Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral

The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Anglican Communion's doctrine and as a reference point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. The four points are:

  1. The Holy Scriptures, as containing all things necessary to salvation;
  2. The creeds (specifically, the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds), as the sufficient statement of Christian faith;
  3. The dominical sacraments of baptism and Holy Communion;
  4. The historic episcopate, locally adapted.

The quadrilateral had its genesis in an 1870 essay by the American Episcopal priest William Reed Huntington.[1] The four elements were held to establish "a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing, made toward Home Reunion",[2] that is, with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.

American House of Bishops resolution

Wrhunt-ton
William Reed Huntington's essay was the basis of the quadrilateral

The four points found their way into a resolution of the House of Bishops of the American Episcopal Church, meeting in Chicago in 1886. As passed there, the resolution reads as follows:

We, Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in Council assembled as Bishops in the Church of God, do hereby solemnly declare to all whom it may concern, and especially to our fellow-Christians of the different Communions in this land, who, in their several spheres, have contended for the religion of Christ:

  1. Our earnest desire that the Savior's prayer, "That we all may be one," may, in its deepest and truest sense, be speedily fulfilled;
  2. That we believe that all who have been duly baptized with water, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, are members of the Holy Catholic Church.
  3. That in all things of human ordering or human choice, relating to modes of worship and discipline, or to traditional customs, this Church is ready in the spirit of love and humility to forego all preferences of her own;
  4. That this Church does not seek to absorb other Communions, but rather, co-operating with them on the basis of a common Faith and Order, to discountenance schism, to heal the wounds of the Body of Christ, and to promote the charity which is the chief of Christian graces and the visible manifestation of Christ to the world.

But furthermore, we do hereby affirm that the Christian unity can be restored only by the return of all Christian communions to the principles of unity exemplified by the undivided Catholic Church during the first ages of its existence; which principles we believe to be the substantial deposit of Christian Faith and Order committed by Christ and his Apostles to the Church unto the end of the world, and therefore incapable of compromise or surrender by those who have been ordained to be its stewards and trustees for the common and equal benefit of all men.

As inherent parts of this sacred deposit, and therefore as essential to the restoration of unity among the divided branches of Christendom, we account the following, to wit:

  1. The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the revealed Word of God.
  2. The Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian Faith.
  3. The two Sacraments – Baptism and the Supper of the Lord – ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words of institution and of the elements ordained by Him.
  4. The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the unity of His Church.

Furthermore, Deeply grieved by the sad divisions which affect the Christian Church in our own land, we hereby declare our desire and readiness, so soon as there shall be any authorized response to this Declaration, to enter into brotherly conference with all or any Christian Bodies seeking the restoration of the organic unity of the Church, with a view to the earnest study of the conditions under which so priceless a blessing might happily be brought to pass.[3]

Lambeth Conference resolution

In 1888, the third Lambeth Conference (an international consultation of bishops of the Anglican Communion) passed Resolution 11.[4] This was a scaled-back version of the resolution passed at Chicago two years earlier, more closely aligned with Huntington's original wording, and reads as follows:

That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion:

  1. The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith.
  2. The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Nicene Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith.
  3. The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself – Baptism and the Supper of the Lord – ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him.
  4. The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the Unity of His Church.[5]

The 1920 Appeal to all Christian People

The 1920 Lambeth Conference picked up and reiterated the points of the earlier documents in fresh language. The rewording of the fourth was radical:

A ministry acknowledged by every part of the Church as possessing not only the inward call of the Spirit, but also the commission of Christ and the authority of the whole body.[6]

The episcopate was only expressly mentioned in the commentary which followed:

May we not reasonably claim that the Episcopate is the one means of providing such a ministry? It is not that we call in question for a moment the spiritual reality of the ministries of those Communions which do not possess the Episcopate. On the contrary, we thankfully acknowledge that these ministries have been manifestly blessed and owned by the Holy Spirit as effective means of grace ...[7]

According to Michael Ramsey this conciliatory presentation aroused a great readiness to discuss reunion, but later declarations were more qualified and therefore frustrating for free churchmen.[8]

Significance of the quadrilateral

British Empire 1897
The Anglican Communion was growing throughout the British Empire, marked in pink, in the late 19th century

The quadrilateral has had a significant impact on Anglican identity since its passage by the Lambeth Conference.[9] The resolution came at a time of rapid expansion of the Anglican Communion, primarily in the territories of the British Empire. As such, it provided a basis for a shared ethos, one that became increasingly important as colonial churches influenced by British culture and values, evolved into national ones influenced by local norms. At the same time, it has been the locus of fervent debate, especially over its third and fourth points.

