used, small campground. From Pleasant Camp the trail is fairly flat and weaves through forest and over small creeks.

The trail next comes to Sheep Camp, the last campground on the American side of the trail as well as the final resting stop before the trek up Chilkoot Pass. It is the largest of the campsites on the American side of the trail.

After leaving Sheep Camp and before the U.S. ranger station, the trail passes through a large avalanche chute. The slide has wiped out all previously existing forest and leaves a young brushy and alder-dominated landscape. A short distance after the ranger station is a small museum of gold rush-era artifacts in an old cabin. Soon after leaving the cabin the sub-alpine forest slowly yields to a treeless alpine landscape that allows a grand view of the rapidly narrowing Taiya River valley. As the trail climbs in altitude, its path becomes more improved, often demarcated by yellow markers planted in snowfields.

High alpine zone

ChilkootTrailGoldenStairs
Pass, June 2004

Within sight of the pass, and at the base of the "Golden Stairs" (the long difficult incline that leads to the pass), are The Scales. The Scales were a weight station where freight would be reweighed before the final trek to the pass. Often, Native packers would demand higher packing rates. The Scales also hosted a small tent city, including six restaurants, two hotels, a saloon, and many freighting offices and warehouses. The imposing Golden Stairs also prompted many would-be prospectors to turn around, often leaving behind their required ton of equipment. Because of this, and the snow's preserving properties, artifacts are prevalent at this altitude, including many remnants of wooden structures.

After The Scales is the final push up to the Chilkoot Pass: the fabled Golden Stairs. The Golden Stairs acquired its name from the steps that prospectors painstakingly carved into the snow and ice of the pass and has retained the name ever since. At the pass proper, at the Canada–US border, is a warming cabin and part-time Parks Canada warden station. Occasionally, if a party is making poor time, the warden or U.S. ranger will offer the warming cabin as an overnight shelter so to not risk the group from being caught in the barren and exposed alpine landscape between the pass and Happy Camp. There are also many artifacts scattered about the Golden Stairs and ridge lines surrounding the pass, including a cache of intact (canvas, wood, etc.) prefabricated boats on the southeastern side of the pass.

Stone Crib is situated a half mile after the pass. Stone Crib served as the terminus of the Chilkoot Railroad and Transport Company's aerial tramway, a huge rocky counterbalance for the tram. This function is still apparent today with the wooden structure well preserved by the snow.

The trail wends its way by a series of alpine lakes: First Crater Lake, Morrow Lake, and finally Happy Camp.

Boreal forest zone

ChilkootTrailLakeLindeman
Lake Lindeman in the early summer, 2004

The trail continues to pass another couple of lakes—Long Lake and Deep Lake—before crossing tree line. Adjacent to Deep Lake, and amidst tree line, is another campground. The Canadian half of the Chilkoot Trail, in the rain shadow of the Coast Mountains, is much dryer, and pine forest, first appearing at Deep Lake, readily contrasts to the more lush temperate rain forest on the U.S. half before Chilkoot Pass.

After the trail passes Deep Lake, the outlet river runs parallel to the trail for a short distance before entering a small canyon. Many boat and boat-related artifacts are visible in this area. The trail continues at a gentle decline until the turquoise-colored Lake Lindeman comes into view and the trail concludes its descent to the Lake Lindeman campground, the headquarters of Canadian trail operations.

The trail climbs a steep bluff after Lindeman and offers an expansive view of the lake and surrounding forest. After Lake Lindeman, the trail passes Bare Loon Lake and the Bare Loon Lake campground.

The trail diverges after Bare Loon Lake. One branch continues to Lake Bennett and the tracks of the White Pass & Yukon Route railroad. The other branch, the Log Cabin cut-off, connects with the Klondike Highway, but was closed by Parks Canada in 2010.

