Child erotica

Child erotica is non-pornographic material relating to children that is used by any individuals for sexual purposes.[1][2][3] It is a broader term than child pornography, incorporating material that may cause sexual arousal such as nonsexual images, books or magazines on children or pedophilia, toys, diaries, or clothes.[3][4] Law enforcement investigators have found that child erotica is often collected by pedophiles and child sexual abuse offenders. Child erotica may be collected as a form of compulsive behavior and as a substitute for illegal child pornography and is often a form of evidence for criminal behavior.[1]

The history of child erotica goes back at least as far as the paintings of the ancient Greeks, and continues through England's Libertine movement of the 1600s to the advent of the printing press, the camera and the case of Lewis Carroll.[5] Painters of child erotica have included, for example, Balthus.[6]

Some child erotica images are distributed over the internet and presented in a fashion similar to non-erotic child modeling. Child beauty pageantry, which has attracted millions of viewers to shows such as Little Miss Perfect and Toddlers and Tiaras, is sometimes viewed as a form of child erotica similar to child modeling in that the children appear in provocative poses in bikinis and short skirts; but some participants' parents argue that the pageants help their children build positive qualities such as poise, individuality, and confidence.[7]

Much as there has been a push to relabel child pornography as "child abuse images," the use of the term "child erotica" is controversial due to the artistic and literary connotations of the word "erotica".[8]

Countries

Japan

The Japanese Law Banning Child Prostitution and Pornography, enacted in 1999, defines child pornography as any image of a child under 18 years old "naked or partially naked, which is sexually stimulating."

DVDs and photo books of scantily clothed Junior Idols are available for sale.

The Publishers Ethics Committee of the Japan Magazine Publishers's Association checks bookstores for inappropriate publications and has issued warnings to publishers of pornographic manga (books). However, committee members have said it is not easy to determine whether an image crosses the line from art to child pornography.[9]

United Kingdom

Newsgroups in the alt.* hierarchy have included, for example, alt.binaries.pictures.child.erotica.male[10] and alt.binaries.pictures.child.erotica.female. In 2001-2002, the Internet Watch Foundation and Crown Prosecution Service considered that an Internet service provider knowingly carrying such a group name could be committing an offense relating to illegal advertisements.[11]

United States

Depictions of even a clothed child violate U.S. federal law 18 U.S.C. § 2252(a)(2), 18 U.S.C. § 2252(a)(4), and 18 U.S.C. § 2256(2)(E) if they constitute "lascivious" exhibitions of the genitalia or pubic area.[12] The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals has defined "lascivious" as "tending to excite lust; lewd; indecent; obscene; sexual impurity; tending to deprave the morals in respect to sexual relations."

In the United States, some members of the Congress have proposed prohibiting certain child modeling sites. Some states are considering similar legislation.[13] Opponents of such legislation argue that it would probably be ruled to violate the first amendment to the US constitution.

In February 2018, a New Jersey law against child erotica went into effect.[14] The law defines to portray a child in a sexually suggestive manner as to depict a child's less than completely and opaquely covered intimate parts, or any form of contact with a child’s intimate parts, in a manner that, by means of the posing, composition, format, or animated sensual details, emits sensuality with sufficient impact to concentrate prurient interest on the child; or otherwise to depict a child for the purpose of sexual stimulation or gratification. Anthony Domenick became the first defendant to be charged for possession of child erotica.[15]

Child erotica was defined in United States v. Paul D. Edwards as materials or items that are sexually arousing to persons having a sexual interest in minors but that are not, in and of themselves, obscene or that do not necessarily depict minors in sexually explicit poses or positions. In that case, a panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit, which included Neil Gorsuch, found that an affidavit showing a suspect had a history of publicly posting child erotica and making comments suggesting he was sexually attracted to the children depicted in the erotica did not establish probable cause to support a search warrant for child pornography.[16]

In United States v. Caldwell,[17] the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit found that child erotica is admissible to show knowledge and intent to possess child pornography, as child erotica is evidence of a sexual interest in children, and the total quantity of child erotica makes it less likely that the defendant was unaware of its presence.[18]

Similarly, in United States v. Vosburgh, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit admitted as evidence forty-six non-pornographic images of prepubescent girls in swimsuits and thirty pictures of Loli-chan, a 13-year old camgirl, finding that the "probative value of the Loli-chan pictures was not insignificant" in suggesting that Vosburgh harbored a sexual interest in children, knowingly possessed the child pornography found on his computer, and purposefully accessed a link he thought would lead to child pornography.[19] The court cited a case, United States v. Dornhofer, in which the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit ruled admissible a defendant's notebook containing pictures of nude children, novels dealing with incest, and teen erotica magazines.[20]