The first point, concerning what Anglicans call "the sufficiency of Scripture", takes its language directly from Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles,[10] foundational to Anglican scriptural exegesis and hermeneutics since the sixteenth century. As such, it has been widely accepted as written. Similarly, the second point describes the sine qua non of Catholic faith since antiquity, and so likewise has enjoyed broad acquiescence. To the extent that it has been controversial, the controversy has centered entirely on those parts of the Communion that have sought to expand a sufficient statement of faith to include other formulae. The third point has been controversial among some Anglicans as being inappropriately limited. In particular, many Anglo-Catholics have maintained that the five other sacraments should be included as essential marks of the Church (see Anglican sacraments). By far, the most controversial point has been the fourth, which many believe could open the door to challenging the Church's episcopal tradition of apostolic succession.

The quadrilateral in ecumenical dialogue

The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral has also been important to ecumenical dialogue. In this context, it had been helpful in consultations between the Anglican and Roman Catholic communions and between certain Anglican ecclesiastical provinces and national Lutheran organizations.

Apostolicae curae is the title of a papal bull issued in 1896 by Pope Leo XIII declaring all Anglican ordinations to be "absolutely null and utterly void". It has been described as an early Catholic response to the ecumenical efforts of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral.

The quadrilateral has also proved a stumbling block, however, as in the discussions between the Anglican Church of Canada and the United Church of Canada,[11] between the Church of England and the Methodist Church of Great Britain, and between the Church of England and other free churches,[12] all of which broke down largely due to the issue of episcopacy.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Fuchs 2008, p. 95; Haugaard 1998, p. 42.
  2. ^ Haugaard 1998, p. 42.
  3. ^ Episcopal Church 2007, pp. 876–877.
  4. ^ Davidson 1920, pp. 27, 122–123.
  5. ^ Davidson 1920, pp. 122–123; Episcopal Church 2007, pp. 877–878.
  6. ^ Dalferth 1997, p. 45.
  7. ^ Evans & Wright 1991, p. 387.
  8. ^ Ramsey 1960, p. 121.
  9. ^ Hein & Shattuck 2004; Pierce 2009, pp. 78–79.
  10. ^ Wells 2011, p. 39.
  11. ^ Tucker 1986, p. 100.
  12. ^ Methodist Church of Great Britain & Church of England 2001, p. 8.

Bibliography

Dalferth, Ingolf (1997). "Ministry and the Office of Bishop according to Meissen and Porvoo: Protestant Remarks about Several Unclarified Questions". Visible Unity and the Ministry of Oversight: The Second Theological Conference held under the Meissen Agreement between the Church of England and the Evangelical Church in Germany. London: Church House Publishing. pp. 9–48. ISBN 978-0-7151-5755-8.
Davidson, Randall T., ed. (1920). The Five Lambeth Conferences. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
Episcopal Church (2007) [1979]. Book of Common Prayer. New York: Church Publishing. Retrieved 9 September 2017 – via Wikisource.
Evans, G. R.; Wright, J. Robert (1991). The Anglican Tradition: A Handbook of Sources. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Fuchs, Lorelei F. (2008). Koinonia and the Quest for an Ecumenical Ecclesiology: From Foundations through Dialogue to Symbolic Competence for Communionality. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8028-4023-3.
Haugaard, William P. (1998). "The History of Anglicanism from the Early Eighteenth Century to the Present Day". In Sykes, Stephen; Booty, John; Knight, Jonathan. The Study of Anglicanism (rev. ed.). London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. pp. 3ff. ISBN 978-1-4514-1118-8.
Hein, David; Shattuck, Gardiner H., Jr. (2004). The Episcopalians. New York: Church Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89869-497-0.
Methodist Church of Great Britain; Church of England (2001). An Anglican–Methodist Covenant: Common Statement of the Formal Conversations between the Methodist Church of Great Britain and the Church of England (PDF). Peterborough and London, England: Methodist Publishing House and Church House Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85852-218-0. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
Pierce, Andrew (2009). "Comprehensive Vision: The Ecumenical Potential of a Lost Ideal". In Thiessen, Gesa Elsbeth. Ecumenical Ecclesiology: Unity, Diversity and Otherness in a Fragmented World. London: T&T Clark. pp. 76–87. ISBN 978-0-567-00913-5.
Ramsey, Arthur Michael (1960). From Gore to Temple: The Development of Anglican Theology between Lux Mundi and the Second World War, 1889–1939. London: Longmans.
Tucker, Ansley (1986). "The Historic Episcopate in Anglican Ecclesiology: The Esse Perspective". Consensus. 12 (1): 99–115. ISSN 2369-2685. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
Wells, Samuel (2011). What Episcopalians Believe: An Introduction. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Morehouse Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8192-2310-4.

