Chersonesus

Chersonesus (Ancient Greek: Χερσόνησος, romanizedKhersónēsos; Latin: Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula. The colony was established in the 6th century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica.

The ancient city is located on the shore of the Black Sea at the outskirts of Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula, where it is referred to as Khersones. It has been nicknamed the "Ukrainian Pompeii".[1] The site is now part of the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos. The name Chersonesos in Greek means "peninsula", and aptly describes the site on which the colony was established. It should not be confused with the Tauric Chersonese, the name often applied to the whole of the southern Crimea.

During much of the classical period Chersonesus was a democracy ruled by a group of elected Archons and a council called the Demiurgoi. As time passed the government grew more oligarchic, with power concentrated in the hands of the archons. A form of oath sworn by all the citizens since the 3rd century BC has survived to the present day.[2] In 2013, Chersonesus was listed as a World Heritage Site.

Chersonesus
Χερσόνησος
Херсонес
Chersonesos ruins
St. Vladimir's Cathedral overlooks the extensive excavations of Chersonesus.
Chersonesus is located in Sevastopol
Chersonesus
Shown within Sevastopol
Alternative nameChersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson
LocationGagarin Raion, Sevastopol
RegionTaurica
Coordinates44°36′42″N 33°29′36″E / 44.61167°N 33.49333°ECoordinates: 44°36′42″N 33°29′36″E / 44.61167°N 33.49333°E
TypeSettlement
Part ofNational Preserve "Khersones Tavriysky"
Area30 ha (74 acres)
History
BuilderSettlers from Heraclea Pontica
Founded6th century BC
AbandonedAround 1400 AD
PeriodsClassical Greece to Late Middle Ages
CulturesGreek, Roman, Hunnic, Byzantine
Site notes
Excavation dates1827
ManagementThe National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos
Websitewww.chersonesos.org
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameAncient city of Tauric Chersonese
Part ofAncient City of Tauric Chersonese and its Chora
CriteriaCultural: (ii), (v)
Reference1411
Inscription2013 (37th Session)
Area42.8 ha (0.165 sq mi)
Buffer zone207.2 ha (0.800 sq mi)
Websitechersonesos-sev.ru

History

Greek colony

Odessa museum expo 12
Greek Coin from Cherronesos in Crimea depicting Diotimus wearing the royal diadem r., in exergue, ΧΕΡ ΔΙΟΤΙΜΟΥ Chersonesus in Crimea. 2nd century BCE.

In the late 2nd century BC Chersonesus became a dependency of the Bosporan Kingdom. It was subject to Rome from the middle of the 1st century BC until the 370s AD, when it was captured by the Huns.

Byzantine Era

It became a Byzantine possession during the Early Middle Ages and withstood a siege by the Göktürks in 581. Byzantine rule was slight: there was a small imperial garrison more for the town's protection than for its control. It was useful to Byzantium in two ways: as an observation point to watch the barbarian tribes, and its isolation made it a popular place of exile for those who angered the Roman and later Byzantine governments. Among its more famous "inmates" were Pope Clement I and Pope Martin I, and the deposed Byzantine Emperor Justinian II.

According to Theophanes the Confessor and others, Chersonesus was the residence of a Khazar governor (tudun) in the late 7th century. Between approximately 705 and 840, the city's affairs were managed by elected officials called babaghuq, meaning "father of the city.[3]

In 833 Emperor Theophilus sent the nobleman Petronas Kamateros, who had recently overseen the construction of the Khazar fortress of Sarkel, to take direct control over the city and its environs, establishing the theme of Klimata/Cherson. It remained in Byzantine hands until the 980s, when it reportedly fell to Kiev. Vladimir the Great agreed to evacuate the fortress only if Basil II's sister Anna Porphyrogeneta would be given him in marriage. The demand caused a scandal in Constantinople. As a pre-condition for the marriage settlement, Vladimir was baptized here in 988, thus paving the way to the Baptism of Kievan Rus'. Thereafter Korsun' was evacuated.

