Cherry

A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

Commercial cherries are obtained from cultivars of several species, such as the sweet Prunus avium and the sour Prunus cerasus. The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree and its wood, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom". Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is often referred to specifically by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles.

Cherry Stella444
Prunus avium, sweet cherry, also called wild cherry
Black Che
Prunus cerasus

Botany

Many cherries are allied to the subgenus Prunus subg. Cerasus, which is distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together (not singly, nor in racemes), and by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove. The subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, and the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits are borne on racemes and called bird cherries.

History

Etymology and antiquity

The English word cherry derives from Old Northern French or Norman cherise from the Latin cerasum,[1] referring to an ancient Greek region, Kerasous (Κερασοῦς) near Giresun, Turkey, from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe.[2] The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia, and parts of northern Africa, and the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia, also known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC.[3]

Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders.[4][5][6]

Cherries arrived in North America early in the settlement of Brooklyn, New York (then called "New Netherland") when the region was under Dutch sovereignty. Trades people leased or purchased land to plant orchards and produce gardens, "Certificate of Corielis van Tienlioven that he had found 12 apple, 40 peach, 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants.., behind the house sold by Anthony Jansen from Salee [Morocco, Africa] to Barent Dirksen [Dutchmen],... ANNO 18th of June 1639."[7]

Cultivation

The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry (P. avium) to which most cherry cultivars belong, and the sour cherry (P. cerasus), which is used mainly for cooking. Both species originate in Europe and western Asia; they usually do not cross-pollinate. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying, labor, and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries relatively expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, sour cherries, as well as sweet cherries sometimes, are harvested by using a mechanized 'shaker'.[8] Hand picking is also widely used for sweet as well as sour cherries to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees.

Common rootstocks include Mazzard, Mahaleb, Colt, and Gisela Series, a dwarfing rootstock that produces trees significantly smaller than others, only 8 to 10 feet (2.5 to 3 meters) tall.[9] Sour cherries require no pollenizer, while few sweet varieties are self-fertile.[9]

A cherry tree will take three to four years once it's planted in the orchard to produce its first crop of fruit, and seven years to attain full maturity.[10]

Growing season

Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry trees require a certain number of chilling hours each year to break dormancy and bloom and produce fruit. The number of chilling hours required depends on the variety. Because of this cold-weather requirement, no members of the genus Prunus can grow in tropical climates. (See "production" section for more information on chilling requirements)

Cherries have a short growing season and can grow in most temperate latitudes.[10] Cherries blossom in April (in the Northern Hemisphere) and the peak season for the cherry harvest is in the summer. In southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in England in mid-July, and in southern British Columbia (Canada) in June to mid-August. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to flower and ripen in mid-Spring.

In the Southern Hemisphere, cherries are usually at their peak in late December and are widely associated with Christmas. 'Burlat' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December, 'Lapins' ripens near the end of December, and 'Sweetheart' finish slightly later.[11]

Pests and diseases

Generally, the cherry can be a difficult fruit tree to grow and keep alive.[9] In Europe, the first visible pest in the growing season soon after blossom (in April in western Europe) usually is the black cherry aphid ("cherry blackfly", Myzus cerasi), which causes leaves at the tips of branches to curl, with the blackfly colonies exuding a sticky secretion which promotes fungal growth on the leaves and fruit. At the fruiting stage in June/July (Europe), the cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata and Rhagoletis cerasi) lays its eggs in the immature fruit, whereafter its larvae feed on the cherry flesh and exit through a small hole (about 1 mm diameter), which in turn is the entry point for fungal infection of the cherry fruit after rainfall.[12] In addition, cherry trees are susceptible to bacterial canker, cytospora canker, brown rot of the fruit, root rot from overly wet soil, crown rot, and several viruses.[9]

Cultivars

Washington USA Rainier cherries
Rainier cherries from the state of Washington, USA