Bennett consists of a campground, a White Pass and Yukon Route depot, several houses (all private property) belonging to White Pass employees or First Nations citizens, and the only gold rush-era building still standing along the trail today, the renovated St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church. Pilings from bygone piers dot the lakeshore and an assortment of cans and other metal artifacts are scattered throughout the woods.

Campgrounds

As shown on the route map there are a total of nine designated, maintained campgrounds on the Chilkoot Trail. Camping is allowed in these places only. Hikers must use their own tents or shelters as the cabins at the campgrounds are for warming and cooking only. For cooking a backpacking stove must be brought along, even though wood stoves are available in some places. Open fires are prohibited. Use of campgrounds must be planned in advance.[7]

In addition to the camps, a U.S. Ranger Station is located north of Sheep Camp to present the history of the pass and inform about weather and trail conditions before crossing the summit.

Safety

ChilkootTrailBearTrack
Bear track, 2004

Bears are the primary safety concern in the park. It is very common for hikers to encounter them. Firearms are not permitted on the Canadian side of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park.[8] Almost all parties take bear spray and/or bear bangers as repellents, but most importantly both sides of the park mandate smart bear practices. It is required to stow food in bear-safe locations.

Weather and terrain also pose a challenge to hikers. There are few risks in the forest regions of the trail, however once the trail climbs into the alpine, weather and the elements pose more of a concern; the same does vertigo. Often the American ranger from Sheep Camp sweeps late in the day up to Chilkoot Pass to monitor for straggling groups that may not make Happy Camp and would be in need of emergency shelter.

Klondike supply list

The list shows a suggestion of equipment needed for prospectors before they were allowed entry into Canada at the summit of the Chilkoot Pass, 1897–1899. Total weight: 1 ton.[9] (See also: Klondike era)

  • 150 lb. bacon
  • 400 lb. flour
  • 25 lb. rolled oats
  • 125 lb. beans
  • 10 lb. tea
  • 10 lb. coffee
  • 25 lb. sugar
  • 25 lb. dried potatoes
  • 2 lb. dried onions
  • 15 lb. salt
  • 1 lb. pepper
  • 75 lb. dried fruits
  • 8 lb. baking powder
  • 2 lb. soda
  • ½ lb. evaporated vinegar
  • 12 oz. compressed soup
  • 1 can mustard
  • 1 tin matches (for four men)
  • Stove for four men
  • Gold pan for each
  • Set granite buckets
  • Large bucket
  • Knife, fork, spoon, cup, and plate
  • Frying pan
  • Coffee and teapot
  • Scythe stone
  • Two picks and one shovel
  • One whipsaw
  • Pack strap
  • Two axes for four men and one extra handle
  • Six 8-inch (200 mm) files and two taper files for the party
  • Draw knife, brace and bits, jack plane, and hammer for party
  • 200 feet three-eights-inch rope
  • 8 lb. of pitch and 5 lb (2.3 kg). of oakum for four men
  • Nails, five lbs. each of 6,8,10 and 12 penny, for four men
  • Tent, 10 by 12 feet (3.0 m × 3.7 m) for four men
  • Canvas for wrapping
  • Two oil blankets to each boat
  • 5 yards of mosquito netting for each man
  • 3 suits of heavy underwear
  • 1 heavy mackinaw coat
  • 2 pairs heavy mackinaw trousers
  • 1 heavy rubber-lined coat
  • 1 doz heavy wool socks
  • ½ doz heavy wool mittens
  • 2 heavy overshirts
  • 2 pairs heavy snagproof rubber boots
  • 2 pairs shoes
  • 4 pairs blankets (for two men)
  • 4 towels
  • 2 pairs overalls
  • 1 suit oil clothing
  • Several changes of summer clothing
  • Small assortment of medicines

