Chhattisgarh (Chhattīsgaṛh, Hindi pronunciation: [/ˈtʃʰət̪ːisgəɽʱ/], translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the tenth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,191 km2 (52,198 sq mi).[4] With a 2011 population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 16th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced.[5] Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.[6]

The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 10 Chhattisgarhi and 6 Gondi speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh.[7][8] The capital city is Raipur. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Uttar Pradesh in the north, Jharkhand in northeast, Maharashtra in the southwest, Telangana in the south,[9] Odisha in the southeast. Currently the state comprises 27 districts.

The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Chhattisgarh is 3.63 lakh crore (US$51 billion)[10] and the per capita GSDP 102,762 (US$1,400)

Chitrakote Falls
7th century Lakshmana Hindu temple, Sirpur Chhattisgarh India 1
Swami Vivekananda Airport Raipur
(clockwise from top) Chitrakote Falls, Swami Vivekananda Airport, Lakshmana Temple at Sirpur
Official seal of Chhattisgarh

Location of Chhattisgarh in India
Location of Chhattisgarh in India
Coordinates: 21°15′N 81°36′E / 21.25°N 81.60°E
Country India
Formation1 November 2000
Largest cityRaipur
 • GovernorAnandiben Patel
 • Chief MinisterBhupesh Baghel (INC)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (90 seats)
 • Federal representationRajya Sabha 5
Lok Sabha 11
 • High CourtChhattisgarh High Court
 • Total135,191 km2 (52,198 sq mi)
Area rank10
 • Total25,545,198
 • Rank17th
 • Density190/km2 (490/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-CT
HDIIncrease 0.600 (medium)
HDI rank31st (2017)
State AnimalWild Asian Buffalo
State BirdHill Myna
State TreeSal
Literacy70.01% (2011, 27th)[3]
Official languageHindi


There are several opinions as to the origin of the name Chhattisgarh, which in ancient times was known as Dakshina Kosala (South Kosala).[11] "Chhattisgarh" was popularised later during the time of the Maratha Empire and was first used in an official document in 1795.[12]

It is claimed that Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 ancient forts in the area.[11] (chhattis—thirty-six, and garhfort.) The old state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg, Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara.[13] However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region.

Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh meaning Raj or "Empire of the Chedis".[11] In ancient times, Chhattisgarh region had been part of the Chedi dynasty of Kalinga, in modern Odisha. In the medieval period up to 1803, a major portion of present eastern Chhattisgarh was part of the Sambalpur Kingdom of Odisha.


The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. The highest point in the state is the Gaurlata.[14] Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state. The state animal is the van bhainsa, or wild Asian buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill myna. The state tree is the Sal (Sarai) found in Bastar division.

Shorea robusta in Chhattisgarh
Sal- The State Tree of Chhattisgarh

In the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain. The outline of Chhattisgarh is like a sea horse.

The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi river and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras) and from the plains of Odisha to the east by ranges of hills. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh.[15]

The natural environment of Koriya in Chhattisgarh includes forests, mountains, rivers and waterfalls. Koriya was a princely state during the British rule in India. Koriya is also known for its mineral deposits.[16] Coal is also found in this part of the country.[17] The dense forests are rich in wildlife.

The Amrit Dhara Waterfall, Koriya's main attraction, is a natural waterfall which originates from the Hasdeo River. The fall is situated seven kilometres from Koriya on the Manendragarh-Baikunthpur road. The Amrit Dhara Waterfall falls from a height of 27 m, and it is approximately 3–4.5 m wide. Chirimiri is one of the more popular places, known for its natural environment and climate, in Chhattisgarh.[18]


The climate of Chhattisgarh is tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the monsoons for rains. Summer temperatures in Chhattisgarh can reach 45 °C (113 °F).[19] The monsoon season is from late June to October and is a welcome respite from the heat. Chhattisgarh receives an average of 1,292 millimetres (50.9 in) of rain. Winter is from November to January and it is a good time to visit Chhattisgarh. Winters are pleasant with low temperatures and less humidity.[20]



National Highway 43 (India)
National Highway 43 (India)

Chhattisgarh has coverage of mostly two-lane or one-lane roads which provides connectivity to major cities. Eleven national highways passing through the state which are together 3078.40 km in length. However, most national highways are in poor condition and provide only two lanes for slow moving traffic. Many national highways are on paper and not fully converted into four-lane highway. This includes 130A New, 130B New, 130C New, 130D New, 149B New, 163A New, 343 New, 930New.. Other national highway includes NH 6, NH 16, NH 43, NH 12A, NH 78, NH 111, NH 200, NH 202, NH 216, NH 217, NH 221, NH30NH 930 NEW. The state highways and major district roads constitute another network of 8,031 km.

Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest densities of National Highway in Central and South India (12.1 km/100,000 population) which is similar to the North Eastern state of Assam.

Rail network

Raipur Railway Station Entrance
Raipur Railway Station Entrance

Almost the entire railway network spread over the state comes under the geographical jurisdiction of the South East Central Railway Zone of Indian Railways centred around Bilaspur, which is the zonal headquarters of this zone. The main railway junctions are Bilaspur Junction, Durg and Raipur, which is also a starting point of many long distance trains. These three junctions are well-connected to the major cities of India.[21]

The state has the highest freight loading in the country and one-sixth of Indian Railway's revenue comes from Chhattisgarh. The length of rail network in the state is 1,108 km, while a third track has been commissioned between Durg and Raigarh.[22] Construction of some new railway lines is under way.. These include Dalli-Rajhara–Jagdalpur rail line, Pendra Road-Gevra Road Rail Line rail line, Raigarh-Mand Colliery to Bhupdeopur rail line and Barwadih-Chirmiri rail line.[23] Freight/goods trains provide services mostly to coal and iron ore industries in east-west corridor (Mumbai-Howrah route). There is lack of passenger services to north and south of Chhattisgarh. Current train stations are mostly over crowded and not maintained well for passengers.

Rail network expansion

Presently, Chhattisgarh has a 1,187-kilometre-long (738 mi) railway line network, which is less than half of the national average of rail density.

The construction of a new 546-km-long rail network includes the Rajhara-Rowghat rail project, 311 km-long east and east-west rail corridors and the 140 km-long Rowghat-Jagdalpur rail project.

The Chhattisgarh government has decided to form a joint venture company with the Ministry of Railways for the expansion of railway tracks in the state. The decision to form a joint venture company with the Ministry of Railways was taken during a meeting of the state cabinet chaired by the Chief Minister on 5 February 2016. The state government will have a 51% share and the railways the remaining 49% share.

