Childhood's End

Childhood's End is a 1953 science fiction novel by the British author Arthur C. Clarke. The story follows the peaceful alien invasion[1] of Earth by the mysterious Overlords, whose arrival begins decades of apparent utopia under indirect alien rule, at the cost of human identity and culture.

Clarke's idea for the book began with his short story "Guardian Angel" (published in New Worlds #8, winter 1950), which he expanded into a novel in 1952, incorporating it as the first part of the book, "Earth and the Overlords". Completed and published in 1953, Childhood's End sold out its first printing, received good reviews and became Clarke's first successful novel. The book is often regarded by both readers and critics as Clarke's best novel[2] and is described as "a classic of alien literature".[3] Along with The Songs of Distant Earth (1986), Clarke considered Childhood's End to be one of his favourites of his own novels.[4] The novel was nominated for the Retro Hugo Award for Best Novel in 2004.

Several attempts to adapt the novel into a film or miniseries have been made with varying levels of success. Director Stanley Kubrick expressed interest in the 1960s, but collaborated with Clarke on 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) instead. The novel's theme of transcendent evolution also appears in Clarke's Space Odyssey series. In 1997, the BBC produced a two-hour radio dramatization of Childhood's End that was adapted by Tony Mulholland. The Syfy Channel produced a three-part, four-hour television mini-series of Childhood's End, which was broadcast on December 14–16, 2015.

Childhood's End
ChildhoodsEnd(1stEd)
Cover of first edition hardcover
AuthorArthur C. Clarke
Cover artistRichard M. Powers
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreScience fiction
PublisherBallantine Books
Publication date
1953
Media typePrint (hardcover and paperback)
Pages214
ISBN0-345-34795-1
OCLC36566890

Plot summary

The novel is divided into three parts, following a third-person omniscient narrative with no main character.[5]

Earth and the Overlords

In the late 20th century, the United States and the Soviet Union are competing to launch the first spacecraft into orbit, for military purposes. When vast alien spaceships suddenly position themselves above Earth's principal cities, the space race ceases. After one week, the aliens announce they are assuming supervision of international affairs, to prevent humanity's extinction. They become known as the Overlords. In general, they let humans go on conducting their affairs in their own way. They overtly interfere only twice: in South Africa, where some time before their arrival Apartheid has collapsed and been replaced with savage persecution of the white minority; and in Spain, where they put an end to bull fighting. Some humans are suspicious of the Overlords' benign intent, as they never visibly appear. The Overlord Karellen, the "Supervisor for Earth," who speaks directly only to Rikki Stormgren, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, tells Stormgren that the Overlords will reveal themselves in 50 years, when humanity will have become used to their presence. Stormgren smuggles a device onto Karellen's ship in an attempt to see Karellen's true form. He partially succeeds, is shocked by what he sees, and chooses to keep silent.

The Golden Age

Humankind enters a golden age of prosperity at the expense of creativity. Five decades after their arrival, the Overlords reveal their appearance, resembling the traditional Christian folk images of demons: large bipeds with cloven hooves, leathery wings, horns, and tails. The Overlords are interested in psychic research, which humans suppose is part of their anthropological study. Rupert Boyce, a prolific book collector on the subject, allows one Overlord, Rashaverak, to study these books at his home. To impress his friends with Rashaverak's presence, Boyce holds a party, during which he makes use of a Ouija board. Jan Rodricks, an astrophysicist and Rupert's brother-in-law, asks the identity of the Overlords' home star. George Greggson's future wife Jean faints as the Ouija board reveals a number which has no meaning to most of the guests. Then Jan recognizes it as a star-catalog number and learns that it is consistent with the direction in which Overlord supply ships appear and disappear. With the help of an oceanographer friend, Jan stows away on an Overlord supply ship and travels 40 light years to their home planet. Due to the time dilation of special relativity at near-light-speeds, the elapsed time on the ship is only a few weeks, and he has arranged to endure it in drug-induced hibernation.

The Last Generation

Although humanity and the Overlords have peaceful relations, some believe human innovation is being suppressed and that culture is becoming stagnant. One of these groups establishes New Athens, an island colony in the middle of the Pacific Ocean devoted to the creative arts, which George and Jean Greggson join. The Overlords conceal a special interest in the Greggsons' children, Jeffrey and Jennifer Anne, and intervene to save Jeffrey's life when a tsunami strikes the island. The Overlords have been watching them since the incident with the Ouija board, which revealed the seed of the coming transformation hidden within Jean.

Well over a century after the Overlords' arrival, human children, beginning with the Greggsons', begin to display clairvoyance and telekinetic powers. Karellen reveals the Overlords' purpose; they serve the Overmind, a vast cosmic intelligence, born of amalgamated ancient civilizations and freed from the limitations of material existence. The Overlords themselves are unable to join the Overmind, but serve it as a bridge species, fostering other races' eventual union with it.