Since this campaign is not recorded in Greek sources, historians have suggested that this account actually refers to the events of the Rus'-Byzantine War (1043) and to a different Vladimir. In fact, most valuables looted by the Slavs in Korsun' made their way to Novgorod (perhaps by way of Joachim the Korsunian, the first Novgorodian bishop, as his surname indicates ties to Korsun), where they were preserved in the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom until the 20th century. One of the most interesting items from this "Korsun Treasure" is the copper Korsun Gate, supposedly captured by the Novgorodians in Korsun' and now part of the St. Sophia Cathedral.

After the Fourth Crusade (1202–04), Chersonesus became dependent on the Byzantine Empire of Trebizond as the Principality of Theodoro. After the Siege of Trebizond (1461) the Principality of Theodoro became independent. The city fell under Genoese control in the early 13th century. In 1299, the town was sacked by the Mongol armies of Nogai Khan's Golden Horde.

Ecclesiastical History

Chersonesus had been a Roman pre-Great Schism, later Greek/Orthodox, episcopal see for centuries, elevated early to the rank of archbishopric, since it is mentioned as such in the Notitiae Episcopatuum; it disappeared after the Turkish conquest in 1475 and the destruction of the city.[4]

Храм святого Владимира 5
The Saint Vladimir Cathedral in Chersonesus was built in the 19th century in the Byzantine Revival style.

In the late 19th century, the grand Russian Orthodox St Vladimir's Cathedral (completed 1892) was built on a small hill overlooking the site; designed in Byzantine style, it was intended to commemorate the site of Vladimir's baptism.

Latin (now titular) see

In 1333 a Latin Church diocese of Chersonesus was established, but it appears that it had only a bishop, a Dominican called Richard the Englishman.[5][6][7]

No longer a residential diocese, Chersonesus in Zechia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular archbishopric,[8] since the early 20th century, originally called Cherson(a) or Chersonesus, since 1933 specifically Chersonesus in Zechia, avoiding confusion with other sees called Chersonesus (notably in Crete) by specifying it is Crimean.

It is vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, all of the intermediary (archiepiscopal) rank:

  • Donald Louis Mackintosh (1912.06.11 – 1919.10.08)
  • Alexis-Armand Charost (1920.06.15 – 1921.09.22) as Coadjutor Archbishop of Rennes (1920.06.15 – 1921.09.22), succeeding as Metropolitan Archbishop of Rennes (Brittany, France) (1921.09.22 – 1930.11.07), created Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria della Vittoria (1922.12.14 – 1930.11.07); previously Titular Bishop of Miletopolis (1913.02.14 – 1913.11.21) & Auxiliary Bishop of Cambrai (France) (1913.02.14 – 1913.11.21), then Bishop of Lille (France) (1913.11.21 – 1920.06.15)
  • Giovanni Beda Cardinale, Benedictine Order (O.S.B.) (1922.07.25 – 1933.12.01)
  • Albert Levame (1933.12.21 – 1958.12.05)
  • Louis Parisot, Society of African Missions (S.M.A.) (1960.01.14 – 1960.04.21)
  • Serapione Uluhogian, Mechitarists (C.A.M.) (1960.07.22 – 1965.05.16)
  • Hemaiagh Guédiguian, C.A.M. (1971.03.03 – 1976.07.03), later Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians (Lebanon) ([1976.07.03] 1976.07.05 – retired 1982.05.30), President of Synod of the Armenian Catholic Church (1976.07.05 – 1982.05.30)

Remains

Archaeological site

Chersonesos columns
The 1935 Basilica
Базилика 1935 года 4
The 1935 Basilica

Chersonesus' ancient ruins are presently located in one of Sevastopol's suburbs. They were excavated by the Russian government, starting from 1827. They are today a popular tourist attraction, protected as an archaeological park.

The buildings mix influences of Greek, Roman and Byzantine culture. The defensive wall was approximately 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) long, 3.5 to 4 metres wide and 8 to 10 metres high with towers at a height of 10 to 12 metres. The walls enclosed an area of about 30 hectares (74 acres).[9] Buildings include a Roman amphitheatre and a Greek temple.