Major railway heads are Bilaspur, Raipur, Durg, Champa, Raigarh, Rajnandgaon Mahasamund

Major railway stations of Chhattisgarh


Swami Vivekananda Airport Raipur
Swami Vivekananda Airport Raipur

The air infrastructure in Chhattisgarh is small compared to other states. Swami Vivekananda Airport in Raipur is its sole airport with scheduled commercial air services. A massive reduction in sales tax on aviation turbine fuel (ATF) from 25 to 4% in Chhattisgarh in 2003 has contributed to a sharp rise in passenger flow. The passenger flow has increased by 58% between 2011 and November 2012.[24]

Other major areas in the north and south of state, and industrial cities such as Bilaspur, Korba, Raigarh are not served by any airline. The majority of population in these area is not able take advantage of low-cost airlines due to poor road connectivity and high cost of taxi fares. The State Government has signed a MOU with the Airports Authority of India (AAI) in July 2013 to develop Raigarh Airport, Jagadalpur, Ambikapur for domestic flights.[25] Under UDAN regional connectivity plan Jagdalpur airport was briefly connected to Raipur by Air Odisha. Chhattisgarh which is larger than Bengal, Tamil Nadu or country like North Korea lacks civilian airports and does not have major state level civil aviation policy.

Other airstrips

Proposed airstrips

  • Kanker
  • Kabirdham
  • Surajpur
  • Dantewada
  • Bijapur
  • Korba
  • Balrampur
  • Rajnandgaon


Ancient and medieval history

8th century couple embraced and mouth kissing at Tivara Deva temple, she stands on his feet, Sirpur monuments Chhattisgarh India
carved statue in the medieval city of Sirpur

In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshina Kosala. This area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. One of the earliest statues of Vishnu has been excavated from Shunga period site at Malhar. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, Sharabhpurias, Panduvanshis (of Mekala and Dakshina Kosala), Somavanshi, Kalachuri and Nagavanshi rulers dominated this region. The Bastar region of Chhattisgarh was invaded by Rajendra Chola I and Kulothunga Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.[26][27][28]

Colonial and post-independence history

Chhattisgarh was under Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741 to 1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947 as the Chhattisgarh Division of the Central Provinces. Raipur gained prominence over the capital Ratanpur with the advent of the British in 1845. In 1905, the Sambalpur district was transferred to Odisha and the estates of Surguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh.

The area constituting the new state merged into Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and remained a part of that state for 44 years. Prior to it's becoming a part of the new state of Madhya Pradesh, the region was part of old Madhya Pradesh State, with its capital at Bhopal. Prior to that, the region was part of the Central Provinces and Berar (CP and Berar) under British rule. Some areas constituting the Chhattisgarh state were princely states under the British rule, but later on were merged into Madhya Pradesh.[29]

Separation of Chhattisgarh

Secretariat in Naya Raipur
Mantralaya in Naya (New) Raipur

The present state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 2000.[7][8] The demand for a separate state was first raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organised movement was never launched. Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes.[30] A demand for separate Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organisation for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh was put forward, but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat.[30]

The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as the formation of a statewide political forum, especially the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organised under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major political parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[30]

The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh was passed in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on 25 August 2000. The Government of India subsequently set 1 November 2000, as the day the state of Madhya Pradesh would be divided into Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.[30]


The State Legislative assembly is composed of 90 members of the Legislative Assembly. There are 11 members of the Lok Sabha from Chhattisgarh. The Rajya Sabha has five members from the state.


Chhattisgarh state consists of 5 divisions with 27 districts.


Bastar Division Durg Division Raipur Division Bilaspur Division Surguja Division


Chhattīsgarhi ringkonnad
Districts of Chhattisgarh state in 2007

Chhattisgarh comprises 27 districts. The following are the list of the districts of Chhattisgarh State:

District Headquarter Largest City Other Major Cities
Raipur Raipur Raipur Kharora, Tilda, Bhatapara
Bilaspur Bilaspur Bilaspur Kota(Kargi Road), Pendra Road, Bilha
Durg Durg Bhilai-nagar Charoda, Kumhari, Patan
Korba Korba Korba Katghora, Pali
Raigarh Raigarh Raigarh Kharsia, Gharghora, Sarangagarh, lailunga
Rajnandgaon Rajnandgaon Rajnandgaon Dungargarh, Dungargaon
Koriya Baikunthpur Chirmiri Manendragarh
Surguja Ambikapur Ambikapur
Balrampur-Ramanujganj Balrampur Balrampur Ramanujganj
Jashpur Jashpur-Nagar Jashpur-Nagar Kunkuri, Patthalgaon
Surajpur Surajpur Surajpur Bishrampur
Janjgir–Champa Janjgir Janjgir-Naila/ Champa Shakti, Akaltara
Mungeli Mungeli Mungeli Lormi, Takhatpur
Kabirdham Kawardha Kawardha Pandariya, Pandatarai
Bemetara Bemetara Bemetara
Balod Balod Balod Dalli-Rajhara
Baloda Bazar-Bhatapara Baloda Bazar Bhatapara Kasdol
Gariaband Gariaband Gariaband Deobhog
Mahasamund Mahasamund Mahasamund Saraipali, Bagbahra
Dhamtari Dhamtari Dhamtari Kurud
Bijapur Bijapur Bijapur
Narayanpur Narayanpur Narayanpur
Kanker Kanker Kanker Bhanupratapur
Bastar Jagdalpur Jagdalpur Bastar
Dantewada Dantewada Dantewada
Kondagaon Kondagaon Kondagaon Keshkal

Major cities


Economy of Chhattisgarh
GDP3.64 lakh crore (US$51 billion) (2019–20 est.)
GDP rank17th
GDP growth
11.2% (2017–18)[32]
GDP per capita
102,762 (US$1,400) (2017–18)[32]
GDP by sector
Agriculture 30%
Industry 33%
Services 37% (2017–18)[32]
Public finances
21.2% of GSDP (2019–20 est.)[32]
-10,881 crore (US$−1.5 billion) (2.99% of GSDP) (2019-20 est.)
Revenues80,029 crore (US$11 billion) (2019–20 est.)[32]
Expenses93,816 crore (US$13 billion) (2019–20 est.)[32]

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Chhattisgarh's nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) is estimated at 3.26 lakh crore (US$45 billion) in 2018–19, the 17th largest state economy in India. The economy of Chhattisgarh recorded a growth rate of 6.7% in 2017–18.[32] Chhattisgarh's success factors in achieving high growth rate are growth in agriculture and industrial production.

