Chief Justice of the United States

The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, and as such the highest-ranking judge of the federal judiciary. Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution grants plenary power to the President of the United States to nominate, and with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, appoint a chief justice, who serves until they resign, are impeached and convicted, retire, or die.

The chief justice has significant influence in the selection of cases for review, presides when oral arguments are held, and leads the discussion of cases among the justices. Additionally, when the Court renders an opinion, the chief justice, if in the majority, chooses who writes the Court's opinion. When deciding a case, however, the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any associate justice.

Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 of the Constitution designates the chief justice to preside during presidential impeachment trials in the Senate; this has occurred twice. Also, while nowhere mandated, the presidential oath of office is typically administered by the Chief Justice.

Additionally, the chief justice serves as a spokesperson for the federal government's judicial branch and acts as a chief administrative officer for the federal courts. The Chief Justice presides over the Judicial Conference and, in that capacity, appoints the director and deputy director of the Administrative Office. The Chief Justice is also an ex officio member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and, by custom, is elected chancellor of the board.

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 17 people have served as chief justice. The first was John Jay (1789–1795). The current chief justice is John Roberts (since 2005). John Rutledge, Edward Douglass White, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan Fiske Stone, and William Rehnquist served as associate justice prior to becoming chief justice.

Chief Justice of the United States
Seal of the United States Supreme Court
Seal of the Supreme Court
Official roberts CJ
Incumbent
John Roberts

since September 29, 2005
Supreme Court of the United States
StyleMr. Chief Justice
(informal)
Your Honor
(when addressed in court)
The Honorable
(formal)
StatusChief justice
Highest judicial officer
Member ofFederal judiciary
Judicial Conference
Administrative Office of the Courts
SeatSupreme Court Building, Washington, D.C.
AppointerThe President
with Senate advice and consent
Term lengthLife tenure
Constituting instrumentUnited States Constitution
FormationMarch 4, 1789
First holderJohn Jay
as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Websitewww.supremecourt.gov

Origin, title, and appointment to office

The United States Constitution does not explicitly establish an office of Chief Justice, but presupposes its existence with a single reference in Article I, Section 3, Clause 6: "When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside." Nothing more is said in the Constitution regarding the office. Article III, Section 1, which authorizes the establishment of the Supreme Court, refers to all members of the Court simply as "judges". The Judiciary Act of 1789 created the distinctive titles of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

In 1866, at the urging of Salmon P. Chase, Congress restyled the chief justice's title to the current Chief Justice of the United States. The first person whose Supreme Court commission contained the modified title was Melville Fuller in 1888.[1] The associate justices' title was not altered in 1866, and remains as originally created.

The chief justice, like all federal judges, is nominated by the President and confirmed to office by the U.S. Senate. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution specifies that they "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior". This language means that the appointments are effectively for life, and that, once in office, justices' tenure ends only when they die, retire, resign, or are removed from office through the impeachment process. Since 1789, 15 presidents have made a total of 22 official nominations to the position.[2]

The salary of the chief justice is set by Congress; the current (2018) annual salary is $267,000, which is slightly higher than that of associate justices, which is $255,300.[3]

The practice of appointing an individual to serve as chief justice is grounded in tradition; while the Constitution mandates that there be a chief justice, it is silent on the subject of how one is chosen and by whom. There is no specific constitutional prohibition against using another method to select the chief justice from among those justices properly appointed and confirmed to the Supreme Court. Constitutional law scholar Todd Pettys has proposed that presidential appointment of chief justices should be done away with, and replaced by a process that permits the Justices to select their own chief justice.[4]

Three incumbent associate justices have been nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate as chief justice: Edward Douglass White in 1910, Harlan Fiske Stone in 1941, and William Rehnquist in 1986. A fourth, Abe Fortas, was nominated to the position in 1968, but was not confirmed. As an associate justice does not have to resign his or her seat on the Court in order to be nominated as chief justice, Fortas remained an associate justice. Similarly, when associate justice William Cushing was nominated and confirmed as chief justice in January 1796, but declined the office, he too remained on the Court. Two former associate justices subsequently returned to service on the Court as chief justice. John Rutledge was the first. President Washington gave him a recess appointment in 1795. However, his subsequent nomination to the office was not confirmed by the Senate, and he left office and the Court. In 1933, former associate justice Charles Evans Hughes was confirmed as chief justice. Additionally, in December 1800, former chief justice John Jay was nominated and confirmed to the position a second time, but ultimately declined it, opening the way for the appointment of John Marshall.[2]

Duties

Along with his general responsibilities as a member of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice has several unique duties to fulfill.

