Children's film

A children's film, or family film, is a film genre that contains children or relates to them in the context of home and family. Children's films are made specifically for children and not necessarily for the general audience, while family films are made for a wider appeal with a general audience in mind.[1][2] Children's films come in several major genres like realism, fantasy, adventure, war, musicals, comedy, and literary adaptations.[3]

Psychological aspects

Children are born with certain innate biological dispositions as a product of long evolutionary history. This provides an underlying biological framework for what may fascinate a child and also impose limitations on the same. These can be seen in certain universal features shared in children's films.[4] According to Grodal, films like Finding Nemo (2003), Bambi (1942), or Hayao Miyazaki's Spirited Away (2001) are based on certain strong emotions like fear, that lead to the activation of what Boyer and Lienard called the hazard-precaution system.[5] This enables the brain to take precautions in case of danger.[4] Children's films such as these explore various topics such as: attachment to parenting agency; the development of friendship; reciprocal relationships between individuals; or deal with the necessity or need in children and young people to explore and to engage in play.[6] Thus these diverse films deal with certain aspects that are not mere social constructions, but rather emotions relevant to all children and therefore have an appeal to a wider universal audience. While cultural aspects shape how various films are created, these films refer to underlying universal aspects that are innate and biological.[4] University of Melbourne scholar Timothy Laurie criticises the emphasis placed on children's innate psychic tendencies, noting that "pedagogical norms have been tirelessly heaped onto children's media", and that rather than deriving from hardwired biology, "the quality of childhood is more likely shaped by social policy, political opportunism, pedagogical institutions, and youth-specific market segmentation".[7]

Family films versus children's films

In both the United States and Europe, the idea of children's films began to gain relative prominence in the 1930s. According to Bazalgette and Staples, the term "family film" is essentially an American expression while "children's film" is considered to be a European expression.[8] However, the difference between the two terms can be seen in casting methods adopted by American and European films respectively. In American family films, the search for a child protagonist involves casting children that meet a specific criterion or standard for physical appearance. In contrast, European children's films look to cast children who appear "ordinary".[9] Similarly, in American family films, the adult cast can be composed of well known actors or actresses in an effort to attract a wider audience, presenting narratives from an adult or parental perspective. This is shown through the casting, content of the plot, editing, and even mise-en-scène.[9] According to Bazalgette and Staples, a fine example of a family film is Honey, I Shrunk the Kids (1989), which if it were a European children's film with a similar plot, the title would be Sis, Dad Shrunk Us, explaining that European children's films are told from the child's perspective, portraying the story through the various emotions and experiences of the child.[10] Because of these differences, American family films are more easily marketable toward domestic and international viewing audiences while European children's films are better received domestically with limited appeal to international audiences.[11]

United States

Early years

The Walt Disney Company made animated adaptations of Grimms' Fairy Tales before World War II, beginning with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). The period immediately before and during World War II saw the release of three significant family films in the U.S. These were Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs by Disney, Gulliver's Travels by Fleischer Studios, and Pinocchio (1940), also by Disney.[12] All of these were loose adaptations of literary sources.[12]

After the war, Disney continued to make animated features that could be classified as family films given the scope of its content.[13] According to Wojcik, the most important film adaptations of children's literature in the immediate post-World War II period were the motion pictures The Diary of Anne Frank by George Stevens (1959), Treasure Island (1950) by Byron Haskin and Luigi Comencini's 1952 motion picture Heidi.[14]

1960s to 1990s

In the 1960s, motion pictures such as To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) and Oliver! (1968), directed by Carol Reed, portrayed children as naturally innocent.[15] Other films of the 1960s that involved children include The Sound of Music (1965) by Robert Wise and The Miracle Worker (1962).[16] These were very successful musical motion picture that were in the genre of family films. Four of the top ten highest-grossing films of the decade were family films: The Sound of Music, One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961), The Jungle Book (1967), and Mary Poppins.[17] Hollywood also released motion pictures starring children though these were not commercially successful and they were literary adaptations nonetheless. These include ...And Now Miguel (1966), Doctor Dolittle (1967), and The Learning Tree (1969).[18][19] Other family/children films of the decade include Pollyanna (1960), Swiss Family Robinson (1960), In Search of the Castaways (1962), The Sword in the Stone (1963), That Darn Cat! (1965), Up the Down Staircase (1967), To Sir, With Love (1967), Yours, Mine and Ours (1968), and The Parent Trap (1961).[20]