The surrounding land under the control of the city, the chora, consists of several square kilometres of ancient but now barren farmland, with remains of wine presses and defensive towers. According to archaeologists, the evidence suggests that the locals were paid to do the farm work instead of being enslaved.

The excavated tombstones hint at burial practices that were different from the Greek ones. Each stone marks the tomb of an individual, instead of the whole family and the decorations include only objects like sashes and weapons, instead of burial statues. Over half of the tombs archaeologists have found have bones of children. Burned remnants suggest that the city was plundered and destroyed.

In 2007, Chersonesus tied for fifth in the Seven Wonders of Ukraine poll.

On February 13, 2009, Ukrainian Defence Minister Yuriy Yekhanurov called on Russia's Black Sea naval fleet to move its automobile depot from the site to another place. The location of the Russian Black Sea naval fleet's automobile depot was one of the obstacles to the inclusion of the reserve on UNESCO's list of world heritage sites.[10]

The 1935 Basilica

The 1935 Basilica is the most famous basilica excavated in Chersonesus. The original name is unknown so "1935" refers to the year it was opened.[11] The basilica was probably built in the 6th century on the site of an earlier temple, assumed by historians to be a synagogue, itself replacing a small temple dating from the early days of Christianity.[12] The 1935 basilica is often used as an image representing Chersonesos. Its picture appears on one Ukrainian banknote.[11]

Museum contents

As well as the archaeological sites, the museum has around 200,000 smaller items from 5 AD to the 15th century, over 5,000 of which are currently exhibited. These include:[13]

  • ancient texts, including the Oath of Chersonese citizens (3rd century BC),[14] decrees in honour of Diophantus (2nd century BC) [15]
  • a collection of coins
  • a mosaic of black and white pebbles and coloured stones
  • ancient ceramics
  • architectural fragments, including ancient and medieval abacuses, reliefs, the remains of ancient murals

Current studies

The Institute of Classical Archaeology of the University of Texas at Austin and the local Archaeological Park has investigated the site since 1992. The Ukrainian government has included the site on its tentative World Heritage List. The site, however, is in danger of further urban encroachment and coastal erosion.

In 2013, "The Ancient City of Tauric Chersonese and its Chora" was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This World Heritage Site consists of seven locations that encompass the city of Chersonesus and six plots of agricultural land. The site was designated as a World Heritage site under the UNESCO criterion (ii) and (v). UNESCO considers these areas to show cultural lifestyles and land use of ancient populations that inhabited these areas.[16]

During the 2014 Crimean crisis the Crimean peninsula was annexed by Russia, but UNESCO has maintained that it will continue to recognize Crimea and its heritage sites as belonging to Ukraine.[17]

Problems and controversies

The encroachment of modern building in and around the ancient archaeological site, coupled with a lack of funding to prevent such development pressures, has left the site of Chersonesus firmly at risk.[18]

In an October 2010 report titled Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Global Heritage Fund identified Chersonesus as one of 12 worldwide sites most "On the Verge" of irreparable loss and destruction, citing insufficient management and development pressures as primary causes.[19]