Impeachment trials

Article I, section 3 of the U.S. Constitution stipulates that the Chief Justice shall preside over impeachment trials of the President of the United States in the U.S. Senate. Two Chief Justices, Salmon P. Chase and William Rehnquist, have presided over the trial in the Senate that follows an impeachment of the president – Chase in 1868 over the proceedings against President Andrew Johnson and Rehnquist in 1999 over the proceedings against President Bill Clinton. Both presidents were subsequently acquitted.

Seniority

Many of the Court's procedures and inner workings are governed by the rules of protocol based on the seniority of the justices. The chief justice always ranks first in the order of precedence—regardless of the length of the officeholder's service (even if shorter than that of one or more associate justices). This elevated status has enabled successive chief justices to define and refine both the Court's culture and its judicial priorities.

The chief justice sets the agenda for the weekly meetings where the justices review the petitions for certiorari, to decide whether to hear or deny each case. The Supreme Court agrees to hear less than one percent of the cases petitioned to it. While associate justices may append items to the weekly agenda, in practice this initial agenda-setting power of the chief justice has significant influence over the direction of the court. Nonetheless, a chief justice's influence may be limited by circumstances and the associate justices' understanding of legal principles; it is definitely limited by the fact that he has only a single vote of nine on the decision whether to grant or deny certiorari.[5][6]

Despite the chief justice's elevated stature, his vote carries the same legal weight as the vote of each associate justice. Additionally, he has no legal authority to overrule the verdicts or interpretations of the other eight judges or tamper with them.[5] The task of assigning who shall write the opinion for the majority falls to the most senior justice in the majority. Thus, when the chief justice is in the majority, he always assigns the opinion.[7] Early in his tenure, Chief Justice John Marshall insisted upon holdings which the justices could unanimously back as a means to establish and build the Court's national prestige. In doing so, Marshall would often write the opinions himself, and actively discouraged dissenting opinions. Associate Justice William Johnson eventually persuaded Marshall and the rest of the Court to adopt its present practice: one justice writes an opinion for the majority, and the rest are free to write their own separate opinions or not, whether concurring or dissenting.[8]

The chief justice's formal prerogative—when in the majority—to assign which justice will write the Court's opinion is perhaps his most influential power,[6] as this enables him to influence the historical record.[5] He "may assign this task to the individual justice best able to hold together a fragile coalition, to an ideologically amenable colleague, or to himself." Opinion authors can have a big influence on the content of an opinion; two justices in the same majority, given the opportunity, might write very different majority opinions.[6] A chief justice who knows well the associate justices can therefore do much—by the simple act of selecting the justice who writes the opinion of the court—to affect the general character or tone of an opinion, which in turn can affect the interpretation of that opinion in cases before lower courts in the years to come.

Additionally, the chief justice chairs the conferences where cases are discussed and tentatively voted on by the justices. He normally speaks first and so has influence in framing the discussion. Although the chief justice votes first—the Court votes in order of seniority—he may strategically pass in order to ensure membership in the majority if desired.[6] It is reported that:

Chief Justice Warren Burger was renowned, and even vilified in some quarters, for voting strategically during conference discussions on the Supreme Court in order to control the Court’s agenda through opinion assignment. Indeed, Burger is said to have often changed votes to join the majority coalition, cast "phony votes" by voting against his preferred position, and declined to express a position at conference.[9]

Oath of office

The Chief Justice typically administers the oath of office at the inauguration of the President of the United States. This is a tradition, rather than a constitutional responsibility of the Chief Justice; the Constitution does not require that the oath be administered by anyone in particular, simply that it be taken by the president. Law empowers any federal and state judge, as well as notaries public (such as John Calvin Coolidge, Sr.), to administer oaths and affirmations.