Further reading

Draper, Jonathan (1988). Communion and Episcopacy: Essays to Mark the Centenary of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral. Cuddesdon, England: Ripon College Cuddesdon. ISBN 978-0-9513611-0-8.
Huntington, William Reed (1870). The Church-Idea: An Essay towards Unity. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
Morris, Edwin (1969). The Lambeth Quadrilateral and Reunion. London: Faith Press. ISBN 978-0-7164-0145-2.
Whipple, H. B.; Gilbert, M. N.; Nichols, Harry P.; Wright, John; Faude, John J.; Ten Boeck, Wm. P. (1896). Unity and the Lambeth Declaration. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: The Young Churchman. Retrieved 8 September 2017 – via Project Canterbury.
Wright, J. Robert, ed. (1988). Quadrilateral at One Hundred: Essays on the Centenary of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, 1886/88–1986/88. Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications. ISBN 978-0-264-67178-9.
Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion. Founded in 1867 in London, England, the communion currently has 85 million members within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion. The traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles (1571). The Archbishop of Canterbury (currently Justin Welby) in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter pares ("first among equals"), but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England.

The Anglican Communion was founded at the Lambeth Conference in 1867 in London, England, under the leadership of Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury. The churches of the Anglican Communion consider themselves to be part of the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church, and to be both catholic and reformed. Although aligned with the Church of England, the communion has a multitude of beliefs, liturgies, and practices, including evangelical, liberal and Anglo-Catholic. Each retain their own legislative process and episcopal polity under the leadership of local primates. For some adherents, Anglicanism represents a non-papal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism though without guiding figure such as Luther, Knox, Calvin, Zwingli or Wesley, or for yet others a combination of the two.

Most of its 85 million members live in the Anglosphere of former British territories. Full participation in the sacramental life of each church is available to all communicant members. Due to their historical link to England (Ecclesia Anglicana means "English Church"), some of the member churches are known as "Anglican", such as the Anglican Church of Canada. Others, for example the Church of Ireland, the Scottish and American Episcopal churches have official names which do not include "Anglican".

Anglican Communion Primates' Meetings

The Anglican Communion Primates' Meetings are regular meetings of the primates in the Anglican Communion, i.e. the principal archbishops or bishops of each (often national) ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion. There are currently 38 primates of the Anglican Communion. The primates come together from the geographic provinces around the world. As primus inter pares of the communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury chairs the meetings, with the Secretary General of the Anglican Consultative Council (ACC) serving as secretary.

The Primates' Meeting was established by Donald Coggan, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1978 as an opportunity for “leisurely thought, prayer and deep consultation”. The first meeting was held in 1979.

Anglican Communion and ecumenism

Anglican interest in ecumenical dialogue can be traced back to the time of the Reformation and dialogues with both Orthodox and Lutheran churches in the sixteenth century. In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the Oxford Movement, there arose greater concern for reunion of the churches of "Catholic confession". This desire to work towards full communion with other denominations led to the development of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, approved by the Third Lambeth Conference of 1888. The four points (the sufficiency of scripture, as the "ultimate standard of faith", the historic creeds, the two dominical sacraments, and the historic episcopate) were stipulated as the basis for church unity, "a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion":

Although they are not considered members, some non-Anglican bodies have entered into communion with the Communion as a whole or with its constituent member churches, despite having non-Anglican origins and traditions, such as the Old Catholic Church and Lutherans of the Porvoo Communion, Mar Thoma Syrian Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada.

Anglican doctrine

Anglican doctrine (also called Episcopal doctrine in some countries) is the body of Christian teachings used to guide the religious and moral practices of Anglicans.

Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation.Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans". The majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares (Latin, "first among equals"). He calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, and the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion also call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment.Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession ("historic episcopate") and the writings of the Church Fathers. Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Protestantism. These reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism.In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies, structures, and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be highly influential in later theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed". The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is routinely a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries. The Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church.

After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America (which would later form the basis for the modern country of Canada) were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures; these were known as the American Episcopal Church and the Church of England in the Dominion of Canada. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches, especially in Africa, Australasia, and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches; as also that of the Scottish Episcopal Church, which, though originating earlier within the Church of Scotland, had come to be recognised as sharing this common identity.

Anglican–Roman Catholic dialogue

Anglican–Roman Catholic dialogue is the historical communication between the Anglican Communion and the Roman Catholic Church, through their ecumenical relations. These were notably shaped subsequent to the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965).