On July 29, 2015 governor of Sevastopol Sergei Menyailo (Сергей Меняйло), after firing the director of Chersonesus Preserve Andrey Kulagin (Андрей Кулагин), appointed a priest, Sergiy Khalyuta (Сергий Халюта) to the position. This move caused heated protests of the staff, and the 109 members unanimously refused to work under the new director. The conflict attracted a significant attention of the media. The workers claim that the conflict of the governor and the director of the Preserve started on July 11, when director complained about road construction works within the territory of the Preserve, approved by Governor without the permits necessary for works in protected areas. Eventually, under the pressure, Father Sergiy stepped down.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ Papadopoulos, John; Leventhal, Richard (2003). Theory and practice in Mediterranean archaeology. The Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press. p. 304. ISBN 1931745102.
  2. ^ "Syll. 360: The oath of the citizens of Chersonesos". attalus.org. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
  3. ^ Brook, Kevin Alan (2006-09-27). The Jews of Khazaria. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 54. ISBN 9781442203020.
  4. ^ Raymond Janin, v. 3. Chersonnèse, in: Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 636–638.
  5. ^ Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 1, p. 184
  6. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 365
  7. ^ J. Buchan Telfer, The Crimea and Transcaucasia (London 1876), vol. I, p. 52
  8. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 868
  9. ^ "City". National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  10. ^ "Yekhanurov Calls On Russia's Black Sea Naval Fleet To Move Its Automobile Depot From Khersones Tavriiskyi National Reserve". Ukrainian News Agency. February 13, 2009. Archived from the original on July 28, 2009.
  11. ^ a b "Ancient Chersoneses in Crimea: Dilettante travel". Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  12. ^ Valentine Gatash (2 June 2007). "Базиліка зникне в морі? ("Will the Basilica disappear into the sea?")" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 1 April 2012.
  13. ^ "Chersonesus Taurica". Restgeo.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
  14. ^ Syll.³ 360 - English translation
  15. ^ IOSPE³ 3.8 - Greek text and English translation
  16. ^ "The Ancient City of Tauric Chersonese and its Chora". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 3 Nov 2018.
  17. ^ http://www.unian.net/politics/906559-yunesko-i-vpred-budet-schitat-kryim-territoriey-ukrainyi.html
  18. ^ "Managing the Archaeological Heritage at the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos: Problems and Perspectives". Ukrainian Museum. October 2006.
  19. ^ "GHF". Global Heritage Fund. Archived from the original on 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-08-31.
  20. ^ ""Херсонес" возвращается в лоно Минкульта"

Bibliography and further reading

  • Anokhin, V.A. The Coinage of Chersonesus: IV century B.C.–XII century A.D.. Oxford : British Archaeological Reports, 1980 (paperback, ISBN 0-86054-074-X).
  • Carter, Joseph Coleman; Crawford, Melba; Lehman, Paul; Nikolaenko, Galina; Trelogan, Jessica. "The Chora of Chersonesos in Crimea, Ukraine", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (2000), pp. 707–741.
  • Carter, Joseph Coleman; Mack, Glenn Randall. Crimean Chersonesos: City, Chora, Museum, and Environs. Austin, TX: David Brown Book Company, 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-9708879-2-2).
  • Kozelsky, Mara. "Ruins into Relics: The Monument to Saint Vladimir on the Excavations of Chersonesos, 1827–57", The Russian Review, Vol. 63, No. 4. (2004), pp. 655–672.
  • Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Early Centuries. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989 (hardcover, ISBN 0-394-53778-5).
  • Saprykin, S.Yu. Heracleia Pontica and Tauric Chersonesus before Roman domination: (VI–I centuries B.C.). Amsterdam: A.M. Hakkert, 1997 (ISBN 9025611095).

Sources and external links

Asander (Bosporan king)

Asander, named Philocaesar Philoromaios (Greek: Άσανδρoς Φιλοκαισαρ Φιλορώμαίος, Asander, lover of Caesar lover of Rome, 110 BC – 17 BC) was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. He was of Greek and possibly of Persian ancestry. Not much is known of his family and early life. He started his career as a general under Pharnaces II, the king of the Bosporus. According to some scholars, Asander took as his first wife a woman called Glykareia, known from one surviving Greek inscription, "Glykareia, wife of Asander".

By 47 BC, Asander had taken Dynamis, the daughter of Pharnaces II by a Sarmatian wife, as his second wife. She was a granddaughter of King Mithridates VI of Pontus by his first wife, his sister Laodice.