If the Chief Justice is ill or incapacitated, the oath is usually administered by the next senior member of the Supreme Court. Seven times, someone other than the Chief Justice of the United States administered the oath of office to the President.[10] Robert Livingston, as Chancellor of the State of New York (the state's highest ranking judicial office), administered the oath of office to George Washington at his first inauguration; there was no Chief Justice of the United States, nor any other federal judge prior to their appointments by President Washington in the months following his inauguration. William Cushing, an associate justice of the Supreme Court, administered Washington's second oath of office in 1793. Calvin Coolidge's father, a notary public, administered the oath to his son after the death of Warren Harding.[11] This, however, was contested upon Coolidge's return to Washington and his oath was re-administered by Judge Adolph A. Hoehling, Jr. of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.[12] John Tyler and Millard Fillmore were both sworn in on the death of their predecessors by Chief Justice William Cranch of the Circuit Court of the District of Columbia.[13] Chester A. Arthur and Theodore Roosevelt's initial oaths reflected the unexpected nature of their taking office. On November 22, 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Judge Sarah T. Hughes, a federal district court judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, administered the oath of office to then Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson aboard the presidential airplane.

In addition, the Chief Justice ordinarily administers the oath of office to newly appointed and confirmed associate justices, whereas the senior associate justice will normally swear in a new Chief Justice or vice president.

Other duties

Since the tenure of William Howard Taft, the office of the Chief Justice has moved beyond just first among equals.[14] The Chief Justice also:

Unlike Senators and Representatives who are constitutionally prohibited from holding any other "office of trust or profit" of the United States or of any state while holding their congressional seats, the Chief Justice and the other members of the federal judiciary are not barred from serving in other positions. Chief Justice John Jay served as a diplomat to negotiate the so-called Jay Treaty (also known as the Treaty of London of 1794), Justice Robert H. Jackson was appointed by President Truman to be the U.S. Prosecutor in the Nuremberg trials of leading Nazis, and Chief Justice Earl Warren chaired The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy. As described above, the Chief Justice holds office in the Smithsonian Institution and the Library of Congress.

Disability or vacancy

Under 28 U.S.C. § 3, when the chief justice is unable to discharge his functions, or when that office is vacant, the chief justice's duties are carried out by the most senior associate justice until the disability or vacancy ends.[4] Currently, since August 2018, Clarence Thomas is the most senior associate justice.

List of Chief Justices

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, the following 17 persons have served as Chief Justice:[16][17]

Chief Justice Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure[a] Tenure length Appointed by Prior position[b]
1 CJ Jay John Jay
(1745–1829)
September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
October 19, 1789

June 29, 1795
(Resigned)
5 years, 253 days George Washington Acting
United States Secretary of State
(1789–1790)
2 John Rutledge John Rutledge
(1739–1800)
December 15, 1795
(10–14)[c]
August 12, 1795[d]

December 28, 1795
(Resigned, nomination having been rejected)
138 days Chief Justice of the
South Carolina Court of
Common Pleas and Sessions
(1791–1795)
Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1789–1791)
3 CJ Ellsworth Oliver Ellsworth
(1745–1807)
March 4, 1796
(21–1)
March 8, 1796

December 15, 1800
(Resigned)
4 years, 282 days United States Senator
from Connecticut
(1789–1796)
4 CJ Marshall copy John Marshall
(1755–1835)
January 27, 1801
(Acclamation)
February 4, 1801

July 6, 1835
(Died)
34 years, 152 days John Adams 4th
United States Secretary of State
(1800–1801)
5 CJ Taney Roger B. Taney
(1777–1864)
March 15, 1836
(29–15)
March 28, 1836

October 12, 1864
(Died)
28 years, 198 days Andrew Jackson 12th
United States Secretary
of the Treasury

(1833–1834)
6 CJ Chase Salmon P. Chase
(1808–1873)
December 6, 1864
(Acclamation)
December 15, 1864

May 7, 1873
(Died)
8 years, 143 days Abraham Lincoln 25th
United States Secretary
of the Treasury

(1861–1864)
7 CJ Waite Morrison Waite
(1816–1888)
January 21, 1874
(63–0)
March 4, 1874

March 23, 1888
(Died)
14 years, 19 days Ulysses S. Grant Ohio State Senator
(1849–1850)
Presiding officer,
Ohio constitutional convention
(1873)
8 CJ Fuller Melville Fuller
(1833–1910)
July 20, 1888
(41–20)
October 8, 1888

July 4, 1910
(Died)
21 years, 269 days Grover Cleveland President,
Illinois State Bar Association
(1886)
Illinois State Representative
(1863–1865)
9 CJ White Edward Douglass White
(1845–1921)
December 12, 1910[e]
(Acclamation)
December 19, 1910