Tea production

Chhattisgarh State is ranked as the 17th-largest tea-producing state in India. The districts of Jashpur and Surguja are favourable tea production areas. In Jashpur district, the first tea plantation, Brahmnishthajaya Sogara Ashram was established under the direction of Pujya Pad Gurupad. Tea production started after two years at the Sogara Ashram. A tea processing unit was established in Sogara Ashram and the unit name set as the Aghor Tea Processing Plant. The forestry department has also started a tea plantation motivated by the Sogara Ashram. In Surguja district, a tea nursery is being developed by the Margdarshan Sansthan Agriculture College in Ambikapur, Surguja.


Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state. According to a government estimate, net sown area of the state is 4.828 million hectares and the gross sown area is 5.788 million hectares.[33] Horticulture and animal husbandry also engage a major share of the total population of the state.[34] About 80% of the population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small industry.

The majority of the farmers are still practising the traditional methods of cultivation, resulting in low growth rates and productivity. The farmers have to be made aware of modern technologies suitable to their holdings. Providing adequate knowledge to the farmers is essential for better implementation of the agricultural development plans and to improve the productivity.[35]

Chloroxylon from India
Chloroxylon is used for Pest Management in Organic Rice Cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India

Considering this and a very limited irrigated area, the productivity of not only rice but also other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now.

Medicinal Rice
Medicinal Rice of Chhattisgarh used as Immune Booster
Aloe Farming
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera
Gulbakawali Farming
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Gulbakawali
Pigeonpea cultivation on Safed Musli Bed
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Safed Musli with Arhar

Agricultural products

The main crops are rice, maize,[36] kodo-kutki and other small millets and pulses (tuar[37] and kulthi); oilseeds, such as groundnuts (peanuts), soybeans[38] and sunflowers, are also grown. In the mid-1990s, most of Chhattisgarh was still a monocrop belt. Only one-fourth to one-fifth of the sown area was double-cropped. When a very substantial portion of the population is dependent on agriculture, a situation where nearly 80% of a state's area is covered only by one crop, immediate attention to turn them into double crop areas is needed. Also, very few cash crops are grown in Chhattisgarh, so there is a need to diversify the agriculture produce towards oilseeds and other cash crops. Chhattisgarh is also called the "rice bowl of central India".[33]

Kodo Millet in Chhattisgarh
Kodo Millet is used as Life Saving Medicine in Chhattisgarh, India
Bastar Beer
Bastar Beer prepared from Sulfi


In Chhattisgarh, rice, the main crop, is grown on about 77% of the net sown area. Only about 20% of the area is under irrigation; the rest depends on rain. Of the three agroclimatic zones, about 73% of the Chhattisgarh plains, 97% of the Bastar plateau and 95% of the northern hills are rainfed. The irrigated area available for double cropping is only 87,000 ha in Chhattisgarh plains and 2300 ha in Bastar plateau and northern hills. Due to this, the productivity of rice and other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now, though agriculture is the main occupation of more than 80% of the population.[35]

In Chhattisgarh region, about 22% of net cropped area was under irrigation as compared to 36.5% in Madhya Pradesh in 1998–99, whereas the average national irrigation was about 40%. The irrigation is characterised by a high order of variability ranging from 1.6% in Bastar to 75.0% in Dhamtari. Based on an average growth trend in the irrigated area, about 0.43% additional area is brought under irrigation every year as compared to 1.89% in Madhya Pradesh and 1.0% in the country as a whole. Thus, irrigation has been growing at a very low rate in Chhattisgarh and the pace of irrigation is so slow, it would take about 122 years to reach the 75% level of net irrigated area in Chhattisgarh at the present rate of growth.[35]

Chhattisgarh has a limited irrigation system, with dams and canals on some rivers. Average rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm and the entire state falls under the rice agroclimatic zone. The Large variation in the yearly rainfall directly affects the production of rice. Irrigation is the prime need of the state for its overall development and therefore the state government has given top priority to development of irrigation.[33]

A total of four major, 33 medium and 2199 minor irrigation projects have been completed and five major, 9 medium and 312 minor projects are under construction, as of 31 March 2006.

Industrial sector

Power sector

Chhattisgarh is one of the few states of India where the power sector is effectively developed. Based on the current production of surplus electric power, the position of the State is comfortable and profitable. The Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the state and is in good financial health. Chhattisgarh provides electricity to several other states because of surplus production.

In Chhattisgarh, National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (|NTPC) has Sipat Thermal Power Station with a capacity of 2,980 MW at Sipat, Bilaspur; LARA Super Thermal Power Station with a nameplate capacity of 1600MW and Korba Super Thermal Power Station with a capacity of 2,600 MW at Korba, while CSEB's units have a thermal capacity of 1,780 MW and hydel capacity of 130 MW. Apart from NTPC and CSEB, there are a number of private generation units of large and small capacity. The state government has pursued a liberal policy with regard to captive generation which has resulted in a number of private players coming up.[39]

The state has a potential of 61,000 MW of additional thermal power in terms of availability of coal for more than 100 years and more than 2,500 MW hydel capacity. To use this vast potential, substantial additions to the existing generation capacity are already underway.[39]

Steel sector

The steel industry is one of the biggest heavy industries of Chhattisgarh. Bhilai Steel Plant, Bhilai operated by SAIL, with a capacity of 5.4 million tonnes per year, is regarded as a significant growth indicator of the state. More than 100 steel rolling mills, 90 sponge iron plants and ferro-alloy units are in Chhattisgarh. Along with Bhilai, today Raipur, Bilaspur, Korba and Raigarh have become the steel hub of Chhattisgarh. Today, Raipur has become the centre of the steel sector, the biggest market for steel in India.[40]

Aluminium sector

The aluminium industry of Chhattisgarh was established by Bharat Aluminium Company Limited, which has a capacity of around 600,000 tonnes each year.[40]

Natural resources

Forests occupy 41.33% of the total area (as per the latest report by the Indian Forest Service) and the rich forest resources include wood, tendu leaves, honey and lac. Approximately 3%is under very dense forest, 25.97% is moderately dense, 12.28% is open forest and 0.09% is scrub.

Healing Flora of Kabirdham District
Flora of Kabirdham District
Asian Luna Moth
Indian Luna Moth in Chhattisgarh Forest
Ventilago denticulata in Chhattisgarh
Ventilago in Biodiversity Rich Chhattisgarh Forest

Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country's total cement produce. It has the highest output of coal in the country with second-highest reserves. It is third in iron ore production and first in tin production. Limestone, dolomite and bauxite are abundant. It is the only tin ore-producing state in India. Other commercially extracted minerals include corandum, garnet, quartz, marble, alexandrite and diamonds.

