Chief Engraver of the Royal Mint

Chief Engraver of the Royal Mint is a senior position at the British Royal Mint who is responsible for overseeing the preparation of coin dies.[1]

List of chief engravers

Period Chief Engraver Notes Ref.
1060s? Theobald of Lisson Green Cutter of the Dies of All England [2]
1090s-1100s Otto the Goldsmith Officer of the Dies [2]
1100s-? Otto FitzOtto [2]
?-1160s William FitzOtto [2]
1160s-1194 Otto FitzWilliam [2]
1194-1214 William FitzOtto [2]
1214-1257 Otto FitzWilliam [2]
1257-1265 William FitzOtto [2]
1265-1274 Thomas FitzOtto Serjeant of the Dies [2]
1274-1282 Otto FitzOtto Serjeant of the Dies [2]
1282-1283 Guy Ferre Serjeant of the Dies [2]
1285-1324 John de Botetourt, 1st Baron Botetourt Serjeant of the Dies [2]
1324-1335 William Latimer, 3rd Baron Latimer Serjeant of the Dies [2]
1335-1379 William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer Serjeant of the Dies [2]
1379-1386 William Geyton Engraver of the Tower Mint [2]
1386-1388 William Pevere Engraver of the Tower Mint [2]
1388-? John Edmund Engraver of the Tower Mint [2]
1421-1431 Gilbert of Brandenburg Engraver of the Tower Mint [2]
1431-1445 John Orwell Engraver of the Tower Mint [2]
1445-1452 Thomas Wythiale Engraver of the Tower Mint [2]
1452-1462 William Wodewarde Engraver of the Tower Mint [2]
1462-1483 Edmund Shaa Engraver of the Tower Mint [3]
1483-1485 John Shaa Engraver of the Tower Mint [3]
1485-1492 Nicholas Flynt Engraver of the Tower Mint [3]
1494-1509 Alexander Bruchsal Engraver of the Tower Mint [3]
1510-1519 John Sharp Engraver of the Tower Mint [3]
1519-1536 Henry Norris Engraver of the Tower Mint [3]
1536-1544 Thomas Wriothesely Engraver of the Tower Mint [3]
1544-1550 Henry Bayse [4]
1550-1551 Robert Pitt [4]
1552-1596 Derek Anthony [4][5]
1596-1615 Charles Anthony [5][6]
1615-1618 Thomas Anthony [4]
1618-1624 William Holle [7]
1625-1628 John Gilbert and Edward Green Joint positions [6]
1628-1644 Edward Green [6][8]
1645-1648 Thomas Simon and Edward Wade Joint positions [9]
1645-1649 Thomas Rawlins Appointed by King Charles I [10]
1649-1660 Thomas Simon [9]
1660-1670 Thomas Rawlins [11]
1670-1689 John Roettier [4]
1689-1690 George Bowers [11]
1690-1704 Henry Harris [12]
1705–1741 John Croker [13]
1741–1773 John Sigismund Tanner [14]
1773–1779 Richard Yeo [15]
1779-1815 Lewis Pingo [16]
1815–1817 Thomas Wyon [17]
1817-1821 Post vacant [18]
1821-1828 Benedetto Pistrucci Subsequently became Chief Medallist at the mint [19]
1828-1851 William Wyon Leonard Charles Wyon appointed Second Engraver at the mint in 1843.
1851-1891 Leonard Charles Wyon Modeler and Engraver of the Royal Mint
1892-1903 George William de Saulles Engraver of the Royal Mint [20]
as of 1960 Walter Newman [21]
1970s Eric Sewell 1979-2004 Hubert Theodore Elsasser OBE 2004-2007 Matthew Bonnacorsi
2008-present Gordon Summers [22]