Children's films in the 1970s from the United States include animated films such as The Aristocats (1970), Charlotte's Web (1973), Robin Hood, The Rescuers (1977), Pete's Dragon (1977), and The Hobbit (1977).[21] The decade also had live action children's films like Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971), Sounder (1972), Benji (1974), Tuck Everlasting (1976), The Bad News Bears (1976), Freaky Friday (1976), and A Hero Ain't Nothin' but a Sandwich (1978),[21] the divorce drama involving a child Kramer vs Kramer (1978), and The Muppet Movie (1979).[22] There were also combination live action/animation films such as 1971's Bedknobs and Broomsticks. This trend of films inspired the 1980s and 1990s productions of classic children's films from America including Beauty and the Beast (1991) and Matilda (1996).[21]

American children's and family films of the 1980s include Popeye (1980), The Fox and the Hound (1981), Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), The Great Mouse Detective (1986), and The Little Mermaid (1989).[23] Spielberg portrays children realistically, having to cope with issues.[24] This is seen in E.T. the Extra Terrestrial,[22] where the children have to cope with the issues of single parenting and divorce, as well as separation from their father. Also, in the motion picture Empire of the Sun (1987),[25] the protagonist child Jim Graham has to deal with separation from his parents for years, to the point where he is unable to even remember what his mother looked like. He is wounded not by bullets, but by the madness and cruelty of war and separation from his parents.[25] According to Robin Wood, in their films, Lucas and Spielberg both reconstruct "... the adult spectator as a child ..." or "... an adult who would like to be a child".[26][27] Other important children's films from the U.S. in the late 1970s include Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977).[24] Live action films like Superman (1978)[28] and Superman II[29] are also important children's and family films. They have been ranked as some of the best family entertainment over the past generation. The 1970s and 1980s also include several films and their sequels as classics of family films, including: Star Wars (1977) and its sequels The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983).[30] Other similar movies and sequels include Robert Zemeckis's film Back to the Future (1985) and its sequels Back to the Future Part II (1989) and Back to the Future Part III (1990).[30]

"Since the resurgence of Disney feature films with The Little Mermaid (1989)", writes Laurie, "high-budget animations have become part of the Hollywood box office furniture, with phenomenal successes from Pixar Studies, DreamWorks animations and more recently, Blue Sky Studios".[7] Important animated family films of the 1990s include Disney titles such as Beauty and the Beast (1991), Aladdin (1992), The Lion King (1994), Mulan (1998), The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996), and the Pixar computer animated films Toy Story (1995), its sequel Toy Story 2 (1999), and A Bug's Life (1998).[31] This decade introduced the modern fairy tale film Edward Scissorhands (1990),[32] depicting an isolated, artificially created young man with human emotions and childlike qualities who is ultimately rejected by society while the female protagonist holds on to his memory. The 1990s also saw additional live-action family films such as Back to the Future Part III (1990), which brought the Back to the Future franchise into this decade, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990), Home Alone (1990) and its sequel Home Alone 2: Lost in New York (1992), Hook (1991), Alan & Naomi (1992), Jurassic Park (1993), Steve Zaillian's Searching for Bobby Fischer (1993), Super Mario Bros (1993), Mrs. Doubtfire (1993), The Flintstones (1994), Babe (1995), Jumanji (1995), 101 Dalmatians (1996), Fly Away Home (1996), Vegas Vacation (1997), and October Sky (1999).[33] Films such as A Little Princess (1995) were more successful in the home video market than in theaters. Direct-to-video became important for both animated and live-action films, such as The Return of Jafar (1994) and those starring the Olsen Twins.[34]