Paul Reubens, the actor best known for playing Pee-wee Herman, acknowledged possessing a massive collection of "vintage erotica" such as "a young man with his hand on his thigh".[21] His lawyer cited as another piece from the collection, "a black-and-white tintype from 1901 with a young man of indeterminate, 17- to 19-year-old age, laying on the beach after having gone skinny-dipping"[22] and claimed this collection was erotica to which the state's child pornography law did not apply.[23] Reubens ultimately pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor obscenity charge.[22]

Webe Web

In July 2001, Wired News published a story[24] about child modeling web sites that described Lil' Amber, which was a website operated by the web hosting company Webe Web Corporation located in Florida. Webe Web was, at the time, the oldest child modeling site service on the Internet. In November 2001, the NBC television station serving Miami, FL, ran a story entitled "Selling Innocence." A reporter "went undercover" to contact the site operators, and then tracked down Amber (a pseudonym), the model featured in Lil' Amber, at her family's farm in Palm Beach County. The news report prompted Florida Congressman Mark Foley (R-Palm Beach County) to propose legislation banning child modeling web sites.[25] Foley later resigned from office stemming from allegations of inappropriate conduct with a teenaged boy.[26]

Libman was first identified by the U.S. Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) and the FBI during an investigation of Webe Web Corp., a Florida-based company. According to court documents, USPIS and FBI agents seized large volumes of computer media during the execution of a search warrant at Libman’s residence in Fort Lauderdale. Many of the parents claimed to be unaware of the images being taken of their children, and some had signed over temporary legal custody of their child to Pierson during the modeling session.[27]

The owners were prosecuted in both Florida and Alabama. On November 28, 2006, criminal charges were laid against the owners of Webe Web Corporation. Immediately, all Webe Web child model sites went offline. Jeff Pierson pleaded guilty to charges of conspiracy and mailing, transporting or shipping child pornography,[27] while the owners of the web hosting company, Marc Evan Greenberg and Jeff Libman, pleaded not guilty.

Libman was indicted by a grand jury in the Southern District of Florida on April 28, 2009, for receiving, possessing and distributing child pornography. In his plea agreement, Libman admitted he received images that depict prepubescent children and children engaged in sadistic or masochistic conduct. On Nov. 13, 2009, Libman was sentenced to 7 years and 3 months in prison. He had faced a maximum possible term of 20 years in prison.[28][29]

Libman, Marc Evan Greenberg and Webe Web Corporation were indicted in November 2006 in a separate case in the Northern District of Alabama for conspiracy to produce images of child pornography and transportation of images of child pornography. The case is being prosecuted by Assistant Deputy Chief Alexandra R. Gelber and Trial Attorney Elizabeth M. Yusi of the Criminal Division’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) and Assistant U.S. Attorney A. Marie Villafaña of the Southern District of Florida. The case is being investigated by USPIS, the FBI and CEOS’ High Tech Investigative Unit.[30][31][32]