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

Name Height Spread Ref.
Accolade 8m 8m [13]
Amanogawa 8m 4m [14]
Autumnalis (P. × subhirtella) 8m 8m [15]
Autumnalis Rosea (P. × subhirtella) 8m 4m [16]
Avium Grandiflora see Plena
Colorata (P. padus) 12m 8m [17]
Grandiflora see Plena
Kanzan 12m 12m+ [18]
Kiku-shidare-zakura 4m 4m [19]
Kursar 8m 8m [20]
Morello (P. cerasus) 4m 4m [21]
Okamé (P. × incam) 12m 8m [22]
Pandora 12m 8m [23]
Pendula Rosea 4m 4m [24]
Pendula Rubra 4m 4m [25]
Pink Perfection 8m 8m [26]
Plena (Grandiflora) 12m 8m+ [27]
Praecox (P. incisa) 8m 8m
Prunus avium (wild cherry) 12m+ 8m+
Prunus × cistena 1.5m 1.5m [28]
Prunus sargentii (Sargent's cherry) 12m+ 8m+ [29]
Prunus serrula (Tibetan cherry) 12m 8m+ [30]
Shirofugen 8m 8m [31]
Shirotai 8m 8m [32]
Shōgetsu 8m 8m [33]
Spire 12m 8m [34]
Stella 4m 4m [35]
Ukon 8m 8m+ [36]


See cherry blossom and Prunus for ornamental trees.

Production

In 2014, world production of sweet cherries was 2.25 million tonnes, with Turkey producing 20% of this total. Other major producers of sweet cherries were the United States and Iran. World production of sour cherries in 2014 was 1.36 million tonnes, led by Russia, Ukraine, Turkey and Poland.

Middle East

Cherry trees in Tehran.
Ripe sweet cherries in Tehran

Major commercial cherry orchards in West Asia are in Turkey, Iran, Syria, Azerbaijan, Lebanon, and Israel.

Europe

Major commercial cherry orchards in Europe are in Turkey, Italy, Spain and other Mediterranean regions, and to a smaller extent in the Baltic States and southern Scandinavia.

In France since the 1920s, the first cherries of the season come in April/May from the region of Céret (Pyrénées-Orientales),[38] where the local producers send, as a tradition since 1932, the first crate of cherries to the president of the Republic.[39]

North America

In the United States, most sweet cherries are grown in Washington, California, Oregon, Wisconsin, and Michigan.[40] Important sweet cherry cultivars include Bing, Ulster, Rainier, Brooks, Tulare, King, and Sweetheart.[41] Both Oregon and Michigan provide light-colored 'Royal Ann' ('Napoleon'; alternately 'Queen Anne') cherries for the maraschino cherry process. Most sour (also called tart) cherries are grown in Michigan, followed by Utah, New York, and Washington.[40] Sour cherries include 'Nanking' and 'Evans'. Traverse City, Michigan is called the "Cherry Capital of the World",[42] hosting a National Cherry Festival and making the world's largest cherry pie. The specific region of northern Michigan known for tart cherry production is referred to as the "Traverse Bay" region.

Most cherry varieties have a chilling requirement of 800 or more hours, meaning that in order to break dormancy, blossom, and set fruit, the winter season needs to have at least 800 hours where the temperature is below 45 °F (7 °C). “Low chill” varieties requiring 300 hours or less are Minnie Royal and Royal Lee, requiring cross-pollinization, whereas the cultivar, Royal Crimson, is self-fertile.[43] These varieties extend the range of cultivation of cherries to the mild winter areas of southern US. This is a boon to California producers of sweet cherries, as California is the second largest producer of sweet cherries in the US.[44]

Native and non-native sweet cherries grow well in Canada's provinces of Ontario and British Columbia where an annual cherry festival has been celebrated for seven consecutive decades in the Okanagan Valley town of Osoyoos.[45] In addition to the Okanagan, other British Columbia cherry growing regions are the Similkameen Valley and Kootenay Valley, all three regions together producing 5.5 million kg annually or 60% of total Canadian output.[46] Sweet cherry varieties in British Columbia include 'Rainier', 'Van', 'Chelan', 'Lapins', 'Sweetheart', 'Skeena', 'Staccato', 'Christalina' and 'Bing'.

Australia

In Australia, cherries are grown in all the states except for the Northern Territory. The major producing regions are located in the temperate areas within New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Western Australia has limited production in the elevated parts in the southwest of the state. Key production areas include Young, Orange and Bathurst in New South Wales, Wandin, the Goulburn and Murray valley areas in Victoria, the Adelaide Hills region in South Australia, and the Huon and Derwent Valleys in Tasmania.