May 19, 1921
(Died)
10 years, 151 days William Howard Taft Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1894–1910)
10 CJ Taft William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
June 30, 1921
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1921

February 3, 1930
(Retired)
8 years, 207 days Warren G. Harding 27th
President of the United States
(1909–1913)
11 CJ Hughes Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)
February 13, 1930
(52–26)
February 24, 1930

June 30, 1941
(Retired)
11 years, 126 days Herbert Hoover 44th
United States Secretary of State
(1921–1925)
Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1910–1916)
12 CJ Stone Harlan F. Stone
(1872–1946)
June 27, 1941[e]
(Acclamation)
July 3, 1941

April 22, 1946
(Died)
4 years, 293 days Franklin D. Roosevelt Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1925–1941)
13 CJ Vinson Fred M. Vinson
(1890–1953)
June 20, 1946
(Acclamation)
June 24, 1946

September 8, 1953
(Died)
7 years, 76 days Harry S. Truman 53rd
United States Secretary
of the Treasury

(1945–1946)
14 CJ Warren Earl Warren
(1891–1974)
March 1, 1954
(Acclamation)
October 5, 1953[d]

June 23, 1969
(Retired)
15 years, 261 days Dwight D. Eisenhower 30th
Governor of California
(1943–1953)
15 CJ Burger Warren E. Burger
(1907–1995)
June 9, 1969
(74–3)
June 23, 1969

September 26, 1986
(Retired)
17 years, 95 days Richard Nixon Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(1956–1969)
16 CJ Rehnquist William Rehnquist
(1924–2005)
September 17, 1986[e]
(65–33)
September 26, 1986

September 3, 2005
(Died)
18 years, 342 days Ronald Reagan Associate Justice
of the Supreme Court

(1972–1986)
17 CJ Roberts John Roberts
(born 1955)
September 29, 2005
(78–22)
September 29, 2005

Incumbent
13 years, 141 days George W. Bush Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals
for the District of Columbia Circuit

(2003–2005)

Notes

  1. ^ The start date given here for each chief justice is the day they took the oath of office, and the end date is the day of the justice's death, resignation, or retirement.
  2. ^ Listed here (unless otherwise noted) is the position—either with a U.S. state or the federal government—held by the individual immediately prior to becoming Chief Justice of the United States.
  3. ^ This was the first Supreme Court nomination to be rejected by the United States Senate. Rutledge remains the only "recess appointed" justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  4. ^ a b Recess appointment
  5. ^ a b c Elevated from associate justice to chief justice while serving on the Supreme Court. The nomination of a sitting associate justice to be chief justice is subject to a separate confirmation process.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Administrative Agencies: Office of the Chief Justice, 1789–present". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
  2. ^ a b McMillion, Barry J.; Rutkus, Denis Steven (July 6, 2018). "Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 to 2017: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President" (PDF). fas.org (Federation of American Scientists). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  3. ^ "Judicial Compensation". Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
  4. ^ a b Pettys, Todd E. (2006). "Choosing a Chief Justice: Presidential Prerogative or a Job for the Court?". Journal of Law & Politics. The University of Iowa College of Law. 22 (3): 231–281. SSRN 958829.
  5. ^ a b c "Judiciary". Ithaca, New York: Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Cross, Frank B.; Lindquist, Stefanie (June 2006). "The decisional significance of the Chief Justice" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania Law Review. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Law School. 154 (6): 1665–1707.
  7. ^ O'Brien, David M. (2008). Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics (8th ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-393-93218-8.
  8. ^ O'Brien, David M. (2008). Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics (8th ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-393-93218-8.
  9. ^ Johnson, Timothy R.; Spriggs II, James F.; Wahlbeck, Paul J. (June 2005). "Passing and Strategic Voting on the U.S. Supreme Court". Law & Society Review. Law and Society Association, through Wiley. 39 (2): 349–377. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
  10. ^ "Presidential Inaugurations: Presidential Oaths of Office". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  11. ^ "Excerpt from Coolidge's autobiography". Historicvermont.org. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  12. ^ "Prologue: Selected Articles". Archives.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  13. ^ "Presidential Swearing-In Ceremony, Part 5 of 6". Inaugural.senate.gov. Archived from the original on February 3, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  14. ^ O'Brien, David M. (2008). Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics (8th ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-393-93218-8.
  15. ^ "Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. March 6, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  16. ^ "U.S. Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: 1789–Present". www.senate.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  17. ^ "Justices 1789 to Present". www.supremecourt.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2018.