A Little Agency

In early 2006 the operators of the child modeling agencies "A Little Agency" and "The VMS," (Matthew Duhamel) were arrested on charges of child pornography. Neither A Little Agency nor the VMS distributed nude photographs, but federal prosecutors argued that they still contained "lascivious exhibitions" of the genitalia based on the six-part Dost test.[33] Federal prosecutors claimed the Web sites dealt in images of girls as young as 9 wearing scant clothing in suggestive poses. One photo reportedly shows a 9-year-old girl in "black stiletto pumps, a black lace thong, black bra, and a black jacket" sitting on a dining room table, according to court records.[33] The operators were indicted on transportation of child pornography, possession of child pornography and receipt of child pornography.[33] Attorneys filed a motion to dismiss the charges against them arguing that the pictures of young girls in suggestive poses on the websites they operated did not rise to the level of pornography. However, the judge assigned to the case, Chief Judge Campbell, denied the motion to dismiss, noting that the U.S. Supreme Court has determined fully clothed pictures can be considered pornographic.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Lanning, Kenneth V. (2001). "Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis 4th ed" (PDF). 86. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children: 85–95. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2010-06-09. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ Lanning, Kenneth V. (1992). Child sex rings: a behavioral analysis for criminal justice professionals handling cases of child sexual exploitation (PDF). National Center for Missing & Exploited Children.
  3. ^ a b Zillmann, Dolf; Jennings Bryant (1989). Pornography: Research Advances and Policy Considerations. Routledge. pp. 239–241. ISBN 0-8058-0615-6.
  4. ^ Strachan Peterson, Marilyn; Michael Durfee; Kevin Coulter (2003). Child Abuse and Neglect: Guidelines for Identification, Assessment, and Case Management. Volcano Press. p. 123. ISBN 1-884244-21-1.
  5. ^ Tate, T. (1990) Child Pornography: An Investigation. London: Methuen.
  6. ^ https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/40979392/ANCIENT_GREEK_MYTH_AND_DRAMA_IN_GREEK_CINEMA_1930-2012.pdf
  7. ^ Tamer, Christine (Fall 2011). "Toddlers, tiaras, and pedophilia? The "borderline child pornography" embraced by the American public". Texas Review of Entertainment and Sports Law. 13 (1): 85–101.
  8. ^ https://scholarship.law.edu/scholar/236/
  9. ^ "Photos of preteen girls in thongs now big business | The Japan Times Online". Search.japantimes.co.jp. 2007-05-03. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  10. ^ http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN004062.pdf
  11. ^ https://docplayer.net/79206630-Internet-blocking-law-and-governance-in-the-united-kingdom-an-examination-of-the-cleanfeed-system-tj-mcintyre.html
  12. ^ United States of America v. Knox Archived 2016-11-17 at the Wayback Machine, No. 92-7089, 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals
  13. ^ State Police Call for Tougher Internet Predator Laws
  14. ^ https://www.nj.com/news/2018/03/how_a_new_law_defining_child_erotica_might_help_st.html
  15. ^ https://www.nj.com/news/2018/03/north_jersey_man_may_be_first_charged_under_states_new_child_erotica_law.html
  16. ^ https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-10th-circuit/1721745.html
  17. ^ 1999 WL 238655, No. 97-5618 (6th Cir. Apr. 13, 1999)
  18. ^ Stephan, S. A. (2006). "Ensuring convictions through successful search warrants". United States Attorneys' Bulletin. 54 (7): 19–23.
  19. ^ https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-3rd-circuit/1522221.html
  20. ^ https://openjurist.org/859/f2d/1195/united-states-v-dornhofer
  21. ^ http://www.nbcnews.com/id/4653913/ns/dateline_nbc/t/pee-wee-herman-creator-speaks-out/
  22. ^ a b https://www.today.com/popculture/paul-reubens-pleads-guilty-obscenity-charge-wbna4563512
  23. ^ https://www.deseret.com/2003/1/27/19701121/reubens-collection-called-erotica-not-porn
  24. ^ Scheeres, Julia (23 July 2001). "Girl Model Sites Crossing Line?". Wired. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
  25. ^ "THOMAS Library of Congress". Retrieved 2007-09-14.
  26. ^ Babington, Charles; Weisman, Jonathan (September 30, 2006). "Rep. Foley Quits In Page Scandal". The Washington Post.
  27. ^ a b "Alabama Photographer Pleads Guilty to Child Pornography Charges". The America's Intelligence Wire. March 7, 2007.
  28. ^ Vice President of Florida Corporation Pleads Guilty to 16 Counts of Transporting Child Pornography September 15, 2010
  29. ^ Florida Corporation Pleads Guilty to Transportation of Child Pornography and Conspiracy to Produce Child Pornography: President and Director of Corporation Pleads Guilty to Money Laundering Archived May 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine April 22, 2010
  30. ^ "Florida Man Pleads Guilty to Receiving Child Pornography". Justice.gov. 2009-09-08. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  31. ^ Vice President of Florida Corporation Sentenced for Transporting Child Pornography Archived December 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine 22 December 2010
  32. ^ Vice President of Florida Corporation Sentenced to 108 Months in Prison for Transporting Child Pornography December 17, 2010
  33. ^ a b c d Geoffrey Fatah (2006-08-03). "2 say photos of girls weren't porn: Their attorneys argue children 'fully clothed'". Deseret News.

Sources

1970s

The 1970s (pronounced "nineteen-seventies"; shortened to "the '70s") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1970, and ended on December 31, 1979.

COPINE scale

The COPINE Scale is a rating system created in Ireland and used in the United Kingdom to categorise the severity of images of child sex abuse. The scale was developed by staff at the COPINE ("Combating Paedophile Information Networks in Europe") project. The COPINE Project was founded in 1997, and is based in the Department of Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Ireland.

Child pornography

Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation. It may be produced with the direct involvement or sexual assault of a child (also known as child sexual abuse images) or it may be simulated child pornography. Abuse of the child occurs during the sexual acts or lascivious exhibitions of genitals or pubic areas which are recorded in the production of child pornography. Child pornography may use a variety of media, including writings, magazines, photos, sculpture, drawing, cartoon, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, and video games.Laws regarding child pornography generally include sexual images involving prepubescents, pubescent or post-pubescent minors and computer-generated images that appear to involve them. Most possessors of child pornography who are arrested are found to possess images of prepubescent children; possessors of pornographic images of post-pubescent minors are less likely to be prosecuted, even though those images also fall within the statutes.Producers of child pornography try to avoid prosecution by distributing their material across national borders, though this issue is increasingly being addressed with regular arrests of suspects from a number of countries occurring over the last few years. The prepubescent pornography is viewed and collected by pedophiles for a variety of purposes, ranging from private sexual uses, trading with other pedophiles, preparing children for sexual abuse as part of the process known as "child grooming", or enticement leading to entrapment for sexual exploitation such as production of new child pornography or child prostitution. Children themselves also sometimes produce child pornography on their own initiative or by the coercion of an adult.Child pornography is illegal and censored in most jurisdictions in the world. Ninety-four of 187 Interpol member states had laws specifically addressing child pornography as of 2008, though this does not include nations that ban all pornography. Of those 94 countries, 58 criminalized possession of child pornography regardless of intent to distribute. Both distribution and possession are now criminal offenses in almost all Western countries. A wide movement is working to globalize the criminalization of child pornography, including major international organizations such as the United Nations and the European Commission.