As Karellen explains, the time of humanity as a race composed of single individuals with a concrete identity is coming to an end. The children's minds reach into each other and merge into a single vast group consciousness. If the Pacific were to be dried up, the islands dotting it would lose their identity as islands and become part of a new continent; in the same way, the children cease to be the individuals which their parents knew and become something else, completely alien to the "old type of human".

For the transformed children's safety — and also because it is painful for their parents to see what they had become — they are segregated on a continent of their own. No more human children are born and many parents die or commit suicide. The members of New Athens destroy themselves with an atomic bomb.

Jan Rodricks emerges from hibernation on the Overlord supply ship and arrives on their planet. The Overlords permit him a glimpse of how the Overmind communicates with them. When Jan returns to Earth (approximately 80 years after his departure by Earth time) he finds an unexpectedly altered planet. Humanity has effectively become extinct and he is now the last man alive. Hundreds of millions of children – no longer fitting what Rodricks defines as "human" – remain on the quarantined continent, having become a single intelligence readying themselves to join the Overmind.

Some Overlords remain on Earth to study the children from a safe distance. When the evolved children mentally alter the Moon's rotation and make other planetary manipulations, it becomes too dangerous to remain. The departing Overlords offer to take Rodricks with them, but he chooses to stay to witness Earth's end and transmit a report of what he sees.

Before they depart, Rodricks asks Rashaverak what encounter the Overlords had with humanity in the past, according to an assumption that the fear that humans had of their "demonic" form was due to a traumatic encounter with them in the distant past; but Rashaverak explains that the primal fear experienced by humans was not due to a racial memory, but a racial premonition of the Overlords' role in their metamorphosis.

The Overlords are eager to escape from their own evolutionary dead end by studying the Overmind, so Rodricks's information is potentially of great value to them. By radio, Rodricks describes a vast burning column ascending from the planet. As the column disappears, Rodricks experiences a profound sense of emptiness when the children have gone. Then material objects and the Earth itself begin to dissolve into transparency. Rodricks reports no fear, but a powerful sense of fulfillment. The Earth evaporates in a flash of light. Karellen looks back at the receding Solar System and gives a final salute to the human species.

Publication history

Original short story

Barrage balloons over London during World War II
Barrage balloons over London during World War II. Clarke observed balloons like these floating over the city in 1941. He recalls that his earliest idea for the story may have originated with this scene, with the giant balloons becoming alien ships in the novel.[6]

The novel first took shape in July 1946, when Clarke wrote "Guardian Angel", a short story that would eventually become Part I of Childhood's End. Clarke's portrayal of the Overlords as devils was influenced by John W. Campbell's depiction of the devilish Teff-Hellani species in The Mightiest Machine,[2] first serialized in Astounding Stories in 1934. After finishing "Guardian Angel", Clarke enrolled at King's College London and served as the chairman of the British Interplanetary Society from 1946 to 1947, and later from 1951 to 1953. He earned a first-class degree in mathematics and physics from King's in 1948, after which he worked as an assistant editor for Science Abstracts. "Guardian Angel" was submitted for publication but was rejected by several editors, including Campbell. At the request of Clarke's agent and unbeknown to Clarke, the story was edited by James Blish, who rewrote the ending. Blish's version of the story was accepted for publication in April 1950 by Famous Fantastic Mysteries magazine.[7] Clarke's original version of "Guardian Angel" was later published in the Winter 1950 issue of New Worlds magazine.[5] The latter version published in New Worlds more closely resembles Part I of the novel, "Earth and the Overlords".

Most of the short story is word by word the same as the first part as the novel, but there are also a number of differences. Some are trivial revisions with no obvious narrative motivation (for instance, in the short story, Karellen first spoke on radio to the world on the eighth day after the arrival of the alien ships, in the novel, on the sixth day). Other differences are more significant, and some changes were necessitated by the full-length novel Clarke would write later, the author taking the story in a different direction from the outcome he had seemingly envisioned in the short story.

The plot of the short story is mainly built around the one mystery of what the Overlords look like. As in the later novel, they promise to show themselves after fifty years, but the story ends when there are still twenty years to go. Rikki Stormgren, former UN General Secretary and the one human who had been physically close to Karellen, reflects on the one glimpse he got of him; he saw a black "barbed tail" disappear behind a closing door. It is thus strongly hinted that the Overlords look like the pop-cultural version of devils. The corresponding section in the novel only has Stormgren reflecting on what he saw and agreeing that the world was not ready to meet the Overlords face to face. The reader does not learn what it was Stormgren glimpsed, since this revelation is now withheld until the next chapter, describing how the Overlords finally showed themselves after fifty years.

In the short story, Karellen has indicated to Stormgren that he came from a world called Skyrondel, where he was "professor of astropolitics" and supposedly accepted the assignment to supervise earth only after putting up a great fight (though Stormgren suspects that Karellen has come to greatly enjoy his position). In the novel, Karellen never names his homeworld. In the book version, Stormgren believes the Supervisor's original field of work has something to do with mathematics, and that he only rules earth with a small portion of his vast mind. However, nothing is any longer said about Karellen having actively resisted the assignment, nor that he was a "professor" on his own planet, although he implies that he will be glad to return to his mathematical work once his duty on the world of humanity is done.