Further reading

  • Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.
  • Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court Historical Society, Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1-56802-126-7.
  • Flanders, Henry. The Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the United States Supreme Court. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1874 at Google Books.
  • Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L., eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0-7910-1377-4.
  • Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505835-6.
  • Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0-87187-554-3.
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. p. 590. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1.

External links

1948 United States presidential election in Wyoming

The 1948 United States presidential election in Wyoming took place on November 2, 1948, as part of the 1948 United States presidential election. Wyoming voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Wyoming was won by President Harry S. Truman (D–Missouri), running with the Senate Majority Leader Alben W. Barkley, with 51.62 percent of the popular vote, against the 47th Governor of New York Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with California Governor and future Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren, with 47.27 percent of the popular vote.

Chief Justice John Marshall

Chief Justice John Marshall is a bronze sculpture of John Marshall, by American sculptor William Wetmore Story. It is located at the Supreme Court, 1 First Street, Northeast, Washington, D.C. It was dedicated on May 10, 1884, by Morrison Waite.

It was relocated from the West Terrace, of the United States Capitol.There are two recasts:

at John Marshall Park, near Judiciary Square, C Street and 3rd Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C.,38.8933°N 77.0176°W / 38.8933; -77.0176

and at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, 26th Street and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia.39.9662°N 75.1818°W / 39.9662; -75.1818The inscription reads:

W. W. STORY ROMA 1883

J. ARTHUR LIMERICK CO

FOUNDERS-BALTO-MD

(Base, east side:)

PRESENTED TO THE

CITY OF PHILADELPHIA

BY JAMES M. BUCK

1931

(seal of the Fairmount Park Art Association)

(Base, west side:)

JOHN MARSHALL

CHIEF JUSTICE

OF THE UNITED STATES

1801-1835

AS SOLDIER HE FOUGHT THAT THE

NATION MIGHT COME INTO BEING

AS EXPOUNDER OF THE CONSTITUTION

HE GAVE IT LENGTH OF DAYS

Chief justice

The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts/high courts.

The situation is slightly different in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom. The courts of England and Wales are headed by the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales; in Northern Ireland's courts, the equivalent position is the Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland, and in the courts of Scotland the head of the judiciary of Scotland is the Lord President of the Court of Session, who is also Lord Justice General of Scotland. These three judges are not, though, part of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, which operates across all three jurisdictions and is headed by the President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

The chief justice can be selected in many ways, but, in many nations, the position is given to the most senior justice of the court, while, in the United States, it is often the President's most important political nomination, subject to approval by the United States Senate. Although the title of this top American jurist is, by statute, Chief Justice of the United States, the term "Chief Justice of the Supreme Court" is often used unofficially.

In some courts, the chief justice has a different title, e.g. president of the supreme court. In other courts, the title of chief justice is used, but the court has a different name, e.g. the Supreme Court of Judicature in colonial (British) Ceylon, and the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia (in the US state of West Virginia).

Ellsworth Court

The Ellsworth Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States from 1796 to 1800, when Oliver Ellsworth served as the third Chief Justice of the United States. Ellsworth took office after the Senate refused to confirm the nomination of Chief Justice John Rutledge, who briefly served as a Chief Justice as a recess appointment. Ellsworth served as Chief Justice until his resignation, at which point John Marshall took office. With some exceptions, the Ellsworth Court was the last Supreme Court to use seriatim opinions.

Federal Judicial Center

The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts. It was established by Pub.L. 90–219 in 1967, at the recommendation of the Judicial Conference of the United States.