Key commercial varieties in order of seasonality include 'Empress', 'Merchant', 'Supreme', 'Ron's seedling', 'Chelan', 'Ulster', 'Van', 'Bing', 'Stella', 'Nordwunder', 'Lapins', 'Simone', 'Regina', 'Kordia' and 'Sweetheart'. New varieties are being introduced, including the late season 'Staccato' and early season 'Sequoia'. The Australian Cherry Breeding program is developing a series of new varieties which are under testing evaluation.[47]

The New South Wales town of Young is called the "Cherry Capital of Australia" and hosts the National Cherry Festival.

Nutritional value

Raw sweet cherries are 82% water, 16% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and negligible in fat (table). As raw fruit, sweet cherries provide little nutrient content per 100 g serving, as only dietary fiber and vitamin C are present in moderate content, while other vitamins and dietary minerals each supply less than 10% of the Daily Value (DV) per serving, respectively (table).[48]

Compared to sweet cherries, raw sour cherries contain 50% more vitamin C per 100 g (12% DV) and about 20 times more vitamin A (8% DV), beta-Carotene in particular (table).[49]

Other uses

Cherry wood is valued for its rich color and straight grain in manufacturing fine furniture, particularly desks, tables and chairs.[50][51]

Species

Italienische Süßkirschen
Italian Prunus avium, commonly called wild cherry, sweet cherry, or gean.

The list below contains many Prunus species that bear the common name cherry, but they are not necessarily members of the subgenus Cerasus, or bear edible fruit. For a complete list of species, see List of Prunus species. Some common names listed here have historically been used for more than one species, e.g. "rock cherry" is used as an alternative common name for both P. prostrata and P. mahaleb and "wild cherry" is used for several species.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Cherry". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2017. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  2. ^ Rhind, W. (1841). A History of the Vegetable Kingdom. Oxford University. p. 334. Archived from the original on 2017-02-14.
  3. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pontus" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  4. ^ Oliver Lawson Dick, ed. (1949). Aubrey's Brief Lives. p. xliii. The curious antiquary John Aubrey (1626–1697) noted in his memoranda: Cherries were first brought into Kent tempore H. viii, who being in Flanders, and likeing the Cherries, ordered his Gardener, brought them hence, and propagated them in England.
  5. ^ "All the cherry gardens and orchards of Kent are said to have been stocked with the Flemish cherry from a plantation of 105 acres in Teynham, made with foreign cherries, pippins [ pippin apples ], and golden rennets [goldreinette apples], done by the fruiterer of Henry VIII." ("A View of the Parish". Teynham Parish. Archived from the original on 2008-09-22.)
  6. ^ "Sittingbourne and Milton Urban District Council". Archived from the original on 2015-01-19. with the crest of a "cherry tree fructed proper" and motto "known by their fruits" were only granted on July 28, 1949, however.
  7. ^ New York Historical Manuscripts: Dutch (PDF). Volume I: Register of the Provincial Secretary 1638–1642. Translated and Annotated by A.J.F. van Laer. Edited with Added Indexes by Kenneth Scott and Kenn Stryker-Rodda. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing. 1974. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-22.CS1 maint: others (link)
  8. ^ Chainpure (2009-06-23). "Soul to Brain: Wow! Its Cherry Harvesting". Chainpure.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
  9. ^ a b c d Ingels, Chuck; et al. (2007). The Home Orchard: Growing Your Own Deciduous Fruit and Nut Trees. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. pp. 27–8.
  10. ^ a b "Cherry". Fruit and Nut Information Center. Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis. 2016. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  11. ^ "Varieties". Cherish the moment. Cherry Growers of Australia. 2011. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  12. ^ "cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata)". plantwise.org. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24.
  13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Accolade' (d) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Amanogawa' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × subhirtella 'Autumnalis' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × subhirtella 'Autumnalis Rosea' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  17. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus padus 'Colorata' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  18. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kanzan' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  19. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kiku-shidare-zakura' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  20. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Kursar' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  21. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus cerasus 'Morello' (C) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  22. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × incam 'Okamé' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  23. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Pandora' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  24. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus pendula 'Pendula Rosea' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  25. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus pendula 'Pendula Rubra' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  26. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Pink Perfection' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  27. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus avium 'Plena' (d) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  28. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus × cistena AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  29. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus sargentii AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  30. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus serrula AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  31. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Shirofugen' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  32. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus 'Shirotae' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  33. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Prunus 'Shogetsu'". Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  34. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Prunus 'Spire'". Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  35. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Prunus avium 'Stella' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
  36. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Prunus 'Ukon'". Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  37. ^ a b "Crops/Regions/Production of Cherries by Countries (from pick lists)". UN Food & Agriculture Organization, FAOSTAT, Statistics Division. 2014. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  38. ^ Fabricio Cardenas (August 24, 2014). "Premières cerises de Céret et d'ailleurs" [First cherries from Céret and elsewhere]. Vieux papiers des Pyrénées-Orientales (in French). Archived from the original on 2015-06-27.
  39. ^ Fabricio Cardenas (June 1, 2014). "Des cerises de Céret pour le président de la République en 1932" [Ceret cherries for the President of the Republic in 1932]. Vieux papiers des Pyrénées-Orientales (in French). Archived from the original on 2014-10-26.
  40. ^ a b Cherry Production (PDF) (Report). National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. June 23, 2011. ISSN 1948-9072. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 6, 2012. Retrieved 2011-10-06.
  41. ^ "Cherry Varieties". Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
  42. ^ "Traverse City- Cherry Capital". Michigan History. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  43. ^ Vincent Lazaneo (21 January 2011). "New cherry tree varieties thrive in mild climate". San Diego Tribune. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
  44. ^ "Cherry". fruitandnuteducation.ucdavis.edu. Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
  45. ^ "Cherry Fiesta 2017". Osoyoos Festival Society. 2016. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  46. ^ "Cherries". BC Ministry of Agriculture. 2013. Archived from the original on 1999-02-02. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  47. ^ "ANNUAL INDUSTRY REPORT 08 • 09" (PDF). Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-25.
  48. ^ "Nutrition facts, cherries, sweet, raw, 100 g". US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, Standard Reference 21. Nutritiondata.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  49. ^ "Nutrition facts, cherries, sour, red, raw, 100 g". US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database, Standard Reference 21. Nutritiondata.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  50. ^ "Types of Ontario wood: Black cherry". Queen's Printer for Ontario, Canada. 2016. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  51. ^ "Selecting wood furniture" (PDF). Utah State University. 1987. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.