In the short story, Karellen is dictating the establishing of a European federation, though it is foreseen that other states will eventually join it. In the novel, he is forming a world federation very early in his rule, and it is said that a European federation was already in existence when the Overlords arrived (ca. 1980, per the chronology of the 1953 novel). Later in the short story and novel alike, Karellen however speaks of the "foundation of the World State" as a "first step", making the short story potentially self-contradictory on this point.

In the short story, the mission of the Overlords is to generally civilize earth and prepare humans to play a role in the continuing exploration of the universe. Karellen's species brings civilization to all worlds "that can understand it", seemingly for idealistic reasons. Karellen at one point broadly outlines the future he is guiding humankind towards. He foresees that "almost a generation from now, I shall reach the nadir of my popularity, for plans must be put into operation which cannot be fully explained at the time. Attempts may even be made to destroy me." These lines are not carried over into the full-length novel, and nothing is said about Karellen effecting any particularly controversial plans in the period indicated, though this period is covered by the longer narrative Clarke would produce later.

The short-story version of Karellen in any case foresees that these problems will be overcome and forgotten, and after the year the Overlords show themselves, there will be "another pause, only a short one this time for the world will be growing impatient. Men will wish to go out to the stars, and to see the other worlds of the Universe and to join us in our work. For it is only beginning; not a thousandth of the suns in the Galaxy have ever been reached by the races which we know. One day, Rikki, your descendants in their own ships will be bringing civilization to the worlds that are ripe to receive it – just as we are doing now."

The novel's version of Karellen utters no such sentiments. Quite on the contrary, later in the story he declares that "the stars are not for Man" and that humans will never achieve interstellar flight. Instead of Karellen anticipating humans getting out in the universe and helping the Overlords with their work, Rikki Stormberg in the novel asks him whether this will happen, and Karellen very evasively remarks that one might put it that way. At the end of the novel, it becomes clear that Karellen is here foreseeing how humans will merge with the cosmic Overmind, at which point humanity will become part of the power directing the Overlords. The short story foresees a more mundanely comprehensible fate for the human race; after sufficient mentoring by the Overlords they will join in the effort to civilize all sentient races in the Galaxy.

The overall implication of the short story, confirmed by Stormgren's musings in the final lines, is that the Overlords had been to earth before and attempted their civilizing experiment already in human pre-history. However, this had somehow ended in spectacular failure, so much so that the physical form of the Overlords entered human legends as icons of demonic evil. This is set up with Karellen admitting to Stormgren that "we have had our failures" and making obscure remarks about the long memory of humankind, yet also saying that the Overlords "wait – and try again" whenever a failure has occurred. Remarkably, all of these narrative elements are maintained in the full-length novel, though the novel ends up denying the conclusion they were pointing to. The human repulsion for the "demonic" shape of the Overlords is re-explained as a racial premonition: Pre-cognitively, the human race associated these beings with the end of humankind, and so came to perceive them as sinister (though the "end" is really human transcendence and merger with the Overmind).

Development into full-length novel

After Clarke's nonfiction science book The Exploration of Space (1951) was successfully received, he began to focus on his writing career. In February 1952, Clarke started working on the novelization of "Guardian Angel"; he completed a first draft of the novel Childhood's End in December, and a final revision in January 1953.[8] Clarke travelled to New York in April 1953 with the novel and several of his other works. Literary agent Bernard Shir-Cliff convinced Ballantine Books to buy everything Clarke had, including Childhood's End, "Encounter in the Dawn" (1953), (which Ballantine retitled Expedition to Earth), and Prelude to Space (1951). However, Clarke had composed two different endings for the novel, and the last chapter of Childhood's End was still not finished.[9] Clarke proceeded to Tampa Bay, Florida, to go scuba diving with George Grisinger, and on his way there visited his friend Frederick C. Durant - President of the International Astronautical Federation from 1953 to 1956 - and his family in the Washington Metropolitan Area, whilst he continued working on the last chapter. He next traveled to Atlanta, Georgia, where he visited Ian Macauley, a friend who was active in the civil rights movement. Clarke finished the final chapter in Atlanta while Clarke and Macauley discussed racial issues; these conversations may have influenced the development of the last chapter, particularly Clarke's choice to make the character of Jan Rodricks – the last surviving member of the human species – a black man.[10]