In 47 BC Pharnaces II put Asander in charge the Bosporan Kingdom while he went away to invade the eastern parts of [Anatolia]. This was successful and Pharnaces started to advance towards the western parts of Anatolia. However, he stopped because Asander revolted against him. Asander hoped that by betraying his father-in-law he would win favor with the Romans and they could help him become the Bosporan King. Pharnaces defeated Roman general Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus but was then defeated by Gaius Julius Caesar. After this, he fled to Sinope with 1,000 cavalry. He was allowed leave with his cavalry. He killed his horses and sailed to the Cimmerian Bosporus, intending to recover it from Asander. He captured Theodosia (Feodosia) and Panticapaeum. Asander, attacked him. He was defeated because he was short of horses and his men were not used to fighting on foot. Pharnaces was killed in this battle. Strabo wrote that Asander, took possession of the Bosporus.Asander was soon overthrown from the Bosporan throne. Julius Caesar gave a tetrarchy in Galatia and the title of king to Mithridates of Pergamon. He also allowed him to wage war against Asander and conquer the Cimmerian Bosporus because Asander “had been mean to his friend Pharnaces.”. When Caecilius Bassus plotted a rebellion against Caesar and gathered troops to take over Syria in late 47 BC or early 46 BC, he claimed that “he was collecting these troops for the use of Mithridates the Pergamenian in an expedition against Bosporus.” Mithridates of Pergamon overthrew Asander and became Mithridates I of the Bosporus.

Mithridates robbed the temple of Leucothea in Moschia.. He was then overthrown by Asander.According to Lucian, Asander had been an ethnarch and then was proclaimed king of Bosporus by Augustus. This must have taken place after Augustus became the first Roman emperor in 27 BC.According to Strabo, Asander blocked the isthmus of the Chersonesus (Chersonesus Tauricus, modern Crimea) near Lake Maeotis (the Sea of Azov) with a wall which was 360 stadia long ( 53 kilometres, 35 miles) and had ten towers for every stadium. The wall was probably built because the Georgi of the region engaged in piracy. This isthmus was probably the modern Isthmus of Perekop.

Lucian wrote that Asander "at about ninety years proved himself a match for anyone in fighting from horseback or on foot; but when he saw his subjects going over to Scribonius on the eve of battle, he starved himself to death at the age of ninety-three."Cassius Dio wrote that a certain Scribonius claimed to be a grandson of Mithridates VI and that he had received the Bosporan Kingdom from Augustus after the death of Asander. He gained the control of the kingdom by marrying Dynamis, who had been entrusted with the regency of the kingdom by her husband. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa sent Polemon against him. Scribonius was killed by the people, before Polemon got there because they had heard of his advance. They resisted Polemon because they were afraid that he may be appointed as their king. Polemon defeated them but was unable to quell the rebellion until Agrippa went to Sinope to prepare a campaign against them. They surrendered. Polemon was appointed as their king. He married Dynamis with the sanction of Augustus. Dynamis' marriage with a usurper, Scribonius must have been forced on her. She died in 14 BC, and Polemon ruled until his death in 8 BC, succeeded by Aspurgus.

Notes

Cardia (Thrace)

Cardia or Kardia (Ancient Greek: Kαρδία), anciently the chief town of the Thracian Chersonese (today Gallipoli peninsula), was situated at the head of the Gulf of Melas (today the Gulf of Saros). It was originally a colony of the Milesians and Clazomenians; but subsequently, in the time of Miltiades (late 6th century BC), the place also received Athenian colonists, as proved by Miltiades tyranny (515–493 BC). But this didn't make Cardia necessarily always pro-Athenian: when in 357 BC Athens took control of the Chersonese, the latter, under the rule of a Thracian prince, was the only city to remain neutral; but the decisive year was 352 BC when the city concluded a treaty of amity with king Philip II of Macedonia. A great crisis exploded when Diopeithes, an Athenian mercenary captain, had in 343 BC brought Attic settlers to the town; and since Cardia was unwilling to receive them, Philip immediately sent help to the town. The king proposed to settle the dispute between the two cities by arbitration, but Athens refused. Demosthenes, the famous Greek patriot and orator, spoke on this very matter to the Athenian Senate in 341 BC his "Oration On The State Of The Chersonesus" : "Our present concernment is about the affairs of the Chersonesus, and Philip's expedition into Thrace...but most of our orators insist upon the actions and designs of Diopithes...which, if one moment neglected, the loss may be irreparable; here our attention is instantly demanded...shall Philip be left at full liberty to pursue all his other designs, provided he keeps from Attica; and shall not Diopithes be permitted to assist the Thracians? And if he does, shall we accuse him of involving us in a war?...none of you can be weak enough to imagine that Philip's desires are centered in those paltry villages of Thrace...and has no designs on the ports...arsenals...navies...silver mines, and all the other revenues of Athens; but that he will leave them for you to enjoy...? Impossible! No; these and all his expeditions are really intended to facilitate the conquest of Athens....let us shake off our extravagant and dangerous supineness; let us supply the necessary expenses; let us call on our allies...so that, as he hath his force constantly prepared to injure and enslave the Greeks, yours too may be ever ready to protect and assist them."The town was destroyed by Lysimachus about 309 BC, and although it was afterwards rebuilt, it never again rose to any degree of prosperity, as Lysimachia, which was built in its vicinity and peopled with the inhabitants of Cardia, became the chief town in that neighbourhood. Cardia was the birthplace of Alexander's secretary Eumenes and of the historian Hieronymus.