2000 to present

Family films of the 2000s include: Dinosaur (2000), The Grinch (2000), Monsters, Inc. (2001), the Ice Age film series (2002–present), Shark Tale (2004), Robots (2005), Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005), The Chronicles of Narnia film series (2005–10), Cars (2006), Happy Feet (2006), Meet the Robinsons (2007), and Bolt (2008). Significant Pixar computer animated films of the decade were: Finding Nemo (2003), The Incredibles (2004), Wall-E (2008), and Up (2009). While significant DreamWorks computer animated films of the decade were: the Shrek film series (2001–10), Madagascar (2005) and its sequel Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa (2008), and Kung Fu Panda (2008),

So far, in the 2010s, live-action family films include Alice in Wonderland (2010), and Hugo (2011), directed by Martin Scorsese. Animated films in this genre include: the conclusion to the Toy Story franchise, Toy Story 3 (2010), Tangled (2010), Despicable Me (2010), and How to Train Your Dragon (2010). The year 2011 contained the sequels Kung Fu Panda 2 and Cars 2, as well as The Smurfs. The next two years would see other successful family/children's films, such as Ice Age: Continental Drift (2012), Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted (2012), Frozen (2013), Despicable Me 2 (2013), and Monsters University (2013). In 2014, there were 3 very successful family films: The Lego Movie, Rio 2, and How to Train Your Dragon 2. In 2015, there were a few very popular films: Disney's live-action adaptation of Cinderella, two Pixar films, Inside Out and The Good Dinosaur, the sequel Hotel Transylvania 2 and the Despicable Me spinoff prequel, Minions.

2016 was the first time two animated movies grossed over $1 billion in the same year, with Zootopia and Finding Dory, both from Disney. Disney also released a successful live-action remake of the 1967 movie The Jungle Book and followed it up in 2017 with another live-action remake, Beauty and the Beast.

2017 saw the release of family films like The Boss Baby, Smurfs: The Lost Village, and Cars 3.


In the 1930s and 1940s, a children's film studio was set up in Moscow. Several films were imported from this studio to the United Kingdom including The Magic Fish, The Land of Toys, and The Humpbacked Horse.[35] Post World War II children's films include the Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves, by Vittorio De Sica (1948).[36] According to Goldstein and Zornow, Clement's French film, Forbidden Games (1952), features children in the scenario of war, and shows the gap between children and adults.[37] This period also includes the Czech children's film Journey to the Beginning of Time (1955), directed by Karel Zeman. In the 1960s, important European children's films include the British-Italian romance film Romeo and Juliet (1968), and the French film L'Enfant sauvage (1969). French film directors Louis Malle and François Truffaut made significant contributions to children's films. Louis Malle made the films Zazie dans Le Metro (1960), Murmur of the Heart (1971), and Pretty Baby (1978). The works of Truffaut include The 400 Blows (1959), The Wild Child (1970) and Small Change (1976).[38] The film making style of Malle and Truffaunt inspired present day directors in making children's films; including Ponette (1996) directed by Jacques Doillon, which deals with the emotional and psychological pain and hurt that children experience "... while living without parental love and care".[39] Other important European children's cinema in the 1960s include The Christmas Tree (1969), which tells the story of a child coping with his imminent death due to leukemia, and Robert Bresson's film Mouchette (1964), which deals with the suicide of a 14-year-old girl. According to Wojcik, the contrast between films like Mary Poppins and Mouchette shows the ambiguous or schizoid nature of the depiction of children in the 1960s.[40]