Child sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include engaging in sexual activities with a child (whether by asking or pressuring, or by other means), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc.), child grooming, child sexual exploitation or using a child to produce child pornography.Child sexual abuse can occur in a variety of settings, including home, school, or work (in places where child labor is common). Child marriage is one of the main forms of child sexual abuse; UNICEF has stated that child marriage "represents perhaps the most prevalent form of sexual abuse and exploitation of girls". The effects of child sexual abuse can include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, complex post-traumatic stress disorder, propensity to further victimization in adulthood, and physical injury to the child, among other problems. Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest.The global prevalence of child sexual abuse has been estimated at 19.7% for females and 7.9% for males. Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, uncles, or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances, such as "friends" of the family, babysitters, or neighbors; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases. Most child sexual abuse is committed by men; studies on female child molesters show that women commit 14% to 40% of offenses reported against boys and 6% of offenses reported against girls.The word pedophile is commonly applied indiscriminately to anyone who sexually abuses a child, but child sexual offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a strong sexual interest in prepubescent children. Under the law, child sexual abuse is often used as an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. The American Psychological Association states that "children cannot consent to sexual activity with adults", and condemns any such action by an adult: "An adult who engages in sexual activity with a child is performing a criminal and immoral act which never can be considered normal or socially acceptable behavior."

Dost test

The Dost test is a six-factor guideline established in 1986 in the United States district court case United States v. Dost , 636 F. Supp. 828 (S.D.Cal. 1986). The case involved 22 nude or semi-nude photographs of females aged 10–14 years old. The undeveloped film containing the images was mailed to a photo processing company in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California.

Jailbait images

Jailbait images are sexualized images of minors who are perceived to meet the definition of jailbait. Jailbait images can be differentiated from child pornography as jailbait images do not usually contain nudity. Jailbait depicts tween or young teen girls in skimpy clothing such as bikinis, short skirts, or underwear.The online distribution of jailbait images has caused legal and moral controversy, in some cases leading to the censorship of both the images and the word itself as a search term.

Junior idol

In Japan, a junior idol (ジュニアアイドル, junia aidoru), alternatively chidol (チャイドル, chaidoru) or low teen idol (ローティーンアイドル, rōtīn aidoru), is primarily defined as young child pursuing a career as a photographic model. Generally, this means gravure, or "cheesecake", fully clothed shots; but, junior idols can, and some do, eventually enter the AV industry. Child actors, musicians, and J-pop singers (whose musical genre is often termed idol pop) can also be considered junior idols and are often featured in photobooks and image DVDs.

Female fashion models (not to be confused with glamour models, including gravure idols) also begin their careers typically at age 13–15, but are usually not considered junior idols. Child models, whose careers are usually over by their early young years, are also not usually considered junior idols

Legal status of drawn pornography depicting minors

The legal status of drawn pornography depicting minors varies from country to country and concerns simulated pornography and child pornography.

Some analysts have argued whether or not cartoon pornography that depicts minors is a victimless crime. Laws have been enacted to criminalize "obscene images of children, no matter how they are made", for inciting abuse. One argument is that obscene fictional images portray children as sex objects, thereby contributing to child sexual abuse. This argument has been argued against as having a lack of scientific basis for that alleged connection pending future studies, and that restricting sexual expression in drawings or animated games and videos might possibly increase the rate of sexual crime by eliminating a non-criminal outlet for desires that could motivate crime.Currently, countries that have made it illegal to possess (as well as create and distribute) sexual images of fictional characters who are described as or appear to be under eighteen years old include Australia, Canada, the Philippines, South Africa, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. In extreme cases, this includes pornographic depictions of even seventeen-year-olds, or adults where the predominant impression conveyed is of a person under the age of 18 (such as small-breasted women).

Pedobear

Pedobear is an Internet meme that became popular through the imageboard 4chan. As the name suggests ("pedo" being short for "pedophile"), it is portrayed as a pedophilic cartoon bear. It is a concept used to mock pedophiles or people who have any sexual interest in children or "jailbait." The bear image has been likened to bait used to lure children or as a mascot for pedophiles.

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