Chersonasus

Chersonasus or Chersonasos (Ancient Greek: Χερσόνασος), later Chersonesus or Chersonesos (Χερσόνησος), was a town and polis (city-state) on the north coast of ancient Crete. It functioned as the harbour of Lyctus, and had a temple of Britomartis, According to the Stadiasmus Maris Magni, which spells that name Cherrhonesus or Cherronesos (Χερρόνησος), it had a harbour and was located 130 stadia from Herakleion and 260 stadia from Olus. By land, it was 16 M.P. from Cnossus. In the fourth century BCE, it struck coins.

It was Christianised early, and the site of a bishopric. Michel Le Quien mentions four Greek bishops, from 441 to 789; the see still figures in later "Notitiae Episcopatuum" of the twelfth or thirteenth century. Seven Latin bishops are mentioned by Le Quien, from 1298 to 1549, of whom the last two, Dionysius and Joannes Franciscus Verdura, were present at the Council of Trent. Another bishop of Chersonesus was Pietro Coletti, at the beginning of the seventeenth century a Catholic, but whether of his native Greek Rite or of the Latin is unknown. No longer a residential bishopric, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.The site of Chersonasus is located near modern Limin Khersonisos.

Chersonese

Chersonese () is a name that was given to several different places in ancient times. The word is Latin; it derives from the Greek term for "peninsula", χερσόνησος chersonēsos, from χέρσος chersos ("dry land") + νῆσος nēsos (island).

It was applied to a number of peninsular localities in the ancient world. These included:

Chersonesos Taurica, ancient Greek colony located in the land of Tauri (today, in the city of Sevastopol, Crimea); also known as Chersonesos Taurica it was referred to the Crimean peninsula

Thracian Chersonese ancient Greek colony located in the land of Thracians (today in Gallipoli); also known as Chersonesus Thracica, ancient name for the Gallipoli Peninsula

Chersonesus Aurea, or Golden Chersonese, ancient name for the Malay Peninsula, described by Ptolemy circa 150 AD

Chersonesus Cimbrica or Cimbrian Chersonese, ancient name for Jutland

Syrian Chersonese, referred to by Plutarch, believed to have been situated in a bend of the Orontes river in the neighbourhood of Antioch

Delmarva Peninsula, referred to by King Charles I of England in the 1632 Charter of Maryland as the "Chersonese"

Chersonesus Cathedral

The Saint Vladimir Cathedral is a Neo-Byzantine Russian Orthodox cathedral on the site of Chersonesos Taurica. It commemorates the presumed place of St. Vladimir's baptism.

Datça Peninsula

The Datça Peninsula, also known as the Reşadiye Peninsula, is an 80 km-long, narrow peninsula in southwest Turkey separating the Gulf of Gökova to the north from the Hisarönü to the south. The peninsula corresponds almost exactly to the administrative district of Datça, part of Muğla Province. The town of Datça is located at its half-way point.