  1. ^ Challis 1992, p. 296.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Martin Allen, Mints and Money in Medieval England, pp.117-122
  3. ^ a b c d e f g C. E. Challis, The Tudor Coinage
  4. ^ a b c d e Leonard Forrer, Biographical Dictionary of Medallists
  5. ^ a b "Tudor Half-Sovereign". The Royal Mint Museum. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Challis, C. E. (1992). A New History of the Royal Mint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 298–299. ISBN 9780521240260.
  7. ^ "James I, third coinage (1619-25)". Bonhams Auction House. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  8. ^ Whetmore 1960, p. 160.
  9. ^ a b Sharples, J. "Thomas Simon, Engraver (1618-1665)". Museums Victoria Collections. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  10. ^ Lee, Sidney, ed. (1896). "Rawlins, Thomas" . Dictionary of National Biography. 47. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  11. ^ a b Challis, C. E. (1992). A New History of the Royal Mint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 364. ISBN 9780521240260.
  12. ^ Challis, C. E. (1992). A New History of the Royal Mint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 364, 409. ISBN 9780521240260.
  13. ^ Warwick William Wroth, 'Croker, John (1670–1741)' in Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 13
  14. ^ Christopher Edgar Challis, A New History of The Royal Mint (1992), p. 409
  15. ^ "Yeo, Richard" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  16. ^ Challis, C. E. (1992). A New History of the Royal Mint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 477. ISBN 9780521240260.
  17. ^ "Wyon, Thomas (1792-1817)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  18. ^ Challis, C. E. (1992). A New History of the Royal Mint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 489. ISBN 9780521240260.
  19. ^ Milano, Carlo. "The talent and the temperament". The Royal Mint Museum. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  20. ^ Tout-Smith, D. "George William de Saulles, Sculptor, Designer & Engraver (1862-1903)". Museums Victoria Collections. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  21. ^ Challis, C. E. (1992). A New History of the Royal Mint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 596. ISBN 9780521240260.
  22. ^ "Gordon Summers Designer, Sculptor, Engraver, Leader". Linkedin. Retrieved 29 April 2017.


  • Challis, C. E. (1992). A New History of the Royal Mint. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521240260.
Florin (British coin)

The British florin, or two shilling coin, was issued from 1849 until 1967, with a final issue for collectors dated 1970. Valued at one tenth of a pound (24 old pence), it was the last coin circulating immediately prior to decimalisation to be demonetised, in 1993, having for a quarter of a century circulated alongside the ten pence piece, identical in specifications and value.

The florin was introduced as part of an experiment in decimalisation that went no further at that time. The original florins, dated 1849, attracted controversy for omitting a reference to God from Queen Victoria's titles; that type is accordingly known as the "Godless florin", and was in 1851 succeeded by the "Gothic florin", for its design and style of lettering. Throughout most of its existence, the florin bore some variation of either the shields of the United Kingdom, or the emblems of its constituent nations on the reverse, a tradition broken between 1902 and 1910, when the coin featured a windswept figure of a standing Britannia.

In 1911, following the accession of George V, the florin regained the shields and sceptres design it had in the late Victorian Era, and kept that motif until 1937, when the national emblems were placed on it. The florin retained such a theme for the remainder of its run, though a new design was used from 1953, following the accession of Elizabeth II. In 1968, prior to decimalisation, the Royal Mint began striking the ten pence piece. The old two shilling piece remained in circulation until the ten pence piece was made smaller, and earlier coins, including the florin, were demonetised.

History of the British penny (1714–1901)

The history of the penny of Great Britain and the United Kingdom from 1714 to 1901, the period in which the House of Hanover reigned, saw the transformation of the penny from a little-used small silver coin to the bronze piece recognisable to modern-day Britons. All bear the portrait of the monarch on the obverse; copper and bronze pennies have a depiction of Britannia, the female personification of Britain, on the reverse.

During most of the 18th century, the penny was a small silver coin rarely seen in circulation, and that was principally struck to be used for Maundy money or other royal charity. Beginning in 1787, the chronic shortage of good money resulted in the wide circulation of private tokens, including large coppers valued at one penny. In 1797 industrialist Matthew Boulton gained a contract to produce official pennies at his Soho Mint in Birmingham; he struck millions of pennies over the next decade. After that, it was not until 1825 that pennies were struck again for circulation, and the copper penny continued to be issued until 1860.