European children's films from the 1970s and 1980s include: the German film directed by Wim Wenders, Alice in den Städten (1974); the Spanish film The Spirit of the Beehive (1973); Fanny & Alexander directed by Ingmar Bergman; the Danish film Pelle the Conqueror (1988); The NeverEnding Story (1984), directed by German director Wolfgang Petersen;[24] the Danish film, Me and Mamma Mia (1989);[11] and the Hungarian film Love, Mother (1987).[41] Autumn Sonata by Ingmar Bergman is also an important cinema in the genre of family films, although it deals with issues between parent and child which the child expresses after reaching adulthood. The 1990s include the important Russian films Burnt by the Sun (1994) and The Thief (1997), both of which are set in post-revolutionary Russia of 1917.[42] In the 2000s, important European children's films include the Finnish film Mother of Mine (2005), the Italian short film Il supplente ("The Substitute") (2007), and the Polish animated film Peter and the Wolf (2006). In 2010s the Belgian, French language film, The Kid with a Bike (2011) stands as an important children's film.[43]


In the 1960s, the UK made motion pictures dealing with children that are now regarded as classics.[30] These films include The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner (1962), Lord of the Flies (1963), Born Free (1966), To Sir, with Love (1967) (based on E. R. Braithwaite's real experiences), and if.... (1968).[44] The list also includes the film Kes (1969). Some children's motion pictures belong to the category of Avant Garde films because of the unconventional and often controversial treatment of the subject.[45] According to film scholars; an important example of an Avant Garde children's film is the British film Pink Floyd The Wall (1982).[46][47] Pink Floyd The Wall is an unconventional and controversial motion picture that has a haunting and powerful nightmarish depiction of alienated childhood, boarding school separation, maternal deprivation, separation anxiety, war, and consumerist greed that affects a child and further affects his relationships and experiences in adulthood. It shows the child with non traditional images and the social changes that has occurred with family.[47] In Pink Floyd The Wall the representation of child and family "stresses confrontation, confusion, dysfunctionality and history".[47]


In the 1960s, important children's films from Japan include Bad Boys (1960), based on the lives of children in a reform school for juvenile delinquents, and Boy (1969).[38] In the 1950s, important children's films from Asia include the motion picture Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne by Satyajit Ray (1969).[13] South India gave us the children's film Daisy (1988), depicting children in a boarding school and their experience of separation and longing. Other children's films from this region also include Abhayam (1991), which is also known by the alternative title, Shelter, by Sivan. It was awarded the Silver Elephant and Special International Jury & CIFEJ Jury Awards at the 7th International Children's Film Festival.[48] India also has a neo-realist children's film about street children in Mumbai, Salaam Bombay (1988) by Mira Nair. It depicts the cruel way in which adults treat children in India by showing the hard life of street children in Mumbai (also called as Bombay).[49] Important children's films from India also include the Bollywood films Masoom (1983) and Mr. India (1987); both directed by Shekhar Kapoor. Other important children's films include the reproduction of the German Fairy tales of the Grimm brothers by the Israeli film companies Golan Globus and Cannon Films in their series called Cannon Movie Tales, which includes: The Frog Prince (1986), starring Aileen Quinn, Helen Hunt, and John Paragon; Beauty and the Beast (1987), starring John Savage; and Puss in Boots (1988), starring Christopher Walken. From Japan, Miyazaki's Spirited Away was voted as the number one film that must be seen by 14 years of age. That list also included the Maori motion picture Whale Rider (2002). Another important children's film is Son of Mary (1998), directed by Hamid Jebeli and set in Azerbaijan. It deals with the relationship between a Muslim boy and an Armenian priest.[49]

Other world regions

Important children's films from Africa include Tsotsi (2006).[50] Another collection of family films is the anthology of 20 Canadian and European motion picture productions titled Tales for All. This includes the Canadian children's film Bach and Broccoli (Bach et Bottine) (1986) and the Argentine film Summer of the Colt (1990), directed by André Mélancon.[51]