Clarke arrived in Florida at the end of April. The short story, "The Man Who Ploughed the Sea", included in the Tales from the White Hart (1957) collection, was influenced by his time in Florida. While in Key Largo in late May, Clarke met Marilyn Mayfield, and after a romance lasting less than three weeks, they travelled to Manhattan and married at New York City Hall. The couple spent their honeymoon in the Pocono Mountains in Pennsylvania, where Clarke proofread Childhood's End. In July, Clarke returned to England with Mayfield, but it quickly became clear that the marriage would not last as Clarke spent most of his time reading and writing, and talking about his work. Further, Clarke wanted to be a father, and Marilyn, who had a son from a previous marriage, informed Clarke after their marriage that she could no longer have children. When Childhood's End was published the following month, it appeared with a dedication: "To Marilyn, For letting me read the proofs on our honeymoon." The couple separated after a few months together, but remained married for the next decade.[11]

Publication

Ballantine wanted to publish Childhood's End before Expedition to Earth and Prelude to Space, but Clarke wanted to wait. He felt that it was a difficult book to release. He had written two different endings for the novel and was unsure of which to use. According to biographer Neil McAleer, Clarke's uncertainty may have been because of its thematic focus on the paranormal and transcendence with the alien Overmind. While the theme was used effectively by Clarke in the novel, McAleer wrote that "it was not science fiction based on science, which he came to advocate and represent". When he wrote Childhood's End, Clarke was interested in the paranormal, and did not become a sceptic until much later in his life.[12] Ballantine convinced Clarke to let them publish Childhood's End first, and it was published in August 1953, with a cover designed by American science fiction illustrator Richard M. Powers.[13] Childhood's End first appeared in paperback and hardcover editions, with the paperback as the primary edition, an unusual approach for the 1950s. For the first time in his career, Clarke became known as a novelist.[12]

Decades later, Clarke was preparing a new edition of Childhood's End after the story had become dated. The initial chapter of the 1953 novel correctly foresees a race between the US and Soviet Union to first land men on the Moon, but sets it later than it would actually happen (post-1975; the exact year is not given in the text, but 1945 is said to be more than thirty years ago). After the book was first published, the Apollo missions landed humans on the Moon in 1969, and in 1989 US President George H. W. Bush announced the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), calling for astronauts to eventually explore Mars. In 1990, Clarke added a new foreword and revised the first chapter, now suggesting an early 21st century setting and changing the venue for the space race from the Moon to Mars.[8] Editions since have appeared with the original opening or have included both versions. "Guardian Angel" has also appeared in two short story collections: The Sentinel (1983), and The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke (2001).

On October 28, 2008, Audible.com released a 7-hour 47 minute unabridged audiobook version of Childhood's End, narrated by Eric Michael Summerer, under its Audible Frontiers imprint. An AudioFile review commended Summerer's narration as "smoothly presented and fully credible".[14] An audio introduction and commentary is provided by Canadian science fiction author Robert J. Sawyer.[15]

Reception

The novel was well received by most readers and critics.[16] Two months after publication, all 210,000 copies of the first printing had been sold.[17] The New York Times published two positive reviews of the book: Basil Davenport compared Clarke to Olaf Stapledon, C. S. Lewis, and H. G. Wells, a "very small group of writers who have used science fiction as the vehicle of philosophic ideas."[18] William DuBois called the book "a first rate tour de force that is well worth the attention of every thoughtful citizen in this age of anxiety."[19] Don Guzman of the Los Angeles Times admired the novel for its suspense, wisdom, and beauty. He compared Clarke's role as a writer to that of an artist, "a master of sonorous language, a painter of pictures in futuristic colors, a Chesley Bonestell with words".[20] Galaxy reviewer Groff Conklin called the novel "a formidably impressive job ... a continuous kaleidoscope of the unexpected."[21]

Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas were more skeptical, and faulted the novel's "curious imbalance between its large-scale history and a number of episodic small-scale stories." While praising Clarke's work as "Stapledonian [for] its historic concepts and also for the quality of its prose and thinking," they concluded that Childhood's End was "an awkward and imperfect book."[22] P. Schuyler Miller said the novel was "all imagination and poetry," but concluded it was "not up to some of Clarke's other writing" due to weakness in its "episodic structure."[23]

Brian W. Aldiss and David Wingrove wrote that Childhood's End rested on "a rather banal philosophical idea," but that Clarke "expressed [it] in simple but aspiring language that vaguely recalls the Psalms [and] combined [it] with a dramatized sense of loss [for] undeniable effect."[24]

In 2004 Childhood's End was nominated for a retroactive Hugo Award for Best Novel for 1954.[25]

Adaptations

In the 1960s, director Stanley Kubrick was interested in making a film adaptation of the novel, but blacklisted director Abraham Polonsky had already optioned it. Instead, Kubrick collaborated with Clarke on adapting the short story "The Sentinel" into what eventually became 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968).[26] Months before his performance at Woodstock in 1969, folk singer and guitarist Richie Havens told Ebony magazine about his appreciation of Clarke's story and expressed his interest in working on a future film adaptation of Childhood's End.[27] Screenplays by Polonsky and Howard Koch were never made into films.[28]

David Elgood first proposed a radio adaptation of the novel in 1974, but nothing came of it in that decade.