Maikal Hills
Maikal Hills in Chhattisgarh
Mineral wealth of Chhattisgarh
Mineral Wealth from Chandidongri, Chhattisgarh

In recent years, Chhattisgarh is also getting exposure in information technology (IT) projects and consultancy. Its government is also promoting IT and has set up a body to take care of the IT solutions. The body, known as CHiPS, is providing large IT projects such as Choice, Swan, etc.

Major companies with a presence in the state include:


Chhattisgarh's total exports were US$353.3 million in 2009–10. Nearly 75% of exports comes from Bhilai and the remaining from Urla, Bhanpuri and Sirgitti. The major exports products include steel, handicrafts, handlooms, blended yarn, food and agri-products, iron, aluminium, cement, minerals and engineering products. CSIDC (Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corporation Limited) is the nodal agency of the Government of Chhattisgarh for export promotion in the state.

Human Development Indicators


As of 2011 Chhattisgarh state had a Human Development Index value of 0.537 (medium), ranks 23rd in Indian state. The national average is 0.467 according to 2011 Indian NHDR report.[41]

Standard of living

The Standard of living in Chhattisgarh is extremely imbalanced. The cities such as Durg, Raipur, Bhilai and Bilaspur have a medium to high standard of living, while the rural and forested areas lack even the basic resources and amenities. For example-Bhilai has a literacy rate of 86%, while Bastar has a literacy rate of 54% .[42]

Raipur, The capital of Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest developing cities in India.[43] Atal Nagar (Formerly Naya Raipur[44]) is the new planned city that is touted to become the financial hub of the Central Indian region. New world class educational institutions and hospitals have already been established in the city.[45]

Education Index

Girls students, Chhattisgarh, India
School children in Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh has an Education Index of 0.526 according to the 2011 NHDR, which is higher than that of the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan. The Average Literacy rate in Chhattisgarh for Urban regions was 84.05 percent in which males were 90.58% literate while female literacy stood at 73.39%. Total literates in urban region of Chhattisgarh were 4,370,966.[46]

According to NSS (2007–08), the literacy rate for Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Scheduled Castes (SCs) was better than the corresponding national average.

Among the marginalised groups, STs are at the bottom of the rankings, further emphasising the lack of social development in the state. Bastar and Dantewada in south Chhattisgarh are the most illiterate districts and the drop out ratio is the highest among all the districts. The reason for this is the extreme poverty in rural areas.

Health Index

As per census 2011, the State has population of 25.5 million and six medical colleges ( five Government and one private) with intake capacity of 700 students and doctor patient ratio of 1:17,000.[47] Under The NITI Aayog released Health Index report titled, "Healthy States, Progressive India."- Chhattisgarh has an index of 52.02 Out of 100, which is better than states such as Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Odisha, Bihar, Assam, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.[48]

Despite different health related schemes and programmes, the health indicators such as percentage of women with BMI<18.5, Under Five Mortality Rate and underweight children are poor. This may be due to the difficulty in accessing the remote areas in the state. The prevalence of female malnutrition in Chhattisgarh is higher than the national average—half of the ST females are malnourished. The performance of SCs is a little better than the corresponding national and state average. The Under Five Mortality Rate among STs is significantly higher than the national average.

Net state domestic product

Chhattisgarh is one of the emerging states with relatively high growth rates of net state domestic product (NSDP) (8.2% vs. 7.1% All India over 2002–2008) and per capita NSDP (6.2% vs. 5.4% All India over 2002–2008). The growth rates of the said parameters are above the national averages and thus it appears that Chhattisgarh is catching up with other states in this respect. However, the state still has very low levels of per capita income as compared to the other states.


Out of total population of Chhattisgarh, 23.24% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 5,937,237 of which 3,035,469 are males and while remaining 2,901,768 are females. Raipur, Durg, Bhilai Nagar, Bilaspur, Korba, Jagdalpur, Rajnandgaon and Raigarh are some of the urban towns and cities in the region.[46]

Sex ratio

There are more than 13 million males and 12.9  million females in Chhattisgarh, which constitutes 2.11% of the country's population. The sex ratio in the state is one of the most balanced in India with 991 females per 1,000 males, as is the child sex-ratio with 964 females per 1,000 males (Census 2011)

Fertility rate

Chhattisgarh has a fairly high fertility rate (3.1) as compared to All India (2.6) and the replacement rate (2.1). It has rural fertility rate of 3.2 and urban fertility rate of 2.1.

SC and ST population

With the exception of the hilly states of the north-east, Chhattisgarh has one of highest shares of Scheduled Tribe (ST) populations within a state, accounting for about 10 percent of the STs in India. Scheduled Castes and STs together constitute more than 50 percent of the state's population. The tribals are an important part of the state population and mainly inhabit the dense forests of Bastar and other districts of south Chhattisgarh. The Scheduled Caste (SC) population of Chhattisgarh is 2,418,722 as per 2001 census constituting 11.6 percent of the total population (20,833,803). The proportion of Scheduled Castes has increased from 11.6 percent in 2001 to 12.8% in 2011. The percentage increase in the population of the scheduled list of tribals during the 2001–2011 decade had been at the rate of 18.23 percent. The share of the tribal population in the entire state had been 30.62 per cent which was 31.76 per cent during 2001.


Diospyros melanoxylon Tendu
Tendu Patta (Leaf) collection in Chhattisgarh, India.

The incidence of poverty in Chhattisgarh is very high. The estimated poverty ratio in 2004–05 based on uniform reference period consumption was around 50 per cent, which is approximately double the all India level. The incidence of poverty in the rural and urban areas is almost the same.

More than half of the rural STs and urban SCs are poor. In general, the proportion of poor SC and ST households in the state is higher than the state average and their community's respective national averages (except for rural SC households). Given that more than 50 per cent of the state's population is ST and SC, the high incidence of income poverty among them is a matter of serious concern in the state.

This indicates that the good economic performance in recent years has not percolated to this socially deprived group, which is reflected in their poor performance in human development indicators.

Access to drinking water

In terms of access to improved drinking water sources, at the aggregate level, Chhattisgarh fared better than the national average and the SCs of the state performed better than the corresponding national average. Scheduled Tribes are marginally below the state average, but still better than the STs at the all India level.

The proportion of households with access to improved sources of drinking water in 2008–09 was 91%. This proportion was over 90% even in states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. This was largely because these states had over 70% of their households accessing tube wells/ handpumps as sources of drinking water.