See also


  1. ^ Bazalgette 1995, p. 92.
  2. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 4–5.
  3. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 161.
  4. ^ a b c Grodal Torben (2009) Embodied Visions, Oxford University Press. P 27
  5. ^ Boyer, Pascal; Liénard, Pierre (2006). "Why ritualized behavior? Precaution Systems and action parsing in developmental, pathological and cultural rituals". The Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 29 (6): 1–56. CiteSeerX doi:10.1017/s0140525x06009332. ISSN 0140-525X. PMID 17918647.
  6. ^ Panksepp, Jaak (September 3, 1998). Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199884353.
  7. ^ a b Laurie, Timothy (2015). "Becoming-Animal Is A Trap For Humans". Deleuze and the Non-Human. eds. Hannah Stark and Jon Roffe.
  8. ^ Bazalgette 1995, p. 94.
  9. ^ a b Bazalgette 1995, p. 95.
  10. ^ Bazalgette 1995, p. 96.
  11. ^ a b Bazalgette 1995, pp. 92–108.
  12. ^ a b Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 66.
  13. ^ a b Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 55–122.
  14. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 77.
  15. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 87.
  16. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 88–89.
  17. ^ "All-Time Box Office Hits". AMC Filmsite. Archived from the original on November 21, 2015.
  18. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 89.
  19. ^ "The History of Film — The 1960s". AMC Filmsite. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
  20. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 92.
  21. ^ a b c Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 96.
  22. ^ a b Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 106.
  23. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 100.
  24. ^ a b c Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 101.
  25. ^ a b Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 163.
  26. ^ Wood, Robin (January 1986). Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780231057776.
  27. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 104.
  28. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 173.
  29. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 105.
  30. ^ a b c Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 104–105.
  31. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 119.
  32. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 102.
  33. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 110.
  34. ^ Matzer, Marla (April 16, 1997). "Direct-to-Video Family Films Are Hitting Home". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 4, 2011.
  35. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 72.
  36. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 117–118.
  37. ^ Goldstein, Ruth M.; Zornow, Edith (September 1, 1980). The screen image of youth: movies about children and adolescents. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810813168.
  38. ^ a b Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 94.
  39. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 94,116.
  40. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 95.
  41. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 98-99.
  42. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 115.
  43. ^ Guardian News: The Kid with a Bike (22 March 2012)
  44. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 92–93.
  45. ^ Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 190–191.
  46. ^ Giannetti Louis (1987) Understanding Movies. 4th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 332–339
  47. ^ a b c Wojcik-Andrews 2000, pp. 168–169,191.
  48. ^ "Abhayam (Main Phir Aaunga) (Shelter)". Children's Film Society, India.
  49. ^ a b Wojcik-Andrews 2000, p. 108.
  50. ^ Bradshaw, Peter (March 16, 2006). "Tsotsi". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
  51. ^ "Summer of the Colt". The New York Times. February 7, 2019.

External links


  • Bazalgette, Cary (1995). "Unshrinking the kids: Children's Cinema and the Family Film". In front of the children: screen entertainment and young audiences. British Film Institute. ISBN 9780851704524.
  • Brown, Noel (2012). The Hollywood Family Film: A History, from Shirley Temple to Harry Potter. Cinema and Society. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1780762708.
  • Brown, Noel (2017). The Children's Film: Genre, Nation and Narrative. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231182694.
  • Brown, Noel, and Babington, Bruce (eds.) (2015). Family Films in Global Cinema: The World Beyond Disney. Cinema and Society. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1784530082.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Wojcik-Andrews, Ian (2000). Children's films: history, ideology, pedagogy, theory. Garland reference library of the humanities ; Children's literature and culture. New York: Garland Pub. ISBN 978-0815330745.
Annu Kapoor

Annu Kapoor (born as Anil Kapoor on 20 February 1956) is an Indian film actor and television presenter best-remembered for hosting the vocal reality show Antakshari from 1993 to 2006 and his roles in Mr. India (1987 film), Vicky Donor (2012) and Jolly LLB 2 (2017). He received Filmfare award as well as National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor for Vicky Donor.