Older names for the peninsula include the Dorian or Cnidos Peninsula or the Chersonisos Cnidia.

El Mandara

El Mandara (Arabic: المندرة‎) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt.

Gallipoli

The Gallipoli peninsula (; Turkish: Gelibolu Yarımadası; Greek: Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

Gallipoli is the Italian form of the Greek name "Καλλίπολις" (Kallípolis), meaning "Beautiful City", the original name of the modern town of Gelibolu. In antiquity, the peninsula was known as the Thracian Chersonese (Greek: Θρακική Χερσόνησος, Thrakiké Chersónesos; Latin: Chersonesus Thracica).

The peninsula runs in a south-westerly direction into the Aegean Sea, between the Dardanelles (formerly known as the Hellespont), and the Gulf of Saros (formerly the bay of Melas). In antiquity, it was protected by the Long Wall, a defensive structure built across the narrowest part of the peninsula near the ancient city of Agora. The isthmus traversed by the wall was only 36 stadia in breadth (about 6.5 km), but the length of the peninsula from this wall to its southern extremity, Cape Mastusia, was 420 stadia (about 77.5 km).

Golden Chersonese

The Obosanaya Chersonese or Obosanaya Khersonese (Ancient Greek: Χρυσῆ Χερσόνησος, Chrysḗ Chersónēsos; Latin: Chersonesus Aurea), meaning the Golden Peninsula, was the name used for the Malay Peninsula by Greek and Roman geographers in classical antiquity, most famously in Claudius Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography.

Heraclea Pontica

Heraclea Pontica (; Greek: Ἡράκλεια Ποντική, romanized: Hērakleia Pontikē), in Byzantine and later times known as Pontoheraclea (Greek: Ποντοηράκλεια, romanized: Pontohērakleia), was an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus. It was founded by the Greek city-state of Megara in approximately 560–558 and was named after Heracles whom the Greeks believed entered the underworld at a cave on the adjoining Archerusian promontory (Cape Baba). The site is now the location of the modern city Karadeniz Ereğli, in the Zonguldak Province of Turkey.

The colonists soon subjugated the native Mariandynians but agreed to terms that none of the latter, now helot-like serfs, be sold into slavery outside their homeland. Prospering from the rich, fertile adjacent lands and the sea-fisheries of its natural harbor, Heraclea soon extended its control along the coast as far east as Cytorus (Gideros, near Cide), eventually establishing Black Sea colonies of its own (Cytorus, Callatis and Chersonesus).

The prosperity of the city, rudely shaken by the Galatians and the Bithynians, was utterly destroyed in the Mithridatic Wars. It was the birthplace of the philosopher Heraclides Ponticus.

The Greek historical author Memnon of Heraclea (fl. 1st century AD) wrote a local history of Heraclea Pontica in at least sixteen books. The work has perished, but Photius's Bibliotheca preserves a compressed account of books 9–16, seemingly the only ones extant in his day. These books run from the rule of the tyrant Clearchus (c. 364–353 BC) to the later years of Julius Caesar (c. 40 BC) and contain many colorful accounts including the Bithynian introduction of the barbarian Gauls into Asia where they first allied themselves with the Heracleans and later turned violently against them.

Hersonissos

Hersonissos (Greek: Χερσόνησος(meaning peninsula), Chersónisos, pronounced [xerˈsonisos]), also transliterated as Chersonisos and Hersónisos, is a town and a local government unit in the north of Crete, bordering the Mediterranean / Aegean Sea. The town is about 25 kilometers east of Heraklion and west of Agios Nikolaos. What is usually called Hersonissos is in fact its peninsula and harbour. It is part of the Heraklion regional unit. It is situated 25 km from the Heraklion airport and 27 km from the Heraklion port. The seat of the local government unit is the village of Gournes.

Jutland

Jutland (; Danish: Jylland [ˈjylænˀ]; German: Jütland [ˈjyːtlant]), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Latin: Cimbricus Chersonesus; Danish: Den Kimbriske Halvø or Den Jyske Halvø; German: Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany. The names are derived from the Jutes and the Cimbri, respectively.