Philip DeGuere, whose credits include the TV series Alias Smith and Jones, developed a script in the late 1970s for Universal, who planned to film it initially as a six-hour mini-series for CBS Television, and later as a two- or three-hour telemovie for ABC. However, Universal discovered that its contracts with Arthur C. Clarke - some of which dated back to 1957 - were out of date. These contractual difficulties were resolved in 1979 and DeGuere worked with legendary comic book artist Neal Adams on preproduction drawings and other material. The project had Clarke's approval. However Universal decided that the budget required would be nearly $40 million and they were only prepared to spend $10 million, so the movie was not made.[29]

Director Brian Lighthill revisited the radio adaptation proposal and obtained the rights in 1995. After Lighthill received a go-ahead from BBC Radio in 1996, he commissioned a script from Tony Mulholland, resulting in a new, two-part adaptation. The BBC produced the two-hour radio dramatization of the novel, and broadcast it on BBC Radio 4 in November 1997. The recording was released on cassette by BBC Audiobooks in 1998 and on CD in 2007.[30]

As of 2002, film rights to the novel were held by Universal Pictures, with director Kimberly Peirce attached to a project.[31]

On April 10, 2013, the Syfy Channel announced its plans to develop a Childhood's End TV miniseries.[32] The three-episode, four-hour production premiered December 14, 2015. Charles Dance portrays the Supervisor Karellen.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Booker & Thomas 2009, pp. 31–32.
  2. ^ a b McAleer 1992, p. 88.
  3. ^ Dick 2001, pp. 127–129.
  4. ^ Cordeiro 2008, pp. 47–50.
  5. ^ a b Samuelson 1973.
  6. ^ Childhood's End, pp. vii–viii.
  7. ^ Clarke 2000, p. 203. See also: ACC Photographic reproduction of the first pages of the original tale, Guardian Angel, from "FANTASTIC Mysteries", 1950 April – Vol. 11 #4 – pages 98–112,127–129.
  8. ^ a b Childhood's End, p. v.
  9. ^ McAleer 1992, p. 89-91.
  10. ^ McAleer 1992, pp. 91–92.
  11. ^ McAleer 1992, pp. 92–100.
  12. ^ a b McAlleer 1992, pp. 90–91.
  13. ^ "Publication Listing". Internet Speculative Fiction Database. 2009-03-20.
  14. ^ McCarty 2009.
  15. ^ "Childhood's End". Audible.com.
  16. ^ Howes 1977; McAleer 1992, pp. 98–99.
  17. ^ McAleer 1992, p. 99.
  18. ^ Davenport 1953, p. BR19.
  19. ^ Du Bois 1953.
  20. ^ Guzman 1953, p. D5.
  21. ^ "Galaxy's 5 Star Shelf", Galaxy Science Fiction, January 1954, p.129
  22. ^ "Recommended Reading," F&SF, October 1953, p. 72.
  23. ^ "The Reference Library," Astounding Science Fiction, February 1954, pp.151
  24. ^ Brian W. Aldiss and David Wingrove, Trillion Year Spree, Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1986 p.308
  25. ^ 1954 Retro-Hugo Awards Archived 2011-05-07 at WebCite at thehugoawards.org (retrieved 24 April 2016).
  26. ^ Baxter 1997, pp. 199–230. See also: Buhle & Wagner 2002.
  27. ^ Bogle 1969, pp. 107-108.
  28. ^ For a brief discussion as to why novels like Childhood's End have not been adapted into films, and the challenges involved in production, see Beale, Lewis (2001-07-08). "A Genre of the Intellect With Little Use for Ideas". The New York Times. p. 12. ISSN 0362-4331.
  29. ^ "A Difficult Childhood: The Unmanifested Destiny of Arthur C. Clarke's "Childhood's End'" in David Hughes, The Greatest Sci-Fi Movies Never Made. Chicago IL: A Capella Books, 2001, pp. 18-23.
  30. ^ Pixley 2007.
  31. ^ Elder & Hart 2008, p. 9.
  32. ^ Syfy to Adapt Childhood's End, Ringworld, The Lotus Caves and More!