CBS Children's Film Festival

CBS Children's Film Festival (also known as CBS Children's Hour) was a television series of live action films from several countries that were made for children (several of them dubbed into English). Originally a sporadic series airing on Saturday mornings, Sunday afternoons, or weekday afternoons beginning in February 1967, it became a regularly scheduled program in 1971 on the CBS Saturday-morning lineup, running one hour with some films apparently edited down to fit the time slot. The program was hosted by 1950s television act Kukla, Fran and Ollie, a.k.a. puppeteer Burr Tillstrom and actress Fran Allison.

Kukla, Fran and Ollie were dropped from the series in 1977 and the program was renamed CBS Saturday Film Festival. In 1978 CBS canceled the show in favor of the youth-targeted magazine 30 Minutes which was modeled after its adult sister show 60 Minutes. CBS canceled 30 Minutes in 1982 and brought back Saturday Film Festival which ran for two seasons until CBS cancelled it for good in 1984.

Perhaps the most famous "episode" of the series was the 1960 British film Hand in Hand, the story of a deep friendship between two elementary school students, one a Roman Catholic boy and the other a Jewish girl.

In addition to many American and British films, the series also featured motion pictures from Russia, France, Bulgaria, Japan, Sweden, Italy, China, Australia, South Africa, and Czechoslovakia, as well as several other countries.

Other films that aired during the series run include the Academy Award-winning French film The Red Balloon' Skinny and Fatty from Japan; Digby, the Biggest Dog in the World from Great Britain; Tillie, the Unhappy Hippopotamus from Czechoslovakia; and Mi-Mi, the Lazy Kitten from China.

Actor Ray Bolger, a star of The Wizard of Oz, served as narrator for some of the episodes during the show's 1980s run.

Chasing 3000

Chasing 3000 is a 2010 American independent film chronicling the cross-country travel of two brothers to see the 3,000th base hit of Major League Baseball legend Roberto Clemente. It stars Trevor Morgan, Rory Culkin, Ray Liotta, and Lauren Holly.

Chicago International Children's Film Festival

In 1983, Facets Multi-Media founded the Chicago International Children's Film Festival (CICFF), the first competitive festival of films for children in the U.S. The impetus for the Festival came from a need to introduce new, culturally diverse films for children to American children's audiences, and to recognize excellence in children's filmmaking. In addition, the Festival sought to empower children by involving them directly in the jurying process. From its inception, the Festival has had independent juries of children and adult media professionals awarding prizes in multiple categories.

The Chicago International Children's Film Festival is the largest annual festival of films for children (ages 2–16) in the world, programming 250 films and videos from 40 countries. With 25,000 children, adults and educators and over 100 filmmakers, programmers and celebrities each year, the Festival is one of the only Academy Award-qualifying children's film festivals. The Festival is held every October at various theatrical venues around Chicago, Illinois.

Children's Film Foundation

The Children's Film Foundation (CFF) was a non-profit-making organisation which made films for children in the United Kingdom, typically running for about 55 minutes.

Children's Film Society

Children's Film Society India (CFSI) is a nodal organisation of Government of India that produces children's films and various TV programs in various Indian languages. Established in 1955, CFSI functions comes under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India and is headquartered in Mumbai.

Essel Vision Productions

Essel Vision Productions is an Indian company which produces Indian soap operas , reality TV, comedy, game shows, entertainment and factual programming in several Indian languages.

Essel Vision is promoted by Subhash Chandra and is a private company. Its most successful works till date include Sa Re Ga Ma Pa and Dance India Dance.

Government of West Bengal

The Government of West Bengal also known as the State Government of West Bengal, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of West Bengal and its 23 districts. It consists of an executive, led by the Governor of West Bengal, a judiciary and a legislative.

Like other states in India, the head of state of West Bengal is the Governor, appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Central government. His or her post is largely ceremonial. The Chief Minister is the head of government and is vested with most of the executive powers. Kolkata is the capital of West Bengal, and houses the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly). The secretariat is located in Howrah, in the Nabanna building. The Calcutta High Court is located in Kolkata, which has jurisdiction over the whole of West Bengal and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

The present Legislative Assembly of West Bengal is unicameral, consisting of 295 Member of the Legislative Assembly (M.L.A) including one nominated from the Anglo-Indian community. Its term is 5 years, unless sooner dissolved.