As the rest of Denmark, Jutland's terrain is flat, with a slightly elevated ridge down the central parts and relatively hilly terrains in the east. West Jutland is characterised by open lands, heaths, plains and peat bogs, while East Jutland is more fertile with lakes and lush forests. Southwest Jutland is characterised by the Wadden Sea, a large unique international coastal region stretching through Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands.

List of World Heritage Sites in Ukraine

Officially, there are seven World Heritage Sites in Ukraine.

Patriarchal Exarchate in Western Europe (Moscow Patriarchate)

The Patriarchal Exarchate in Western Europe (PEWE, French: l'Exarchat patriarcal en Europe occidentale, Russian: Патриарший экзархат в Западной Европе) is an exarchate created by the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) on 28 December 2018. The primate of the PEWE is Metropolitan Anthony (Sevryuk) who holds the title of "Metropolitan of Chersonesus and Western Europe".

Roman Catholic Diocese of Chiron

The Diocese of Chiron or Diocese of Chersonissos (Latin: Dioecesis Chersonesus) was a Roman Catholic diocese located in the town of Chersonissos in the north of Crete, bordering the Aegean Sea. In 1787, it was suppressed and became a Titular Episcopal See.

Russian Orthodox Diocese of Chersonesus

The Diocese of Chersonesus (Russian: Корсунская епархия, French: Diocèse de Chersonèse, also called Diocese of Korsun) is a diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church which covers the territory of France, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Monaco. This diocese is part of the Patriarchal Exarchate in Western Europe since 28 December 2018.The current primate of the Diocese of Chersonesus is Metropolitan Anthony (Sevryuk) since 30 May 2019. The primate of the diocese of Chersonesus is also the primate of the PEWE.

Sarukhan, Bey of Magnesia

Sarukhan bin Alpagi (1300/01–1345/46) was a Turkish Bey of Magnesia (present-day Manisa, Turkey).Sarukhan was a Turkish Emir who is remembered for his conquest in the Anatolian Peninsula. In 1313, he occupied Thyatira (present-day Akhisar, Manisa Province), and then left his name "Saruhan" to the region he had occupied, becoming an independent ruler and transmitting the region to his descendants.At one point in 1336, Sarukhan formed an alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus the Younger, and supported him militarily in two sieges against the Genoese, in Mytilene and Phocaea. In 1341 however he attacked Constantinople with a fleet, but was repulsed around the Chersonesus in 1341.

St. Vladimir's Cathedral, Sevastopol

St. Vladimir's Cathedral is an Orthodox church in Sevastopol which was built in the aftermath of the Crimean War as a memorial to the heroes of the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855).

It was the admiral Mikhail Lazarev who came up with the idea to build St. Vladimir's Cathedral in Sevastopol rather than in Chersonesus as was originally intended. The church contains the tombs of Lazarev and three of his disciples – Vladimir Kornilov, Vladimir Istomin and Pavel Nakhimov – who died during the siege.The architecture of the church is Neo-Byzantine. The original design was submitted by Konstantin Thon for the Chersonesus Cathedral. It was reworked by a local architect, Aleksey Avdeyev. The lower church was consecrated in 1881, the upper church was finished 7 years later.The building rises to a height of 32.5 meters. The marble-clad interior was decorated by a team of Swiss and Italian artists. The names of the heroes of the 1850s siege are inscribed on the walls. The tombs of the admirals were destroyed by the Soviets in 1931. The church sustained further damage in the Second World War.Archbishop Joachim (Levitsky) was supposedly martyred by Bolsheviks inside St Vladimir's Cathedral in April 1920 (or perhaps as late as 1921) by being crucified upside-down on the royal doors of the iconostasis. The cathedral's archpriest, Aleksei Nazarevsky, was also allegedly murdered along with him, although the details of when either man died, yet alone how, are not clear. Sevastopol was under the occupation of the White Russian forces of Wrangel until November 1920, and the last definite information about Levitsky is his departure for the city in 1918.

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