External links

7 Up

7 Up (stylized as 7up outside the U.S.) is a brand of lemon-lime-flavored non-caffeinated soft drink. The rights to the brand are held by Keurig Dr Pepper in the United States and by PepsiCo (or its licensees) in the rest of the world. The U.S. version of the 7 Up logo includes a red circle between the "7" and "Up"; this red circle has been animated and used as a mascot for the brand as Cool Spot. Before that, was a fictional character named Fido Dido created by Joanna Ferrone and Sue Rose. He is still used for outside the U.S. for the limited time only 7up retro cups.

Cherry Hill, New Jersey

Cherry Hill is a township in Camden County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township had a population of 71,045, reflecting an increase of 1,080 (+1.5%) from the 69,965 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 617 (+0.9%) from the 69,348 counted in the 1990 Census. As of 2010, the township was the state's 15th most populous municipality and the second-largest in Camden County (behind the city of Camden, the county seat), after having been the state's 13th most populous municipality in the 2000 Census. An edge city of Philadelphia, Cherry Hill is situated on the Delaware Valley coastal plain, approximately 8 miles (13 km) southeast of Center City, Philadelphia.

Cherry Jones

Cherry Jones (born November 21, 1956) is an American actress. A five-time Tony Award nominee for her work on Broadway, she won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for the 1995 revival of The Heiress and for the 2005 original production of Doubt. She won the 2009 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series for her role as Allison Taylor on the FOX television series 24. She has also won three Drama Desk Awards.

Jones made her Broadway debut in the 1987 original Broadway production of Stepping Out. Other stage credits include Pride's Crossing (1997–98) and The Glass Menagerie (2013–14). Her film appearances include The Horse Whisperer (1998), Erin Brockovich (2000), The Village (2004), Amelia (2009) and The Beaver (2011). In 2012, she played Dr. Judith Evans on the NBC drama Awake.

Cherry Red Records

Cherry Red Records is a British independent record label founded by Iain McNay in 1978. The label has released recordings by Dead Kennedys, Everything But the Girl, The Monochrome Set, and Felt, among others, as well as the compilation album Pillows & Prayers. In addition to releasing new music, Cherry Red also acts as an umbrella for individual imprints and catalogue specialists.

Cherry Red was listed by Music Week as one of the UK’s top ten record companies in Q1 2015 for sales of artist albums.