Sanitation facilities in the state were abysmally low with only about 41 per cent having toilet facilities before the Swachh Bharat Mission was Launched by the Government of India. The Urban areas of Chhattisgarh attained the title of open defecation free on 2 October 2017 and the rural areas have achieved a 90.31% sanitation coverage . What sets Chhattisgarh apart from other states of India is an approach to bring in behavioural change in order to get open defecation free status.In Chhattisgarh, people don't get toilet incentives, they have to construct the toilet with their own money, after using the toilet for 3 months they are entitled for the incentive amount.[49]


Across states, it has been found that teledensity (telephone density) was below 10 per cent in 2010 for Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, reflecting a lack of access to telephones in these relatively poorer states.But due to development of new technology the teledensity in 2017 is 68.08 per cent which shows improvement of telecom infrastructure. On the other hand, for states like Delhi and Himachal Pradesh and metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, teledensity was over 100 per cent in 2010 implying that individuals have more than one telephone connection.

Road density

The total density of National Highways (NHs) in Chhattisgarh is at 23.4 km per 1,000 km2 out of the total length of 3,168 km in the State, the Central Government has informed. Chhattisgarh Government had completed construction of 5,266 cement concrete (CC) roads having a total length of 1,530 km in various villages of the State as on 31 May 2016 under 'Mukhyamantri Gram Sadak Yojana'.[50]


Chhattisgarh has an urban population of 23.4%(around 5.1 million people in 2011) residing in urban areas. According to a report by the government of India,[53] at least 34% are Scheduled Tribes, 12% are Scheduled Castes and over 50% belong to the official list of Other Backward Classes. The plains are numerically dominated by castes such as Teli, Satnami and Kurmi; while forest areas are mainly occupied by tribes such as Gond, Halbi, Halba and Kamar/Bujia and Oraon. A large community of Bengalis has existed in major cities since the times of the British Raj. They are associated with education, industry and services.


Religion in Chhattisgarh (2011)[54]

  Hinduism (93.25%)
  Islam (2.01%)
  Christianity (1.92%)
  Sikhism (0.27%)
  Buddhism (0.27%)
  Jainism (0.24%)
  Sarnaism or not religious (3.01%)

According to the 2011 census, 93.25% of Chhattisgarh's population practised Hinduism, while 2% followed Islam, 1.92% followed Christianity and smaller number followed Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism or other religions.[54] Sarnaism is the indigenous religion followed by the indigenous tribes of the state.


To bring about social reforms and with a view to discourage undesirable social practices, Chhattisgarh government has enacted the Chhattisgarh Tonhi Atyachar (Niwaran) Act, 2005 against witchery.[55] Much has to be done on the issue of law enforcement by judicial authorities to protect women in this regard, bringing such persecution to an end.[56]

Some sections of tribal population of Chhattisgarh state believe in witchcraft.[56] Women are believed to have access to supernatural forces and are accused of being witches (tonhi) often to settle personal scores.

As of 2010, they are still hounded out of villages on the basis of flimsy accusations by male village sorcerers paid to do so by villagers with personal agendas, such as property and goods acquisition.[56] According to National Geographic Channel's investigations, those accused are fortunate if they are only verbally bullied and shunned or exiled from their village.

Mission Against Witchcraft
Social Mission Against Blind Faith

Religious persecution

According to the Christian organisation Release International, several Christians in Chhattisgarh have been attacked and killed by Hindu nationalists. Lachhu Kashap was killed and his brother, Pastor Shuduru Kashap beaten in Mandala, and several other Christians have been beaten by mobs of up to fifty people. When Chhattisgarh separated from Madhya Pradesh in 2000 it inherited anti-conversion laws which were further tightened in 2007. Those wishing to convert to Christianity need to submit an official affidavit, leading to an official police investigation into their reasons for converting. Punishment for contravening the regulations can be up to three years' prison or fines of up to 20,000 rupees.[57]


The official languages of the state are Chhattisgarhi and Hindi. Chhattisgarhi is spoken and understood by the majority of people in Chhattisgarh. Among other languages, Odia is widely spoken by a significant number of Odia population in the eastern part of the state. Marathi and Telugu are also spoken in parts of Chhattisgarh. Chhattisgarhi was known as "Khaltahi" to the surrounding hill-people and as "Laria" to Odia speakers.

In addition to Chhattisgarhi, there are several other languages spoken by the tribal people of the Bastar region, geographically equivalent to the former Bastar state, like Halbi, Gondi and Bhatri.[58][59][60][61][62]

Status of women

Adivasi woman and child, Chhattisgarh, Nov 2005
Adivasi woman and child

Chhattisgarh has a high female-male sex ratio (991)[63] ranking at the fifth position among other states of India. Although this ratio is small compared to other states, it is unique in India because Chhattisgarh is the 10th-largest state in India.

The gender ratio (number of females per 1,000 males) has been steadily declining over 20th century in Chhattisgarh. But it is conspicuous that Chhattisgarh always had a better female-to-male ratio compared with national average.

Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
India 972 964 955 950 945 946 941 930 934 927 933 940
Chhattisgarh 1046 1039 1041 1043 1032 1024 1008 998 998 985 989 991
Young Indian women, Chhattisgarh, 2005
Young women in Chhattisgarh

Probably, such social composition also results in some customs and cultural practices that seem unique to Chhattisgarh: The regional variants are common in India's diverse cultural pattern.

Rural women, although poor, are independent, better organised, socially outspoken.[64] According to another local custom, women can choose to terminate a marriage relationship through a custom called chudi pahanana, if she desires. Most of the old temples and shrines here are related to 'women power' (e.g., Shabari, Mahamaya, Danteshwari) and the existence of these temples gives insight into historical and current social fabric of this state. However, a mention of these progressive local customs in no way suggests that the ideology of female subservience does not exist in Chhattisgarh. On the contrary, the male authority and dominance is seen quite clearly in the social and cultural life.

Detailed information on aspects of women's status in Chhattisgarh can be found in 'A situational analysis of women and girls in Chhattisgarh' prepared in 2004 by the National Commission of Women, a statutory body belonging to government of India.

Tribal Woman at Weekly Village Market
Adivasi woman at Farasgaon Market
Kamar Natives
Natives of Kamar Tribe


Temple Carvings in Malhar Bilaspur Chhattisgarh 2009
A carving in the 10th- or 11th-century Hindu temple of Malhar village. This area, 40 km from Bilaspur, was supposedly a major Buddhist centre in ancient times.

The state hosts many religious sects such as Satnami Panth, Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj and others. Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a small town with religious significance as the birthplace of the Saint Vallabhacharya, increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the Gujarati community.