Archbishop of Canterbury

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, who was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.From the time of Augustine until the 16th century, the archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and usually received the pallium from the Pope. During the English Reformation, the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope. Thomas Cranmer became the first holder of the office following the English Reformation in 1533, while Reginald Pole was the last Roman Catholic in the position, serving from 1556 to 1558 during the Counter-Reformation. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops. At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the Pope, or the King of England. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has been more explicitly a state church and the choice is legally that of the Crown; today it is made by the reigning monarch on the advice of the British prime minister, who in turn receives a shortlist of two names from an ad hoc committee called the Crown Nominations Commission.

Christian Communion International

The Christian Communion International is a family of Christian churches and worship communities around the world - formed largely as a result of the Convergence Movement - with church networks in Africa, South America, Asia, North America and Europe. There are approximately 200,000 members. More than 2,000 ministers are serving in local worship communities and chaplaincies. The International Ceremonial Seat of the Primate is Jerusalem. The administrative offices of CCI, Province USA, are located in Sparta, Tennessee.

Church of South India

The Church of South India (CSI) is the second largest Christian church in India based on the number of members and is result of union of Anglican and number of Protestant churches in South India.

The Church of South India is the successor of a number of Anglican and Protestant denominations in India, including the Church of England, the British Methodist Church and the Church of Scotland after Indian Independence. It combined the South India United Church (union of the British Congregationalists and the British Presbyterians); the then 14 Anglican Dioceses of South India and one in Sri Lanka; and the South Indian District of the Methodist church. With a membership of nearly four million, CSI is one of four united churches in the Anglican Communion, the others being the Church of North India, the Church of Pakistan and the Church of Bangladesh.The inspiration for the Church of South India was born from ecumenism and inspired by the words of Jesus Christ as recorded in the Gospel of John (17.21). Just like the United Church of Christ (Congregationalist), one of their forbearer denominations, their motto is:

That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.'

"That they all may be one" is also the motto of the Church of South India.

Federation of Anglican Churches in the Americas

The Federation of Anglican Churches in the Americas (FACA) is an association of six Anglican jurisdictions with nearly 600 parishes in the New World. The Federation, which was founded in 2006 to enable a closer association of these and other jurisdictions, does not include any provinces of the Anglican Communion. The vision of FACA is stated as being "faithful Anglican Churches working together in communion to fulfill the Great Commission." The Patron of FACA is Bishop Gregory Venables of the Anglican Church of South America. He is not a member of any of FACA's six constituent denominations. These denominations include the Reformed Episcopal Church, a founding jurisdiction of the Anglican Church in North America, two ministry partner bodies, the Anglican Province of America and the Diocese of the Holy Cross, and the Anglican Mission in the Americas, an initial full member but a ministry partner since December 2011.

FACA members agree to "hold to the primacy of Holy Scripture, the Ecumenical Creeds and Councils, adhere to the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion, and the principles of the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral." Members cooperate in federation while each uses its own version of the Book of Common Prayer and exercises its own autonomy.

Grace Church (Manhattan)

Grace Church is a historic parish church in Manhattan, New York City which is part of the Episcopal Diocese of New York. The church is located at 800-804 Broadway, at the corner of East 10th Street, where Broadway bends to the south-southeast, bringing it in alignment with the avenues in Manhattan's grid. Grace Church School and the church houses – which are now used by the school – are located to the east at 86-98 Fourth Avenue between East 10th and 12th Streets.

The church, which has been called "one of the city's greatest treasures", is a French Gothic Revival masterpiece designed by James Renwick, Jr., his first major commission. Grace Church is a National Historic Landmark designated for its architectural significance and place within the history of New York City, and the entire complex is a New York City landmark, designated in 1966 (church and rectory) and 1977 (church houses).

Historical episcopate

The historic or historical episcopate comprises all episcopates, that is, it is the collective body of all the bishops of a church who are in valid apostolic succession. This succession is transmitted from each bishop to their successors by the rite of Holy Orders. It is sometimes subject of episcopal genealogy.

Lambeth Conference

The Lambeth Conference is a decennial assembly of bishops of the Anglican Communion convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The first such conference took place in 1867.

As the Anglican Communion is an international association of autonomous national and regional churches and not a governing body, the Lambeth Conferences serve a collaborative and consultative function, expressing "the mind of the communion" on issues of the day. Resolutions which a Lambeth Conference may pass are without legal effect, but they are nonetheless influential. So, although the resolutions of conferences carry no legislative authority, they "do carry great moral and spiritual authority." "Its statements on social issues have influenced church policy in the churches."These conferences form one of the communion's four "Instruments of Communion".