References

  • Barlowe, Wayne Douglas (1987). Barlowe's Guide to Extraterrestrials. Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89480-500-2.
  • Baxter, John (1997). "Kubrick Beyond the Infinite". Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. Basic Books. pp. 199–230. ISBN 0-7867-0485-3.
  • Bogle, Donald E. (May 1969). "Richie Havens". Ebony. 24 (7): 101–108.
  • Booker, M. Keith; Anne-Marie Thomas (2009). "The Alien Invasion Narrative". The Science Fiction Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1-4051-6205-8.
  • Clarke, Arthur C. (1990) [1953]. Childhood's End. Del Rey Books. ISBN 0-345-34795-1.
  • Clarke, Arthur C. (2000). "Guardian Angel". The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke. Tor Books. pp. 203–224. ISBN 0-312-87821-4.
  • Cordeiro, José Luis (July–August 2008). "Tribute to Sir Arthur C. Clarke". The Futurist. World Future Society. 42 (4). ISSN 0016-3317.
  • Davenport, Basil (1953-08-23). "The End, and the Beginning, of Man". The New York Times. p. BR19.
  • Dick, Steven J. (2001). "The Alien Comes of Age: Clarke to E.T. and Beyond". Life on Other Worlds: The 20th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79912-0.
  • Du Bois, William (1953-08-27). "Childhood's End". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
  • Elder, Robert K.; Maureen M. Hart (2008-03-28). "Director put soldiers 1st in her film". Chicago Tribune. p. 9.
  • Guzman, Don (1953-08-30). "'Childhood's End' Brings Beauty to Science Fiction". Los Angeles Times. p. D5.
  • Howes, Alan B. (1977). "Expectation and Surprise in Childhood's End". In Martin Harry Greenberg, Joseph D. Olander. Arthur C. Clarke. Taplinger Publishing Company. pp. 149–171. ISBN 0-8008-0402-3.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  • Lewis, Dave (1994). The Complete Guide to the Music of Led Zeppelin. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-3528-9.
  • McAleer, Neil (1992). Arthur C. Clarke: The Authorized Biography. Chicago: Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-3720-2.
  • McCarty, Joyce E. (Feb 2009). "Childhood's End". AudioFile.
  • Pixley, Andrew (2007) [1997]. BBC Classic Radio Sci-Fi: Childhood's End. BBC Audiobooks. ISBN 978-1-4056-7786-8.
  • Samuelson, David N. (Spring 1973). "Childhood's End: A Median Stage of Adolescence?". Science Fiction Studies. DePauw University. 1, Part 1.

Further reading

  • Beatie, Bruce A. (Spring 1989). "Arthur C. Clarke and the Alien Encounter". Extrapolation. 30 (1): 53–69.
  • Buhle, Paul; Dave Wagner (2002). A Very Dangerous Citizen: Abraham Lincoln Polonsky and the Hollywood Left. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23672-6.
  • Candelaria, Matthew (Jan 2002). "The Overlord's Burden: The Source of Sorrow in Childhood's End". Ariel. University of Calgary. 33 (1): 37–58. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06.
  • Clarke, Bruce (2008). Posthuman Metamorphosis: Narrative and Systems. Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-2851-7.
  • Clark, Stephen R. L. (1995). "Childhood end". How to Live Forever: Science Fiction and Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 154–156. ISBN 0-415-12626-6.
  • Clareson, Thomas D. (1976). "The Cosmic Loneliness of Arthur C. Clarke". Voices for the Future: Essays on Major Science Fiction Writers. Popular Press. pp. 216–237. ISBN 0-87972-120-0.
  • Feenberg, Andrew (March 1977). "An End to History: Science Fiction in the Nuclear Age". Johns Hopkins Magazine: 12–22.
  • Gordon, Andrew (1980-09-01). "Close Encounters". Literature/Film Quarterly. Salisbury University. 8 (3): 156–164. ISSN 0090-4260.
  • Goswami, Amit (1985). The Cosmic Dancers: Exploring the Physics of Science Fiction. Mcgraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-023867-7.
  • Hillegas, Mark R. (1967). The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians. Oxford University Press. pp. 153–154 17. ISBN 0-8093-0676-X.
  • Hollow, John (1987) [1983]. Against the Night, the Stars: The Science Fiction of Arthur C. Clarke. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-103966-6.
  • Hughes, David (2008). "A Difficult Childhood". The Greatest Sci-fi Movies Never Made (2 ed.). Titan Books. pp. 18–23. ISBN 1-84576-755-1.
  • Hull, Elizabeth Anne (1997). "On His Shoulders: Shaw's Influence On Clarke's Childhood's End". In Milton T. Wolf. Shaw and Science Fiction. Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 107–132. ISBN 978-0-271-01681-8.
  • Huntington, John (Spring 1974). "The Unity of "Childhood's End"". Science Fiction Studies. DePauw University. 1 (3): 154–164.
  • James, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-511-07518-9.
  • Olander, Joseph D; Martin Harry Greenberg (1977). Arthur C. Clarke. P. Harris. ISBN 0-904505-41-3.
  • "Out of Space". The Economist. The Economist Group. 343 (8012): 85–86. 1997-04-12. ISSN 0013-0613.
  • Rabkin, Eric S. (1980). Arthur C. Clarke (2 ed.). Wildside Press. ISBN 0-916732-21-5.
  • Rickels, Laurence (2008). The Devil Notebooks. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-5052-7.
  • Schwam, Stephanie (2000). The Making of 2001, A Space Odyssey. Random House, Inc. ISBN 0-375-75528-4.
  • Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. 3. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32950-8.
  • Westfahl, Gary; George Edgar Slusser (1999). Nursery Realms. University of Georgia Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 0-8203-2144-3.