See also

References

  1. ^ NPS, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site of Canada, Natural Environment
  2. ^ Gold rush stories Archived 2011-08-05 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Chilkoot Trail. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  4. ^ ProBoards: "Chilkoot Trail (AK)"
  5. ^ I Run Alaska (blog): A Look Back on 2012 and a Look Ahead
  6. ^ National Park Service, Chilkoot Trail
  7. ^ Parks Canada, Designated Camping
  8. ^ "Firearms in the park - Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-02.
  9. ^ Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park online: "Ton of Goods"

External links

Coordinates: 59°41′49″N 135°14′19″W / 59.69694°N 135.23861°W

Bennett, British Columbia

Bennett, British Columbia, Canada, is an abandoned town next to Bennett Lake and along Lindeman Creek (formerly known as the One Mile River). The townsite is now part of the Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site of Canada and is managed by Parks Canada. Bennett is also a stop on the White Pass and Yukon Route Railroad during the summer months.

Campgrounds of the Chilkoot Trail

There are a total of nine designated, maintained campgrounds on the Chilkoot Trail, a 33-mile (53 km) trail through the Coast Mountains that leads from Dyea, Alaska, in the United States, to Bennett, British Columbia, in Canada.

Camping is allowed in these places only. For heating a backpacking stove must be brought along, even though wood stoves are available in some places. Open fires are prohibited. Use of campgrounds must be planned in advance.

Chilkoot

Chilkoot or The Chilkoot or variation may refer to:

Chilkoot Barracks, an alternative name for Fort William H. Seward, Alaska, USA

Chilkoot Inlet, terminus of the Chilkoot River, in Alaska

Chilkoot Lake, in Haines Township, Alaska; source of the Chilkoot River

Chilkoot Pass, on the Chilkoot Trail, crossing from Alaska, USA to BC, Canada, over the Coast Mountains

Chilkoot Reservation, a U.S. Indian Reservation in Alaska, see List of Indian reservations in the United States

Chilkoot River, a river in southeast Alaska

Chilkoot Trail, a part of the Klondike Gold Rush Trail between Dyea, Alaska, USA, and Bennett Lake, British Columbia, Canada

Chilkoot tribe, a tribe of Tlingit found in Haines Township, Alaska, USA

Port Chilkoot, a former municipality which was merged into Haines, Alaska

Chilkoot Pass

Chilkoot Pass (el. 3,759 feet or 1,146 metres) is a high mountain pass through the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains in the U.S. state of Alaska and British Columbia, Canada. It is the highest point along the Chilkoot Trail that leads from Dyea, Alaska to Bennett Lake, British Columbia. The Chilkoot Trail was long a route used by the Tlingit for trade.

During the Klondike Gold Rush of the late 19th century, it was used by prospectors and packers to get through the mountains. During the gold rush, three aerial tramways and several surface hoists were constructed and operated briefly over the pass. When the White Pass and Yukon Route Railroad was built in neighboring White Pass, the Chilkoot Pass route fell out of favor with miners.

The Pass and the Trail are administered by the national park services of the U.S. and Canada. On the B.C. side, it is administered as Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site. On the Alaska side, it is one unit of the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. In the summer of 1998, the Site and the Park united to form Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park. Modern-day visitors can hike the 33-mile trail after registering and paying a fee.

Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site

The Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site is a National Historic Landmark district comprising the Chilkoot Trail and the former town of Dyea, Alaska. They are contained in the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park which preserves the historic buildings and locations connected to the Klondike Gold Rush period of Alaskan history. For a brief period between 1897 and 1899, this trail and town were full of prospectors. By 1905, most of the buildings had been demolished or removed. Both the trail and the town site are part of the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park.

Chilkoot Trail tramways

The Chilkoot Trail tramways were aerial tramways that played a significant role in the Klondike Gold Rush and the Chilkoot Trail as a transportation system to move prospectors and equipment towards the Dawson City/Klondike gold fields.

Four tramways and one hoist operated on the trail, although all eventually closed before 1900 when the White Pass and Yukon Route railroad became the transportation method of choice for remaining prospectors.