By the late 1850s, the state of the copper coinage was deemed unsatisfactory, with quantities of worn oversized pieces, some dating from Boulton's day, still circulating. They were replaced by lighter bronze coins beginning in 1860; the "Bun penny", named for the hairstyle of Queen Victoria on it, was issued from then until 1894. The final years of Victoria's reign saw the "Veiled head" or "Old head" pennies, which were coined from 1895 until her death in 1901.

John Croker (engraver)

John Croker (21 October 1670 – 21 March 1741), born in Saxony and known in his youth as Johann Crocker, was a master jeweller who migrated to London, where he became a medallist and engraved dies for English and later British coins and medals.

For most of his adult life Croker worked in England, serving provincial mints as well as that at the Tower of London. For some seven years he engraved the die stamps for the coins of King William III and Queen Anne before becoming Chief Engraver to the Royal Mint, a position he held from 1705 until his death. He worked closely with the head of the Mint, the famous scientist Isaac Newton.

Sixpence (British coin)

The sixpence (6d; ), sometimes known as a tanner or sixpenny bit, is a coin that was worth one-fortieth of a pound sterling, or six pence. It was first minted in the reign of Edward VI and circulated until 1980. Following decimalisation in 1971 it had a value of ​2 1⁄2 new pence. The coin was made from silver from its introduction in 1551 to 1947, and thereafter in cupronickel.

Prior to Decimal Day in 1971 there were 240 pence in one pound sterling. Twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in shillings and pence, e.g. 42 old pence (​17 1⁄2p) would be three shillings and sixpence (3/6), often pronounced "three and six". Values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e.g. eight pence would be 8d ('d' for denarius).

Statistics of the Colonies of the British Empire

Statistics of the Colonies of the British Empire (or more completely, Statistics of the Colonies of the British Empire in the West Indies, South America, North America, Asia, Austral-Asia, Africa, and Europe) is a work by Robert Montgomery Martin which comprises a number of different statistics to measure the well-being of the British Colonies in the late 18th until mid 19th century. It was first published in 1839 by W. H. Allen & Co. roughly a year after the it was commenced in February 1838.

The book was published in Royal Octavo (10" by 6¼") and contains roughly 1000 pages, arranged in double columns. In 1839, the book costed £2. 2s. which is approximately £233 in 2018.

Waterloo Medal (Pistrucci)

The Waterloo Medal was designed by Italian-born sculptor Benedetto Pistrucci. He worked on it from 1819 to 1849, when the completed matrices were presented to Britain's Royal Mint. The medal was commissioned by the British Government in 1819 on the instructions of George IV while Prince Regent; copies were to be presented to the generals who had been victorious in the 1815 Battle of Waterloo, and to the leaders of Britain's allies. As most of the intended recipients had died by 1849, and relations with France had improved, the medals were never struck, though modern-day editions have been made for sale to collectors.

In 1816, the Prince Regent had first suggested a medal to be presented to allies and commanders from Waterloo. The Royal Academy proposed work by John Flaxman, one of its members, but Pistrucci, whose responsibility it was to engrave the dies, refused to copy another's work, and brought forth designs of his own. The Prince Regent and William Wellesley-Pole, Master of the Mint were impressed by Pistrucci's models, and he gained the commission.

Pistrucci fell from grace at the Royal Mint in 1823 by refusing to copy another's work for the coinage, and he was instructed to concentrate on the medal. He likely concluded that he would be sacked if he completed it, and progress was extremely slow. Health issues also played a part. He stayed on at the Mint, the medal uncompleted, despite repeated calls from Masters of the Mint to finish the project. In 1844, the Master, W. E. Gladstone, reached an accord with Pistrucci and the medal matrices were eventually submitted in 1849. Due to their great size, 5.3 inches (130 mm) in diameter, the Mint was unwilling to risk damaging the matrices by hardening them, and only electrotypes and soft impressions were taken. Pistrucci's designs have been greatly praised by numismatic writers.

Historic Topics
Related Mints

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