According to 28 U.S.C. § 620, the main areas of responsibility for the Center include:

conducting and promoting "research and study of the operation of the courts of the United States," and to act to encourage and coordinate the same by others;

developing "recommendations for improvement of the administration and management of [U.S.] courts," and presenting these to the Judicial Conference of the U.S.; and

through all means available, see to conducting programs for the "continuing education and training for personnel" of the U.S. judiciary, for all employees in the justice system, from judges through probation officers and mediators.In addition to these major provisions, §620 (b)(4)(5)(6) sets forth the additional provisions that the FJC will (i) provide staff and assistance to the Judicial Conference and component bodies, (ii) coordinate programs and research on the administration of justice with the State Justice Institute, and (iii) cooperatively assist other government agencies in providing advice, and receiving advice, regarding judicial administration in foreign countries, in each of these cases, to the extent it is "consistent with the performance of the other functions set forth" earlier.The Code also states (§621) that the Chief Justice of the United States is the permanent Chair of the Center's board, and that it includes the director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and seven federal judges elected by the Judicial Conference. The Board appoints the Center's director and deputy director; the director appoints the Center's staff. Since its founding in 1967, the Center has had eleven directors. The current director is John S. Cooke. The current The deputy director is Clara Altman.

First inauguration of Abraham Lincoln

The first inauguration of Abraham Lincoln as the 16th President of the United States was held on Monday, March 4, 1861, on the East Portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first term of Abraham Lincoln as President and the only term of Hannibal Hamlin as Vice President. The presidential oath of office was administered to Lincoln by Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice of the United States.

This was the first time Lincoln appeared in public with a beard, which he had begun growing after being elected president, in response to a written request by 11-year-old Grace Bedell. This effectively made him the first President to have any facial hair beyond sideburns.

On Inauguration Day, Lincoln's procession to the Capitol was surrounded by heavily armed cavalry and infantry, providing an unprecedented amount of protection for the President-elect as the nation stood on the brink of war. During the 16 weeks between Lincoln's victory in the 1860 presidential election and Inauguration Day, seven slave states had declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.

First inauguration of Harry S. Truman

The first inauguration of Harry S. Truman as the 33rd President of the United States was held at 7:00 pm on Thursday, April 12, 1945, in the Cabinet Room at the White House in Washington, D.C., following the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt earlier that day. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first term (a partial term of 3 years, 283 days) of Harry S. Truman as President.

Truman had just adjourned a session of the United States Senate and was on his way to share a drink with Sam Rayburn, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, when he was summoned to the White House. Upon his arrival, he was met by Eleanor Roosevelt, who informed him that President Roosevelt was dead. Shocked, Truman asked Mrs. Roosevelt, "Is there anything I can do for you?", to which she replied: "Is there anything we can do for you? For you are the one in trouble now."Chief Justice of the United States Harlan Fiske Stone administered the presidential oath of office. Among witnesses of this ceremony were Truman's wife Bess Truman, daughter Margaret Truman, Mrs. Roosevelt, Speaker Rayburn, and members of the cabinet. This was the second presidential inauguration in 1945, after the regularly scheduled inauguration for Roosevelt's fourth term earlier on January 20.

Fuller Park, Chicago

Fuller Park, located on the south side of Chicago, Illinois, is one of 77 officially designated Chicago community areas. It is designated Community Area 37.Fuller Park is named for the small park within the neighborhood, which is in turn named for Melville Weston Fuller, a Chicago attorney who was the Chief Justice of the United States between 1888 and 1910.

John Jay

John Jay (December 23, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795). He directed U.S. foreign policy for much of the 1780s and was an important leader of the Federalist Party after the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788.

Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and New York City government officials of French and Dutch descent. He became a lawyer and joined the New York Committee of Correspondence, organizing opposition to British policies in the time preceding the American Revolution. Jay was elected to the Second Continental Congress, and served as President of the Congress. From 1779 to 1782, Jay served as the ambassador to Spain; he persuaded Spain to provide financial aid to the fledgling United States. He also served as a negotiator of the Treaty of Paris, in which Britain recognized American independence. Following the end of the war, Jay served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, directing United States foreign policy under the Articles of Confederation government. He also served as the first Secretary of State on an interim basis.

A proponent of strong, centralized government, Jay worked to ratify the United States Constitution in New York in 1788. He was a co-author of The Federalist Papers along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, and wrote five of the 85 essays. After the establishment of the new federal government, Jay was appointed by President George Washington the first Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1789 to 1795. The Jay Court experienced a light workload, deciding just four cases over six years. In 1794, while serving as Chief Justice, Jay negotiated the highly controversial Jay Treaty with Britain. Jay received a handful of electoral votes in three of the first four presidential elections, but never undertook a serious bid for the presidency.