District of Alaska

The District of Alaska was the governmental designation for Alaska from May 17, 1884 to August 24, 1912, when it became Alaska Territory. Previously it had been known as the Department of Alaska. At the time, legislators in Washington, D.C., were occupied with post–Civil War reconstruction issues, and had little time to dedicate to Alaska. General Jefferson C. Davis, a U.S. Army officer, was put in charge as the first commander of the Department of Alaska, which between 1884 and 1912 was renamed the District of Alaska and was appointed a civil government by President Chester A. Arthur with the passage of the First Organic Act. During the Department era, Alaska was variously under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army (until 1877), the United States Department of the Treasury (from 1877 until 1879) and the U.S. Navy (from 1879 until 1884), but now the area had its own government.

Dyea, Alaska

Dyea ( dye-EE) is a former town in the U.S. state of Alaska. A few people live on individual small homesteads in the valley; however, it is largely abandoned. It is located at the convergence of the Taiya River and Taiya Inlet on the south side of the Chilkoot Pass within the limits of the Municipality of Skagway Borough, Alaska. During the Klondike Gold Rush prospectors disembarked at its port and used the Chilkoot Trail, a Tlingit trade route over the Coast Mountains, to begin their journey to the gold fields around Dawson City, Yukon, about 800 km (500 mi) away. Confidence man and crime boss Soapy Smith, famous for his underworld control of the neighboring town of Skagway in 1897–98 is believed to have had control of Dyea as well.The port at Dyea had shallow water, while neighboring Skagway had deep water. Dyea was abandoned when the White Pass and Yukon Route railroad chose the White Pass Trail (instead of the alternative Chilkoot Trail), which began at Skagway, for its route.

Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site is a U.S. National Historic Landmark.

Dyea is now within the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. All that remains are a number of foundations surrounded by scraps of lumber and metal, 3 cemeteries, including one where almost every person buried died on the same date in an avalanche on the gold rush trail, and the ruins of the wharf. Visitors can usually spot brown bears, black bears, and eagles. Brown bears tend to use the Dyea inlets to feed during salmon spawning season (July–August).

James Smith (Canadian politician)

James Smith (December 31, 1919 – April 14, 2017) was the longest serving commissioner of the Yukon Territory from November 7, 1966 to June 30, 1976. During his tenure, he was instrumental in the creation of Kluane National Park and Reserve and the designation of the Chilkoot Trail as a National Historic Site of Canada. He was also responsible for creating the Arctic Winter Games along with Northwest Territories commissioner Stuart Hodgson and Alaska governor Walter Joseph Hickel.

Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park

Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park is a national historical park operated by the National Park Service that seeks to commemorate the Klondike Gold Rush of the late 1890s. Though the gold fields that were the ultimate goal of the stampeders lay in the Yukon Territory, the park comprises staging areas for the trek there and the routes leading in its direction. There are four units, including three in Municipality of Skagway Borough, Alaska and a fourth in the Pioneer Square National Historic District in Seattle, Washington.

A fuller appreciation of the story of the Klondike Gold Rush requires exploration and discovery on both sides of the Canada–United States border. National historic sites in Whitehorse and Dawson City, Yukon, as well as in British Columbia, complete the story. In 1998, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park joined with Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site, Dawson Historical Complex National Historic Site, and "The Thirty Mile" stretch of the Yukon River to create Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park, allowing for an integrated binational experience.

Larss and Duclos

Larss and Duclos was a photographic studio partnership between Per Edvard Larss and Joseph E. N. Duclos (1863-1917) in Dawson City, Yukon Territory during the Klondike Gold Rush era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Duclos was born in Quebec and moved to Maine where he learned photography. He moved to Dawson with his wife Emily in 1898 via St. Michael, Alaska and the Yukon River. He mined on Lovett Gulch until he joined the studio. Duclos specialized in portraits while Larss photographed gold rush scenes and scenery.