Marks of the Church

The Marks of the Church are those things by which the True Church may be recognized in Protestant theology. Three marks are usually enumerated: the preaching of the Word, the administration of the sacraments, and church discipline. The Belgic Confession devotes a chapter (Article 29) to the "Marks of the True Church" and lists them as follows:

The true church can be recognized if it has the following marks: The church engages in the pure preaching of the gospel; it makes use of the pure administration of the sacraments as Christ instituted them; it practices church discipline for correcting faults. In short, it governs itself according to the pure Word of God, rejecting all things contrary to it and holding Jesus Christ as the only Head. By these marks one can be assured of recognizing the true church-- and no one ought to be separated from it.

Louis Berkhof notes that Reformed theologians have differed as to the number of marks: Theodore Beza spoke of only one (preaching), John Calvin and Heinrich Bullinger spoke of two (preaching and sacraments), while Peter Martyr and Zacharias Ursinus spoke of three – preaching, sacraments and discipline. Nevertheless, Edmund Clowney points out that Calvin "included discipline in the proper observance of the sacraments." Albert Mohler calls church discipline the "missing mark" of the church.

Primates in the Anglican Communion

Primates in the Anglican Communion are the most senior bishop or archbishop of one of the 39 churches of the Anglican Communion. The Church of England, however, has two primates, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Archbishop of York.

Quadrilateral (disambiguation)

A quadrilateral, in geometry, is a polygon with 4 sides.

Quadrilateral may also refer to:

Complete quadrilateral, in projective geometry, a configuration with 4 lines and 6 points

Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, a four-point statement of fundamental doctrine, in the Anglican Communion

Wesleyan Quadrilateral, the four sources of doctrine in the Methodist Church

Golden Quadrilateral, a network of highways in India

Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, a strategic alliance of the United States, Japan, Australia and India within Asia.

Quadrilateral Treaty, a pact between the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Corrientes, signed on 25 January 1822.

Quadrilatero, in the Revolutions of 1848, in the Italian states - an area within the group of fortresses at Mantua, Verona, Peschiera and Legnago

In the Battle of the Somme in World War I, the Quadrilateral was a German redoubt near Ginchy

Thirty-nine Articles

The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation. The Thirty-nine Articles form part of the Book of Common Prayer used by both the Church of England and the Episcopal Church. Several versions are available online.

When Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church and was excommunicated, he formed a new Church of England, which would be headed by the monarch (himself) rather than the pope. At this point, he needed to determine what its doctrines and practices would be in relation to the Roman Catholic Church and the new Protestant movements in continental Europe. A series of defining documents were written and replaced over a period of 30 years as the doctrinal and political situation changed from the excommunication of Henry VIII in 1533, to the excommunication of Elizabeth I in 1570. These positions began with the Ten Articles in 1536, and concluded with the finalisation of the Thirty-nine articles in 1571. The Thirty-nine articles ultimately served to define the doctrine of the Church of England as it related to Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practice.The articles went through at least five major revisions prior to their finalisation in 1571. The first attempt was the Ten Articles in 1536, which showed some slightly Protestant leanings – the result of an English desire for a political alliance with the German Lutheran princes. The next revision was the Six Articles in 1539 which swung away from all reformed positions, and then the King's Book in 1543, which re-established most of the earlier Roman Catholic doctrines. During the reign of Edward VI, Henry VIII's only son, the Forty-two Articles were written under the direction of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer in 1552. It was in this document that Calvinist thought reached the zenith of its influence in the English Church. These articles were never put into action, due to Edward VI's death and the reversion of the English Church to Roman Catholicism under Henry VIII's elder daughter, Mary I.

Finally, upon the coronation of Elizabeth I and the re-establishment of the Church of England as separate from the Roman Catholic Church, the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion were initiated by the Convocation of 1563, under the direction of Matthew Parker, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The articles pulled back from some of the more extreme Calvinist thinking and created the peculiar English reformed doctrine.The Thirty-nine Articles were finalised in 1571, and incorporated into the Book of Common Prayer. Although not the end of the struggle between Catholic and Protestant monarchs and citizens, the book helped to standardise the English language, and was to have a lasting effect on religion in the United Kingdom, and elsewhere through its wide use.

Thomas Hubbard Vail

Thomas Hubbard Vail (October 21, 1812–October 6, 1889) was the first Episcopal Bishop of Kansas.

William Reed Huntington

William Reed Huntington (September 20, 1838 – July 26, 1909) was an American Episcopal priest and author.

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