Gunasekar (Telugu: గుణశేఖర్; born Gunasekar Karri; 2 June 1964) is an Indian film director and screenwriter known for his works exclusively in Telugu cinema. Gunasekhar directed the Children's classic Ramayanam (1997), which won the National Film Award for Best Children's Film, including several state Nandi Awards for that year, and was screened at the International Children’s Film Festival of India.The 2003 action film, Okkadu, which won eight state Nandi Awards, and four Filmfare Awards South including the Filmfare Award for Best Director – Telugu, the blockbuster film became the highest grossing Telugu film for that year, and was remade into various Indian languages. His latest venture is the historical film, Rudhramadevi which was released in October 2015 for wide positive reviews and became one of the biggest hits of the year.

List of Croatian films

A list of films produced in Croatia. For an A-Z list of Croatian films see Category:Croatian films.

List of North Korean films

This is a list of North Korean films and film series from September 1948 to present. Films, and film parts or halves with names, that are part of film series or multi-part films are not included separately to keep the list shorter and more readable. For South Korean films from September 1948 see list of South Korean films. Earlier Korean films made during Japanese rule are in the list of Korean films of 1919–1948. For an alphabetical list of Korean language films, see list of Korean language films.

Nagesh Kukunoor

Nagesh Kukunoor (born 30 March 1967) is an Indian film director, producer, screenwriter and actor known for his works predominantly in Bollywood. He is known for his works in parallel cinema, such as Hyderabad Blues (1998), Rockford (1999), Iqbal (2005), Dor (2006), Aashayein (2010), Lakshmi (2014), and Dhanak (2016). Kukunoor has received seven International Awards, and two National Film Awards for his works.In 2003, he directed 3 Deewarein, which was showcased among the Indian panorama section, at the 2003 International Film Festival of India. The film was also premiered at the Kolkata Film Festival. After having been screened at the Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles, where it was well received, the film was screened at the Commonwealth Festival at Manchester, it was nominated as one of the top five films, at the gala presentation. Nagesh Kukunoor has also received the Filmfare Award for Best Story.In 2006, he garnered the National Film Award for Best Film on Other Social Issues, for directing Iqbal. In 2014, he received the Mercedes Benz Audience Award, for Best Narrative at the Palm Springs International Film Festival for Lakshmi. In 2015 he directed the road movie, Dhanak, which won the Crystal Bear Grand Prix for Best Children's Film, and Special Mention for the Best Feature Film by The Children's Jury for Generation Kplus at the 65th Berlin International Film Festival. The film has also garnered the Best Film Award in the main category-Children's Feature Film Competition-Cinema in Sneakers (film festival), and the Best Film Award - at the Montreal International Children's Film Festival (FIFEM). The film has garnered the National Film Award for Best Children's Film for 2016.

National Film Award for Best Children's Film

The National Film Award for Best Children's Film is one of the National Film Awards presented annually by the Directorate of Film Festivals, the organisation set up by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India. It is one of several awards presented for feature films and awarded with Golden Lotus (Swarna Kamal).

The award was instituted in 1954, at 1st National Film Awards and awarded annually for children's films produced in the year across the country, in all Indian languages.

Nitesh Tiwari

Nitesh Tiwari is an Indian film director, screenwriter, and lyricist known for his works in Bollywood. He made his directorial debut by co-directing Chillar Party (2011) which won the National Film Award for Best Children's Film for that year. He then directed the supernatural political drama Bhoothnath Returns (2014) which became a box office hit.In 2016, he scripted, and directed Dangal which was screened at the Beijing International Film Festival in April 2017 and second BRICS festival in June 2017. The film is the highest-grossing Indian films and the fifth highest grossing non-English film, having collected over ₹2,000 crore (US$290 million) of which more than ₹1,200 crore was earned in China, where it has emerged as one of the top 20 highest-grossers of all time. Tiwari has garnered the Filmfare Best Director Award at the 62nd Filmfare Awards, and the Telstra People's Choice Award at the 2017 Indian Film Festival of Melbourne. He won the Filmfare award for best director in 2017 for directing Dangal.