Larss and Duclos took over the studio of Eric A. Hegg, who arrived in Skagway in October 1897 after a short stop in Dyea. He immediately opened a studio and was joined a year later by his brother and a friend of the two brothers, Peter Andersson, along with Per Edvard Larss in the following spring, who also was a Swedish-American photographer. In 1899, after a year in Yukon, Hegg returned to Skagway and left his studio in Dawson to Larss and Duclos. Duclos was from Quebec.

The pair witnessed the Chilkoot Trail and the Klondike gold rush capturing iconic photographs that are used to illustrate the era.The partnership dissolved in 1904 when Larss left the area for Denver and Nevada, selling out to his partner. Duclos continued in the studio business until 1914.

Lindeman Creek

Lindeman Creek, formerly known as One Mile River connects Bennett Lake to Lindeman Lake, areas on the Chilkoot Trail in far northwestern British Columbia, Canada. It flows just south of Bennett Lake and northeast of the summit of the Chilkoot Pass. It is a treacherous class 3 rapid river.

The caption for an 1897 Frank La Roche photograph refers to it as the Lewes River and featured in En Route to the Klondike (1898) with text saying: "Skill, cool heads and hard work are the necessary requirements for navigating the rapids of the Lewes River. Here is portrayed an exciting scene, similar to which everyone who goes to the Klondike in the same way must experience. Partly guided by ropes in the hands of men ashore and steered clear of dangerous rocks by men in the boat, the frail craft dashes and struggles along, at one time miraculously escaping destruction in a wild eddy and at another time gliding gracefully between jagged rocks that rise threateningly out of the seething waters. There is no time to think - a sharp lookout and a steady hand are the only means to victory over the angry waters of the rapids one meets en route to the Klondike."In 1898 the river had its moment in history, during the Klondike Gold Rush.

After hauling their supplies to the top of the trail, prospectors waited for the ice to break up. On May 28th, 1898 it happened and the rush was on. In the first 24 hours 800 boats left down the river, with a total 7,000 boats carrying around 20,000 men leaving in the next two weeks for Dawson City.After the initial rush to Dawson, Bennett stabilized into a major service centre for the thousands of mostly men who continued to pour North up the Chilkoot Trail. This prosperity was short lived though, as the White Pass and Yukon Route railway connecting Skagway, Bennett and Whitehorse was completed and navigating One Mile River was no longer needed. By 1901 the town of Bennett was in decline with some buildings moved away to be close to the railway station.Bennett was home to several hotels, including the Arctic (later New Arctic), which was co-owned by Friedrich Trump, grandfather of Donald Trump. By July 1900, the hotel and brothel was advertising in the local newspaper The Bennett Sun of being the “Newest, Neatest and Best Equipped North of Vancouver“. Trump amassed a small fortune in the Yukon, starting with his hotel and brothel in Bennett beside One Mile River. In 1901 Trump took his money back to New York and there started in the real estate business.

The ghost town of Bennett, BC is a now tourist attraction.

Lindeman Lake

Lindeman Lake may refer to several places:

Lindeman Lake (Chilkoot Trail), a lake in northwestern British Columbia

Lindeman Lake (Chilliwack), a lake in Chilliwack Lake Provincial Park, British Columbia

Lindeman Lake (Chilkoot Trail)

Lindeman Lake, also known as Lake Lindeman, is a lake on the Chilkoot Trail in far northwestern British Columbia, Canada. It is just south of Bennett Lake and northeast of the summit of the Chilkoot Pass. From the direction of the pass it is fed by Lindeman Creek (formerly known as One Mile River), which connects the two lakes. Lake Lindeman and Lake Bennett were key components of the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush, with both seeing hundreds of vessels built to transit their waters and camp-town "tent cities" established on their shores. Lindeman was located at the south end of Lindeman Lake, while Bennett, often known as Bennett City, was at the south end of Lake Bennett.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Skagway, Alaska

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Skagway, Alaska.