External links

A Possible Projection of the Future / Childhood's End

A Possible Projection of the Future / Childhood's End is American musician Al Kooper's fifth album, recorded for and released by Columbia Records in 1972.

Begun with a vague storyline that failed to survive beyond the two title tracks, the album was recorded in London, England at George Martin's AIR Studios with one outtake from New York City (You're A Woman). Six original tracks were surrounded by covers of Bob Dylan ("The Man in Me", which Kooper had originally produced), Smokey Robinson ("Swept For You Baby") and even Jimmy Cliff ("Please Tell Me Why").

The album cover showed Kooper as an eighty-year-old man, decrepit and clutching a Fender Jaguar guitar.

Childhood's End (Pink Floyd song)

"Childhood's End" is a song from Pink Floyd's 1972 album Obscured by Clouds. It was the last Pink Floyd song to be composed entirely by David Gilmour, as well as the last to feature lyrics written by him, until A Momentary Lapse of Reason in 1987. The song shares a title with 1953 science-fiction novel of the same name by Arthur C. Clarke. The 2016 remixed version of "Childhood's End" which appears in The Early Years 1965–1972 box set was released as the second single to promote the box set in October 2016.

Childhood's End (Stargate Atlantis)

"Childhood's End" is the 6th episode of the first season of the military science fiction television series Stargate Atlantis. The episode first aired in the United States on August 13, 2004 on the Sci Fi Channel and on Sky One in the United Kingdom on November 16, 2004. It was the first episode to be written by executive producer Martin Gero, and directed by David Winning. The episode portrays Major Sheppard and his team arriving on M7G-677, a planet where the inhabitants ritually sacrifice themselves when they reach the age of twenty-five. "Childhood's End" earned a weak Nielsen rating though the episode was generally well received by critics and fans alike.

Childhood's End (album)

Childhood's End (subtitled Lost & Found from the Age of Aquarius) is a compilation album of cover songs by Norwegian experimental collective Ulver. Produced by Ulver, the album was recorded live in Crystal Canyon Studios, Oslo, over two sessions, in autumn 2008 and summer 2011, and issued in May, 2012 on Jester Records under exclusive license to Kscope.

The album is a collection of covers of "60s psychedelic chestnuts,” a reinterpretation of mostly obscure 1960s psychedelia, intended by Ulver as a reflection on lost innocence.In a Kscope video interview, Kristoffer Rygg commented, “I grew up with parents who were still listening to music from the time, so it informed my childhood, and it has become an ever increasing geeky sort of fetish since then.“ Adding, “My feeling is that most people's knowledge sort of limits itself to The Doors. The Doors were cool, but there was so much else going on… in the underground, records that got lost and didn't get as much recognition as they deserved in my opinion. We wish to be ambassadors for things that we love and we sort of hope that we can open some gates with the record.”The album includes versions of songs by The Pretty Things, The Byrds, Bonniwell's Music Machine, We the People, Jefferson Airplane, Gandalf, The Electric Prunes, The 13th Floor Elevators, The Troggs, The Left Banke, The Beau Brummels, Common People, Music Emporium, Curt Boettcher, The Fleur de Lys, and The United States of America.

The cover features a photograph by Hoang Van Danh of Phan Thi Kim Phuc fleeing a napalm attack by the Republic of Vietnam Air Force in 1972.A music video for "Magic Hollow", directed by Justin Oakey, was released in April 2012.

Childhood's End (miniseries)

Childhood's End is an American television miniseries based on the novel of the same name, by Arthur C. Clarke, and developed by Matthew Graham. It premiered on Syfy on December 14, 2015.

Elixir (comics)

Elixir (Joshua "Josh" Foley) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is usually depicted as a student at the Xavier Institute.

Famous Fantastic Mysteries

Famous Fantastic Mysteries was an American science fiction and fantasy pulp magazine published from 1939 to 1953. The editor was Mary Gnaedinger. It was launched by the Munsey Company as a way to reprint the many science fiction and fantasy stories which had appeared over the preceding decades in Munsey magazines such as Argosy. From its first issue, dated September/October 1939, Famous Fantastic Mysteries was an immediate success. Less than a year later, a companion magazine, Fantastic Novels, was launched.

Frequently reprinted authors included George Allan England, A. Merritt, and Austin Hall; the artwork was also a major reason for the success of the magazine, with artists such as Virgil Finlay and Lawrence Stevens contributing some of their best work. In late 1942, Popular Publications acquired the title from Munsey, and Famous Fantastic Mysteries stopped reprinting short stories from the earlier magazines. It continued to reprint longer works, including titles by G. K. Chesterton, H. G. Wells, and H. Rider Haggard. Original short fiction also began to appear, including Arthur C. Clarke's "Guardian Angel", which would later form the first section of his novel Childhood's End. In 1951, the publishers experimented briefly with a large digest format, but returned quickly to the original pulp layout. The magazine ceased publication in 1953, almost at the end of the pulp era.