Ramayanam (1996 film)

Ramayanam is a 1996 mythological, Telugu film directed by Gunasekhar and produced by M. S. Reddy. The film starred N. T. Rama Rao Jr. as Lord Rama. It received the National Film Award for Best Children's Film.

Robert Award for Best Children's Film

The Robert Award for Best Children's Film (Danish: Robert Prisen for årets børne- og ungdomsfilm) is one of the merit awards presented by the Danish Film Academy at the annual Robert Awards ceremony. The award has been handed out since 2002.

The Chronicles of Narnia (film series)

The Chronicles of Narnia series of films is based on The Chronicles of Narnia, a series of novels by C. S. Lewis. From the seven books, the first three were adapted —The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (2005), Prince Caspian (2008) and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (2010)—which grossed over $1.5 billion worldwide among them.

The series revolves around the adventures of children in the world of Narnia, guided by Aslan, a wise and powerful lion that can speak and is the true king of Narnia. The children heavily featured in the films are the Pevensie siblings, and a prominent antagonist is the White Witch (also known as Jadis).

The first two films were directed by Andrew Adamson and the third film was directed by Michael Apted. A fourth film was to be directed by Joe Johnston, but it was announced in 2018 that new adaptations of the series would be made for Netflix.

Vikas Bahl

Vikas Bahl (born 1971) is Indian film producer, screenwriter, and director, known for his work predominantly in Hindi cinema. He produces films under Phantom Films, and was the former head of UTV Spot Boy. He has won three National Film Awards and one Filmfare Award.He is best known for his 2014 movie Queen, which won him the Filmfare Award for Best Director, alongside many more accolades.In October 2018, in an interview with Huffington Post India, a former employee of Phantom Films accused Bahl of sexually harassing her on the sets of movie Queen. Later, the film's lead actress Kangana Ranaut spoke out in support of the former Phantom employee, and corroborated her version of Bahl's sexual harassment. Following this, Nayani Dixit, Ranaut's co-star in the movie, also accused him of sexual misconduct.

Phantom Films subsequently disbanded, and founders Anurag Kashyap and Vikramaditya Motwane made formal statements against Bahl and his sexual misdemeanors. In turn, Bahl sent them legal notices, citing defamation of character.

Vishal Bhardwaj

Vishal Bhardwaj (born 4 August 1965) is an Indian film director, screenwriter, producer, music composer and playback singer. He is known for his work in Hindi cinema, and is the recipient of seven National Film Awards in four categories.

Bhardwaj made his debut as a music composer with the children's film Abhay (The Fearless) (1995), and received wider recognition with his compositions in Gulzar's Maachis (1996). He received the Filmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent for the latter. He went on to compose music for the films Satya (1998) and Godmother (1999). For the latter, he garnered the National Film Award for Best Music Direction. Bhardwaj made his directorial debut with the children's film Makdee (2002), for which he also composed the music. He garnered critical acclaim and several accolades for writing and directing the Indian adaptations of three tragedies by William Shakespeare: Maqbool (2003) from Macbeth, Omkara (2006) from Othello, and Haider (2014) from Hamlet. He has also directed the caper thriller Kaminey, the black comedy 7 Khoon Maaf (2011), and the satire Matru Ki Bijlee Ka Mandola (2013).

In addition, Bhardwaj produces films under his banner VB Pictures. He has co-written and produced the films Ishqiya (2010), its sequel Dedh Ishqiya (2014), and the crime drama Talvar (2015), among others. He has composed the musical score for each of his directorial and production ventures, and frequently collaborates with the lyricist Gulzar. He is married to playback singer Rekha Bhardwaj.

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