Chhattisgarh has a significant role in the life of lord Rama. Lord Rama along with his wife Sita and his younger brother Lakshaman had started his Vanvas (exile) in the Bastar region (more precisely Dandakaranya region) of Chhattisgarh. They lived more than 10 of their 14 years of Vanvas in different places of Chhattisgarh. One of the remarkable place is Shivrinarayan which is nearby Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh. Shivrinarayan was named after an old lady Shabari. When Ram visited Shabari she said "I do not have anything to offer other than my heart, but here are some berry fruits. May it please you, my Lord." Saying so, Shabari offered the fruits she had meticulously collected to Rama. When Rama was tasting them, Lakshmana raised the concern that Shabari had already tasted them and therefore unworthy of eating. To this Rama said that of the many types of food he had tasted, "nothing could equal these berry fruits, offered with such devotion. You taste them, then alone will you know. Whomsoever offers a fruit, leaf, flower or some water with love, I partake it with great joy."

The Odia culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh bordering Odisha.


Chhattisgarh is a storehouse of literature, performing arts and crafts—all of which derives its substance and sustenance from the day-to-day life experiences of its people. Religion, mythology, social and political events, nature and folklore are favourite motifs. Traditional crafts include painting, woodcarving, bell metal craft, bamboo ware and tribal jewellery. Chhattisgarh has a rich literary heritage with roots that lie deep in the sociological and historical movements of the region. Its literature reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India.


Chhattisgarh is known for "Kosa silk" and "lost wax art". Besides saris and salwar suits, the fabric is used to create lehengas, stoles, shawls and menswear including jackets, shirts, achkans and sherwanis. Works by the internationally renowned sculptor, Sushil Sakhuja's Dhokra Nandi, are available at government's Shabagcrafts emporium, Raipur.


Panthi, Rawat Nacha, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila, Khamb-swang, Bhatra Naat, Rahas, Raai, Maao-Pata and Soowa are the several indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh.


, the folk dance of the Satnami community, has religious overtones. Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, tbla the anniversary of the birth of Guru Ghasidas. The dancers dance around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogising their spiritual head. The songs reflect a view of nirvana, conveying the spirit of their guru's renunciation and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir, Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms dance, carried away by their devotion. As the rhythm quickens, they perform acrobatics and form human pyramids.[65]


Pandavani is a folk ballad form performed predominantly in Chhattisgarh. It depicts the story of the Pandavas, the leading characters in the epic Mahabharata. The artists in the Pandavani narration consist of a lead artist and some supporting singers and musicians. There are two styles of narration in Pandavani, Vedamati and Kapalik. In the Vedamati style the lead artist narrates in a simple manner by sitting on the floor throughout the performance. The Kaplik style is livelier, where the narrator actually enacts the scenes and characters. Padmvibhushan Tijan Bai is most popular artist of Pandwani[66]

Pandwani by Ritu Verma

Raut Nacha

Raut Nacha, the folk dance of cowherds, is a traditional dance of Yaduvanshis (clan of Yadu) as symbol of worship to Krishna from the 4th day of Diwali (Goverdhan Puja) till the time of Dev Uthani Ekadashi (day of awakening of the gods after a brief rest) which is the 11th day after Diwali according to the Hindu calendar. The dance closely resembles Krishna's dance with the gopis (milkmaids).[67][68]

In Bilaspur, the Raut Nach Mahotsav folk dance festival is organised annually since 1978. Tens of hundreds of Rautt dancers from remote areas participate.[69]

Raut Nacha
Raut Nacha

Soowa Nacha

Soowa or Suwa tribal dance in Chhattisgarh is also known as Parrot Dance. It is a symbolic form of dancing related to worship. Dancers keep a parrot in a bamboo-pot and form a circle around it. Then performers sing and dance, moving around it with clapping. This is one of the main dance form of tribal women of Chhattisgarh.[70]

Sua Nacha
Sua Nacha at Khudmudi Village, Chhattisgarh


Tribal groups like Gonds, the Baigas and the Oraons in Chhattisgarh have Karma dance as part of their culture. Both men and women arrange themselves in two rows and follow the rhythmic steps, directed by the singer group. The Karma tribal dance marks the end of the rainy season and the advent of spring season.[71][72]

Festivals of Chhattisgarh

  • Lata mangeshkar sang a song for Chhattisgarhi film Bhakla of Dhriti pati sarkar.
  • Mohmd Rafi sang a song for Chhattisgarhi film. He had also sung songs for various Chhattisgarhi films like Ghardwaar, Kahi Debe Sandes, Punni Ke Chanda, etc.


Theater is known as Gammat in Chhattisgarh. Pandavani is one of the lyrical forms of this theatre. Several acclaimed plays of Habib Tanvir, such as Charandas Chor, are variations of Chhattisgarhi theatre.

Muktibodh Rashtriya Natya Samaroh
Natya Samaroh by IPTA

Film industry

Chhollywood is Chhattisgarh's film industries. Every year many Chhattisgarhi film produced by local producers.

Traditional food

The State of Chhattisgarh is known as the rice bowl of India and has a rich tradition of food culture.[73][74][75][76][77][78]

Red Velvet Mite is used as Medicine in Traditional Healing of Chhattisgarh


Chhattisgarh, situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The state is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, exquisitely carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, waterfalls, caves, rock paintings and hill plateaus.

There are many water falls, hot springs, caves, temples, dams and national parks, Tiger reserve and wildlife sanctuaries in Chhattisgarh.

India's first man made Jungle Safari is also situated in Raipur.


According to the census of 2011, Chhattisgarh's literacy, the most basic indicator of education was at 71.04 per cent. Female literacy is at 60.59 per cent.