Jay served as the Governor of New York from 1795 to 1801. Long an opponent of slavery, he helped enact a law that provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves, and the institution of slavery was abolished in New York in Jay's lifetime. In the waning days of President John Adams's administration, Jay was confirmed by the Senate for another term as Chief Justice, but he declined the position and retired to his farm in Westchester County, New York.

Judiciary Act of 1869

The Judiciary Act of 1869, sometimes called the Circuit Judges Act of 1869, a United States statute, provided that the Supreme Court of the United States would consist of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, established separate judgeships for the U.S. circuit courts, and for the first time included a provision allowing federal judges to retire without losing their salary. This is the most recent legislation altering the size of the Supreme Court.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Supreme Court of the United States shall hereafter consist of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, any six of whom shall constitute a quorum; and for the purposes of this act there shall be appointed an additional associate justice of said court.

In addition, it stipulated that each of the nine circuit courts of the United States would have a circuit judge appointed who would reside in that locale and have the same power and jurisdiction as the Supreme Court justice assigned to the circuit. It was stipulated that the Chief Justice and each of the associate justices had the duty to sit at least one term in the circuit every two years. The circuit court could be held by the circuit judge, the Supreme Court justice, or the two could hold the court together, in which case the Supreme Court justice would preside. Up until this time, circuit courts were normally only staffed by district judges and Supreme Court justices "riding circuit."

The salary of the circuit court judgeships created was set at $5,000 a year. In addition, the act stipulated that federal judges (including Supreme Court justices) who had served for ten years or more would receive a pension upon their retirement. The pension was set at the salary of the judge at the time of retirement. A judge had to be at least seventy years old at the time of retirement.

There were eight justices serving on the Supreme Court at the time the act was enacted. The Judicial Circuits Act of 1866 had provided that the Court be reduced in size from ten to seven justices upon its next three vacancies, but the reduction was to occur only when the serving justices created such vacancies either through death or retirement. As only two seats were vacated between 1866 and 1869, only one new seat was implemented with the creation of the Act. Joseph P. Bradley was the first Justice appointed to this newly created seat.

An earlier version of this legislation had been approved by the 40th Congress at the close of the session in March 1869, but fell victim to a pocket veto from outgoing President Andrew Johnson. The act was the third time that Congress had created circuit judgeships. The first time was the soon-repealed Judiciary Act of 1801, and the second was a single circuit judgeship in the frontier state of California which only lasted from 1855 to 1863.

Though the law did not abolish circuit riding by the justices of the Supreme Court, it significantly reduced the burden by requiring each justice to attend circuit court in each district within his circuit only once every two years. Circuit court riding would later be abolished by the Judiciary Act of 1891. The circuit courts themselves were abolished by the Judicial Code of 1911, which transferred their trial jurisdiction to the U.S. district courts.

Lawrence County, Kentucky

Lawrence County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,860. Its county seat is Louisa. The county is named for James Lawrence, and co-founded by Isaac Bolt, who served as a Lawrence County Commissioner and Justice of the Peace.

Lawrence County is the home of bluegrass music and country music star Tyler Childers. It is the birthplace of the late Chief Justice of the United States Frederick Moore Vinson and former Kentucky Governor Paul E. Patton. In regard to alcoholic beverage sales, Lawrence County is a wet county as of 2014, meaning the sale of alcoholic beverages is no longer prohibited everywhere in the county.

List of Governors of California

The Governor of California is the chief executive of the California state government, whose responsibilities include making annual State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that state laws are enforced. The governor is also the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.

The current governor is Gavin Newsom, who has been in office since 2019.

Thirty-nine people have served as governor, over 40 distinct terms; many have been influential nationwide in areas far-flung from politics. Leland Stanford founded Stanford University in 1891. Earl Warren, later Chief Justice of the United States, won an election with the nominations of the three major parties – the only person ever to run essentially unopposed for governor of California. Ronald Reagan, who was president of the Screen Actors Guild and later President of the United States, and Arnold Schwarzenegger both came to prominence through acting. Gray Davis, the 37th governor of California, was the second governor in American history to be recalled by voters. The shortest tenure was that of Milton Latham, who served only five days before being elected by the legislature to fill a vacant United States Senate seat. The longest tenure is that of Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown, Jr., who previously served as governor from 1975 to 1983 and again from 2011 to 2019. He is the son of former governor Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown, Sr. who served from 1959 to 1967.