This is intended to be a complete list of the districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Skagway, Alaska, United States. The locations of National Register districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map.There are 3 districts listed on the National Register in the borough, including 2 National Historic Landmarks.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted July 12, 2019.

Skagway Historic District and White Pass

The Skagway Historic District and White Pass is a National Historic Landmark District encompassing a significant portion of the area within the United States associated with the Klondike Gold Rush. It includes the historic portion of Skagway, Alaska, including the entire road grid of the 1897 town, as well as the entire valley on the United States side of White Pass all the way to the Canada–US border. This area includes surviving fragments of three historic routes used during the Gold Rush, as well as the route of the White Pass and Yukon Railroad. Almost 100 buildings remain from the Gold Rush period. Portions of the district are preserved as part of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park.

The Skagway portion of the district includes the historic heart of the town, a region 23 block long and varying in width from three to five blocks. Fourteen of these blocks were under National Park Service protection in 1999. Buildings in the district are generally wood frame structures with one or two stories, which have been brightly painted. Commercial buildings often have false fronts, commercial window displays, and recessed entries, and are sited directly against the sidewalk, while residences are set back. The district includes more than 350 buildings in Skagway, and only eight structures outside the city.

The Arctic Brotherhood Hall (1899), its front covered with driftwood, is one of the contributing buildings.

The valley that rises steeply above Skagway was one of the main routes to the gold fields of the Yukon River. (The other, the Chilkoot Trail, is located west of Skagway, and is part of the National Historic Landmark Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site historic district.) Two overland routes, the 1897 trail and the Brackett Wagon Road, worked their way up White Pass, as did a water-based route along the Skagway River, and the White Pass and Yukon Railroad, completed in 1900. Part of the valley now also carries the Klondike Highway. There are numerous areas along these historic routes (some of which have not been identified with precision, and may have followed variable routes during the rush) where camp sites and other remnants of the rush are to be found.

Taiya River

The Taiya River (also Dyea River) is a 17-mile-long (27 km) river in the U.S. state of Alaska running from the border with British Columbia, Canada, to the Taiya Inlet of upper Lynn Canal.

Teslin River

The Teslin River is a river in southern Yukon Territory and northwestern British Columbia, Canada, that flows 632 kilometres (393 mi) from its source south of Teslin Lake to its confluence with the Yukon River.

During the Klondike Gold Rush of 1896–99, the river became a popular route to the Klondike gold fields near Dawson City with the stampeders who had crossed the Coast Mountains by routes such as the Chilkoot Trail or the White Pass trail.

The English name of the Teslin River is derived from native names. In the local Tutchone language. spoken north of the lake it was called Délin Chú and the Chilkat Tlingit called it Deisleen Héeni. In the Tlingit language the local kwaan or tribe of Inland Tlingit call themselves Deisleen Kwáan", meaning "Big Sinew Tribe". Prospectors and explorers passing through the region recorded that the local natives called the river Teslin-tuh or Teslin-too, from which we get the English name. The portion of the river upstream of the lake (south of the lake) was officially designated the Whiteswan River from 1904 to 1951. The other major feeder streams of the system, via Teslin Lake, are the Jennings River, from the southeast, and the Swift River, from the east-northeast.

Black Spruce is a significant tree within the Teslin River watershed.

White Pass

White Pass, also known as the Dead Horse Trail, (elevation 873 m or 2,864 ft) is a mountain pass through the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains on the border of the U.S. state of Alaska and the province of British Columbia, Canada. It leads from Skagway, Alaska, to the chain of lakes at the headwaters of the Yukon River, Crater Lake, Lake Lindeman, and Bennett Lake.

Bike and hiking trails in Canada
Topics
Lists by state
Lists by insular areas
Lists by associated state
Other areas
Provinces
Territories
Other countries
Ranges
Mountains
Passes
Icefields
Parks

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.