Absolute literates and literacy rate

Data from Census of India, 2011.[79]

Description 2001 census 2011 census
Total 20,833,803 25,540,196
Male 10,474,218 12,827,915
Female 10,359,585 12,712,281
% Total 64.66 71.04
% Male 77.38 81.45
% Female 55.85 60.59

See also


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  • Books on Chhattisgarh
    • ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की जनजातियाँ Tribes और जातियाँ Castes (मानसी पब्लीकेशन,दिल्ली 6, ISBN 978-81-89559-32-8)
    • ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की पूर्व रियासतें और जमीन्दारियाँ (वैभव प्रकाशन,रायपुर 1, ISBN 81-89244-96-5)
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "सन्दर्भ छत्तीसगढ़"
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "छत्तीसगढ़ के तीर्थ और पर्यटन स्थल"
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "Chhattisgarh: Beautiful & Bountiful (Study in Biodiversity of Chhattisgarh)"
    • Ramesh Dewangan & Sunil Tuteja, "Chhattisgarh Samagra"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
    • Lawrence Babb, "The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism in Central India"
    • Saurabh Dube, "Untouchable Pasts: Religion, Identity and Power among a Central Indian Community, 1780–1950" (on the Satnamis)
    • Ramdas Lamb, "Rapt in the Name: Ramnamis, Ramnam and Untouchable Religion in Central India"
    • Chad Bauman, "Identifying the Satnam: Hindu Satnamis, Indian Christians and Dalit Religion in Colonial Chhattisgarh, India (1868–1947) (Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton Theological Seminary, 2005)
    • "List of books by Prof H. L. Shukla

External links

Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh

Bilaspur is a city in Bilaspur District in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh . Bilaspur is the administrative headquarters of Bilaspur District and Bilaspur Division. The Chhattisgarh High Court, located at Bodri, District Bilaspur has privileged it with the title 'Nyayadhani' ((Hindi: न्याय धानी) Law Capital) of the state. The Bilaspur High Court is the largest High Court of Asia. This city is the commercial center and business hub of North East Chhattisgarh region. It is also an important city for the Indian Railways, as it is the headquarters for South East Central Railway Zone and the Bilaspur Railway Division. Bilaspur is 3rd cleanest and 4th longest railway station in India. Bilaspur is also the headquarters of South Eastern Coalfields Limited. Many power plants including NTPC, Sipat are near Bilaspur.

Bilaspur is known for its aromatic rice variety named Doobraj rice, handloom woven colourful soft Kosa silk saris. Basic Tasar Silkworm Seed Organisation (BTSSO) under the Central Silk Board, Government of India collects, executes the production and supply of nucleus and basic Tasar seed from surrounding areas.

Bilaspur has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission.

Chhattisgarh Board of Secondary Education

Chhattisgarh Board of Secondary Education (abbreviated as CGBSE) is a board of education in state of Chhattisgarh, India. CGBSE is state agency of Government of Chhattisgarh in India, it is responsible for promotion and development of secondary education in Chhattisgarh. The Board has conducted its exams independently from the year 2002, and conducts High School, Higher Secondary and Diploma Courses.The various FUNCTIONS of the Board as mentioned in the CGBSE website are:

Highschool / Higher Secondary / Higher Secondary Professional / Physical Training Certificate Test Certificate and D. Ed. Operation of the examinations.

Instructions for the proposed curriculum for the Chhattisgarh Secondary Education Board and advise the government for the creation of textbooks.

Recognition of High School and Higher Secondary Schools located in Chhattisgarh

Take all necessary steps to raise the level of Chhattisgarh Secondary Education Board.

Encourage students and teachers to encourage and motivate them

Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly

The Chhattisgarh Vidhan Sabha or the Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of Chhattisgarh state in central India. The seat of the Vidhan Sabha is at Raipur, the capital of the state. The Vidhan Sabha comprises 91 Members of Legislative Assembly, which include 90 members directly elected from single-seat constituencies and 1 nominated from the Anglo-Indian community. Its term is 5 years, unless sooner dissolved.

Chhattisgarh Pradesh Congress Committee

Chhattisgarh Pradesh Congress Committee is the state wing of Indian National Congress serving in Chhattisgarh.

Shri Bhupesh Baghel is currently president of the Congress party in Chhattisgarh and Deepak khatri is state coordinator social media IT cell.

Chhattisgarh cricket team

Chhattisgarh cricket team is a cricket team from the state of Chhattisgarh, India.Chhattisgarh began playing in Indian domestic tournaments including the Ranji Trophy from the 2016–17 season. The team is managed by Chhattisgarh State Cricket Sangh which was granted the full-member status by the Board of Control for Cricket in India in February 2016. The team made its first-class cricket debut in Group C of the 2016–17 Ranji Trophy against Tripura on 6 October 2016. They won the match by nine wickets.

Chhattisgarhi language

Chhattisgarhi (Devanagari: छत्तीसगढ़ी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, by 24 million people. It is an Eastern Hindi language and is part of the Central Indo-Aryan language family with heavy vocabulary and linguistic features from Munda and Dravidian languages.

Chhattisgarhi is also known as Kosali and Eastern Hindi as in ancient times Chhattisgarh was in the region Dakshina Kosala region of ancient India. Chhattisgarhi has been known by the name Khaltahi to surrounding hill-people and by the name Laria to speakers in neighboring regions of Odisha to Chhattisgarh.

The speakers are concentrated in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh and in adjacent areas of Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Jharkhand. Some Linguistics also treat this language and Nagpuri or Sadri languages as a dialect of Odia .

Chhattisgarhi cultural and political movements, with origins from the 1920s, affirmed Chhattisgarhi linguistic and cultural identity and sought greater autonomy within India. It was 1 November, 2000 when 16 districts in the state of Madhya Pradesh became the new state of Chhattisgarh.

Janta Congress Chhattisgarh

Janta Congress Chhattisgarh (or Chhattisgarh Janata Congress) is a political party in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. The party was founded by former Chief Minister, Ajit Jogi, after Jogi and his son Amit were expelled from Indian National Congress due to anti-party activities as well as sabotaging a bypoll election in Antagarh. Amit Jogi was expelled for six years.Ajit Jogi launched the party in Thathapur village of Kawardha district and directly challenged Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh Raman Singh.

List of Chief Ministers of Chhattisgarh

The Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh is the chief executive of the central Indian state of Chhattisgarh. As per the Constitution of India, the Governor of Chhattisgarh is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.Since Chhattisgarh was created in 2000, when it was carved out of the Chhattisgarhi speaking southern districts of Madhya Pradesh, three people have served as the state's chief minister. The first was the Indian National Congress party's Ajit Jogi, who served for three years from 2000 to 2003. Raman Singh of the BJP has the longest incumbency of 15 years. The Incumbent CM is Bhupesh Baghel of the Indian National Congress.

List of institutions of higher education in Chhattisgarh

This is an incomplete list of universities and colleges in Chhattisgarh, India.

Nagpur Chhattisgarh Railway

Nagpur Chhattisgarh Railway was a 149 miles 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge line owned by the provincial government and operated by the state railways. The line ran from Nagpur via Tumsar - Gondia and Dongargarh to Rajnandgaon. The initial section from Nagpur to Tumsar was opened on 6 July 1880, continuing to Tirora on 21 February 1881, Gondia on 18 May 1881, Amgaon on 25 November 1881 and completed to Rajnandgaon on 16 February 1882.The Nagpur Chhattisgarh Railway was transferred to be operated by the Bengal Nagpur Railway in year 1888 and was converted into 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge in the same year itself. The new track from Rajnandgaon to Asansol was later laid since 1888 onwards uner BNR.