Fear of the Dark (Iron Maiden album)

Fear of the Dark is the ninth studio album released by English heavy metal band Iron Maiden. Released on 11 May 1992, it was their third studio release to top the UK albums chart and the last to feature Bruce Dickinson as the group's lead vocalist until his return in 1999.

It was also the first album to be produced by bassist and band founder Steve Harris, and the last to feature the work of producer Martin Birch (who retired after its release).

Impersonator (album)

Impersonator is the third studio album by Canadian pop duo Majical Cloudz, released on May 21, 2013 by Matador Records and Mythryl Records. It was their first album on Matador after signing with the label in February 2013. It was also the group's first album to feature producer Matthew Otto as a member, following the departure of Matthew E. Duffy after the release of II in 2011.The album was longlisted for the 2013 Polaris Music Prize.

List of New X-Men story arcs

This article is a list of story arcs for the Marvel Comics comic book series New X-Men.

Live at Roadburn (Ulver album)

Live At Roadburn (subtitled Eulogy For The Late Sixties) is a live album by Norwegian experimental collective Ulver. Produced by Ulver, the album was recorded at the Roadburn Festival, held at 013, Tilburg, in the Netherlands on April 12, 2012, and issued in April 2013 via Roadburn Records.

Rygg commented on the release, “This was our pre-release party for the commemorative album Childhood's End, which we had just sewn up when we received the invitation from Roadburn. A one-shot psychedelic blowout or perhaps some sort of karaoke for our vestigial veterans; felt quite invigorating after the doom and gloom of the last few years. We gathered the guys who were involved in the album sessions and rehearsed the songs a couple of days before travelling to Tilburg. Not in total control, but that’s the spirit. Haywire lycanthropy.”Commenting on Ulver’s performance at Roadburn Festival, Jamie Thomson, writing for The Quietus, said, “I was placing a lot of faith in Ulver but ultimately I was to be disappointed. They were playing set of ‘60s psyche covers – and while the band themselves had a pretty good stab at recreating the sounds of the time, the alchemical tools to make it something special seemed just out of frontman Kristoffer Rygg’s reach. Ulver's restless reinvention is rarely less than compelling, so it was unusual to see their ambitions outstrip their ability.”

Mercury (Marvel Comics)

Mercury (Cessily Kincaid) is a fictional character from Marvel Comic's X-Men series. She is a teenage member of the student body at the Xavier Institute and a recurring member of the X-Men.

New X-Men

New X-Men is a superhero comic book series published by Marvel Comics within the X-Men franchise.

After the end of Grant Morrison's run on X-Men vol. 2 titled New X-Men, the title was used for a new series, New X-Men: Academy X during the X-Men ReLoad event. The title was later shortened to simply New X-Men in 2006 when the new creative team of Craig Kyle and Christopher Yost took over the series with issue #20.

Whereas the other X-Men comics mostly deal with established adult mutants, this series concentrates on the lives of young students residing at the Xavier Institute for Higher Learning as they learn to control their powers.

After the 2007 crossover X-Men: Messiah Complex, the New X-Men title was canceled and briefly relaunched as Young X-Men for 12 issues. The series was written by Marc Guggenheim. After the first arc of Young X-Men, the characters began appearing in the pages of Uncanny X-Men. With the cancellation of Young X-Men the characters were folded onto the main X-Men books, appearing most prominently in the pages of X-Men: Legacy, Wolverine and the X-Men, and most recently, in X-Men.

Orlok the Assassin

Orlok, also known as Orlok the Assassin, is a fictional character in the British comic strip Judge Dredd. He is an operative of the Soviet megacity of East Meg One.

Osy Ikhile

Osy Ikhile is a London-born actor best known for portraying the role of Richard Peterson in In the Heart of the Sea, and Milo Rodricks in Childhood's End. In 2017, he appeared in USS Callister, an episode of the anthology series Black Mirror.

Robert West

Robert West, Rob West, Bob West, or Bobby West may refer to:

Robert West (chemist) (born 1928), American professor of chemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison

Robert West (painter) (died 1770), Irish artist, draughtsman and teacher

Robert West (politician) (born 1955), BNP politician and founder of the Christian Council of Britain

Robert West (boxer) (born 1967), American boxer

Bob West (born 1956), American actor

Bob West, character in 1977 British comedy Adventures of a Private Eye

Rob West, a candidate in the Ontario New Democratic Party candidates, 1987 Ontario provincial election

Robbie West (born 1969), Australian rules footballer

Bobby West (actor), American voice actor in Chucklewood Critters

Bobby West (boxer), American boxer, opponent of Mark Kaylor in 1983

Bobby West (musician) on 1972 American album A Possible Projection of the Future / Childhood's End

Robert West (American football) (born 1950), American football player

Watcher of the Skies

"Watcher of the Skies" is the first track on Genesis' 1972 album Foxtrot. It was also released as the album's only single.

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