Marshall County, Iowa

Marshall County is a county located in the U.S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,648. The county seat is Marshalltown. The county was formed on January 13, 1846 and named after John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.Marshall County comprises the Marshalltown, IA Micropolitan Statistical Area.

In 2010, the center of population of Iowa was located in Marshall County, near Melbourne.

Marshall County, Mississippi

Marshall County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,144. Its county seat is Holly Springs. The county is named for Chief Justice of the United States John Marshall.Marshall County is part of the Memphis, TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Oath of office of the President of the United States

The oath of office of the President of the United States is the oath or affirmation that the President of the United States takes after assuming the presidency but before carrying out any duties of the office. The wording of the oath is specified in Article II, Section One, Clause 8, of the United States Constitution.

This clause is one of two oath or affirmation clauses, but it alone actually specifies the words that must be spoken. The other, Article VI, Clause 3, simply requires the persons specified therein to "be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution." The presidential oath, on the other hand, requires much more than this general oath of allegiance and fidelity. This clause enjoins the new president to swear or affirm that he "will to the best of his ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Roger B. Taney (sculpture)

Roger B. Taney is a 19th century bronze statue of Chief Justice of the United States Roger B. Taney (1777–1864), by William Henry Rinehart. It was located in Baltimore, Maryland at the North Garden in Mount Vernon Place prior to being removed by the city of Baltimore in 2017.

Rutledge Court

The Rutledge Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States from June 1795 to December 1795, when John Rutledge served as the second Chief Justice of the United States. Rutledge took office as a recess appointment of President George Washington to succeed John Jay. However, Rutledge was denied confirmation by the United States Senate, partly due to his attacks on the Jay Treaty. Rutledge was succeeded in office by Oliver Ellsworth. This was the first time that the Senate rejected a Supreme Court nomination; it remains the only time a "recess appointed" justice was not subsequently confirmed by the Senate.

Rutledge's tenure as Chief Justice lasted for only 138 days. As a result, the court only decided a couple of cases under his leadership.

Second inauguration of James Monroe

The second inauguration of James Monroe as President of the United States was held on Monday, March 5, 1821, in the House chamber of the U.S. Capitol. The inauguration marked the commencement of the second four-year term of James Monroe as President and Daniel D. Tompkins as Vice President. Monroe was sworn in by John Marshall, the Chief Justice of the United States.

Because of a snowstorm, the inauguration was held indoors; also, because March 4, 1821, was a Sunday, James Monroe moved the inauguration to the following day after talking with justices of the Supreme Court.

United States presidential inauguration

The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the President of the United States. This ceremony takes place for each new presidential term, even if the president is continuing in office for a second term. Since 1937, it has taken place on January 20, which is 72 to 78 days after the November presidential election (on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November). The term of a president commences at noon ("EST" – Eastern Standard Time) on that day, when the Chief Justice of the United States administers the oath of office to the president. However, when January 20 falls on a Sunday, the chief justice administers the oath to the president on that day privately and then again in a public ceremony the next day, on Monday, January 21. The most recent presidential inauguration ceremony was the swearing in of Donald Trump to a four-year term of office on Friday, January 20, 2017.

Recitation of the presidential oath of office is the only component in this ceremony mandated by the United States Constitution (in Article II, Section One, Clause 8). However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to a day-long event, including parades and multiple social gatherings. The ceremony itself is carried live via the major U.S. commercial television and cable news networks; various ones also stream it live on their websites.

Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the west front of the United States Capitol facing the National Mall with its iconic Washington Monument and distant Lincoln Memorial. Other swearing-in ceremonies have taken place on a platform over the steps at the Capitol's east portico on a regular basis for 180 years, and occasionally inside the Old Senate Chamber on the old north side, the chamber of the House of Representatives in the south wing, and the central Rotunda under the dome. Additionally, on two occasions—in 1817 and 1945—they were held at the Executive Mansion, (later known as the White House).

Though it is not a constitutional requirement, the Chief Justice typically administers the presidential oath of office. Since 1789, the oath has been administered at 58 scheduled public inaugurations, by 15 chief justices, one associate justice, and one New York state judge. Others, in addition to the chief justice, have administered the oath of office to several of the nine vice presidents who succeeded to the presidency upon their predecessor's death or resignation intra-term. When a new president has assumed office under these unusual circumstances the inauguration has been conducted without pomp or fanfare.

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