National Highway 43 (India)

National Highway 43 (NH 43) is a National Highway in India. It traverses from Gulganj in Madhya Pradesh, through Chhattisgarh and terminates at Chaibasa in Jharkhand.

National Highway 63 (India)

National Highway 63 (NH 63) (previously National Highway 16), is a National Highway in India, total length 860 km (530 mi) that connects Nizamabad in Telangana and Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh. It passes through the states of Telangana, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh.

Naxalite–Maoist insurgency

The Naxalite–Maoist insurgency is an ongoing conflict between Maoist groups known as Naxalites or Naxals and the Indian government. The conflict in its present form began after the 2004 formation of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) (CPI-Maoists), a rebel group composed of the People's War Group (PWG) and the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC). In January 2005, talks between the Andhra Pradesh state government and the CPI-Maoists broke down and the rebels accused authorities of not addressing their demands for a written truce, release of prisoners and redistribution of land. The ongoing conflict has taken place over a vast territory (around half of India's 29 states) with hundreds of people being killed annually in clashes between the CPI-Maoists and the government every year since 2005.

However, it is now confined to only few districts of Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra.

The armed wing of the Naxalite–Maoists is called the People's Liberation Guerrilla Army (PLGA) and is estimated to have between 6,500 and 9,500 cadres, mostly armed with small arms. According to a study of the newspaper The Times of India, 58% of people surveyed in the state of Andhra Pradesh have a positive perception of the guerrilla, against only 19% against it. The Naxalites have frequently targeted tribal, police and government workers in what they say is a fight for improved land rights and more jobs for neglected agricultural labourers and the poor. The Naxalites claim that they are following a strategy of rural rebellion similar to a protracted people's war against the government.In February 2009, the Indian central government announced a new nationwide initiative to be called the Integrated Action Plan (IAP) for broad co-ordinated operations aimed at dealing with the Naxalite problem in all affected states, namely Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. This plan included funding for grass-roots economic development projects in Naxalite-affected areas as well as increased special police funding for better containment and reduction of Naxalite influence. After the first full year of implementation of the national IAP program, Karnataka was removed from the list of Naxal-affected states in August 2010. In July 2011, the number of Naxal-affected areas was reduced to (figure includes proposed addition of 20 districts) 83 districts across nine states. In December 2011, the national government reported that the number of Naxalite related deaths and injuries nationwide had gone down by nearly 50% from 2010 levels.

The Naxalite–Maoist insurgency gained international media attention after the 2013 Naxal attack in Darbha valley resulted in the deaths of around 24 Indian National Congress leaders, including the former state minister Mahendra Karma and the Chhattisgarh Congress chief Nand Kumar Patel.


Raipur ( pronunciation ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is also the largest city of the state. It was formerly a part of Madhya Pradesh before the state of Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000. It has a widely diverse population from all over the country. On the industrial propects, it has seen an exponential growth over the years. With a strong presence of international brands and prominent global automobile companies, Raipur has emerged as a major business hub in the central India. It is ranked 7th in Ease of Living Index 2018 by Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA)

Raipur-Bhilai-Durg Expressway

Raipur-Bhilai-Durg Expressway is a 70-kilometre-long (43 mi) high-speed urban expressway which links Raipur- Bhilai and Durg on Asian Highway 46 (India) (AH-46) in the state of Chhattisgarh. The expressway also connects Chhattisgarh with Visakhapatnam, one of the most important ports of India.

The expressway has two toll stations installed, one at Kharun - at the entry point of the expressway from Raipur and the other at Kutelabhata - at the exit point of the expressway towards Bhilai.

The construction work of Raipur-Bhilai Expressway Project, worth Rs 95 crore was awarded by the National Highways Authority of India to DS Constructions Ltd (DSC). The expressway has been constructed on a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) basis with a concession period of 11 years 9 months, including the construction period of the project. The work included four laning of the existing two-lane carriageway on the Raipur-Bhilai section of NH-6 in Chhattisgarh. This has reduced the travel time between Raipur and Bhilai.

Raman Singh

Raman Singh (born 15 October 1952) is an Indian politician who was the 2nd Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh from 7 December 2003 to 16 December 2018. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party. He is also an ENT ayurvedic doctor. He is also the longest serving CM of Chhattisgarh for 15 years.

Saroj Pandey

Saroj Pandey (born 22 June 1968) is a politician and a member of Bharatiya Janata Party. She was elected to the 15th Lok Sabha from Durg. In 2008, she was appointed as the national president of BJP Mahila Morcha (woman wing of Bharatiya Janata Party). She has also held party positions at state level. In March 2018, she won the Chhattisgarh Rajya Sabha seat. On 8 December 2008, she won election as the first MLA of Vaishali Nagar, a newly formed Vidhan Sabha constituency in Chhattisgarh. Prior to that, she was the mayor of Durg for two terms.She is a holder of World record for holding the post of a Mayor, M.L.A. and M.P. at the same time and this record is nominated for Guinness Book of World Records and Limca Book of Records; She also holds the record for having longest term as a Mayor from Durg, for continuous 10 years and has also received the Best Mayor award.Pandey has served as a general secretary and spokes person of the party,then she holds the position of National Secretary of BJP then she serves as a President BJP Mahila Morcha. Currently she is National General Secretary of Bhartiya Janata Party. In 2018, she got elected to Upper house i.e, Rajya Sabha from Chhattisgarh.

South East Central Railway zone

The South East Central Railway (abbreviated SECR and दपूमरे) is one of the 18 railway zones in India. It is headquartered at Bilaspur and comprises the Bilaspur and Nagpur divisions (formerly part of the South Eastern Railway) and the new Raipur division.

Swami Vivekananda Airport

Swami Vivekananda Airport (IATA: RPR, ICAO: VARP), formerly known as Raipur Airport , is the primary airport serving the state of Chhattisgarh, India. The airport is located at Mana between Raipur (15 km (9.3 mi)) and Naya Raipur 10 km (6.2 mi). It is the 29th busiest airport in India by passenger traffic and 32nd busiest by aircraft movement.

On 24 January 2012, the airport was renamed after Swami Vivekananda, as a tribute to the popular saint who spent two of his teenage years in Raipur.

Population Growth 
Source:Census of India[51][52]
Places adjacent to Chhattisgarh
State of Chhattisgarh
Union Territories

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