Cherry blossom

A cherry blossom is a flower of several trees of genus Prunus. The most well-known species is the Japanese cherry, Prunus serrulata, which is commonly called sakura (桜 or 櫻; さくら).Currently they are widely distributed, especially in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere including Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Mainland China, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Myanmar, Thailand and West Siberia. Along with the chrysanthemum, the cherry blossom is considered the national flower of Japan.All varieties of cherry blossom trees produce small, unpalatable fruit or edible cherries. Edible cherries generally come from cultivars of the related species Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus.

Cherry picking

Cherry picking, suppressing evidence, or the fallacy of incomplete evidence is the act of pointing to individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position while ignoring a significant portion of related cases or data that may contradict that position. It is a kind of fallacy of selective attention, the most common example of which is the confirmation bias. Cherry picking may be committed intentionally or unintentionally. This fallacy is a major problem in public debate.The term is based on the perceived process of harvesting fruit, such as cherries. The picker would be expected to only select the ripest and healthiest fruits. An observer who only sees the selected fruit may thus wrongly conclude that most, or even all, of the tree's fruit is in a likewise good condition. This can also give a false impression of the quality of the fruit (since it is only a sample and is not a representative sample).

Cherry picking has a negative connotation as the practice neglects, overlooks or directly suppresses evidence that could lead to a complete picture.

A concept sometimes confused with cherry picking is the idea of gathering only the fruit that is easy to harvest, while ignoring other fruit that is higher up on the tree and thus more difficult to obtain (see low-hanging fruit).

Cherry picking can be found in many logical fallacies. For example, the "fallacy of anecdotal evidence" tends to overlook large amounts of data in favor of that known personally, "selective use of evidence" rejects material unfavorable to an argument, while a false dichotomy picks only two options when more are available. Cherry picking can refer to the selection of data or data sets so a study or survey will give desired, predictable results which may be misleading or even completely contrary to reality.

Don Cherry

Donald Stewart Cherry (born February 5, 1934) is a Canadian ice hockey commentator. He is also a sports writer, as well as a retired professional hockey player and NHL coach. Cherry co-hosts the "Coach's Corner" intermission segment (with Ron MacLean) on the long-running Canadian sports program Hockey Night in Canada, which airs on Sportsnet, Citytv and CBC. He has also worked for ESPN in the United States as a commentator during the latter stages of the Stanley Cup playoffs. Nicknamed Grapes, he is a Canadian icon known for his outspoken manner and opinions and his flamboyant dress. By the 2017–18 NHL season, Cherry and MacLean have hosted Coach's Corner for 33 seasons.Cherry played one game with the Boston Bruins, and later coached the team for five seasons after concluding a successful playing career in the American Hockey League. He is also well known as an author, syndicated radio commentator for the Sportsnet Radio Network, creator of the Rock'em Sock'em Hockey video series, and celebrity endorser. Cherry was voted the seventh greatest Canadian on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's television special, The Greatest Canadian. In March 2010, his life was dramatized in a two-part Canadian Broadcasting Corporation made-for-television movie, Keep Your Head Up, Kid: The Don Cherry Story, based on a script written by his son, Timothy Cherry. In March 2012, CBC aired a sequel, The Wrath of Grapes: The Don Cherry Story II.

Don Cherry (trumpeter)

Donald Eugene Cherry (November 18, 1936 – October 19, 1995) was an American jazz trumpeter. Cherry had a long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman, which began in the late 1950s. Cherry was also a pioneer in world fusion music in the 1960s and 1970s.

Dr Pepper

Dr Pepper is a carbonated soft drink. It was created in the 1880s by pharmacist Charles Alderton in Waco, Texas and first served around 1885. Dr Pepper was first nationally marketed in the United States in 1904, and is now also sold in Europe, Asia, North and South America, and Australia, as well as New Zealand and South Africa as an imported good. Variants include Diet Dr Pepper and, beginning in the 2000s, a line of additional flavors.

Hymen

The hymen is a thin piece of mucosal tissue that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening. It forms part of the vulva, or external genitalia, and is similar in structure to the vagina. The hymen does not seem to have a specific physiological function and has few, if any, nerve endings.In children, a common appearance of the hymen is crescent-shaped, although many shapes are possible.

During puberty, estrogen causes the hymen to change in appearance and become very elastic. Normal variations of the post-pubertal hymen range from thin and stretchy to thick and somewhat rigid; or it may instead be completely absent.The hymen may rip or tear the first time penetrative intercourse happens, which may cause temporary bleeding or slight discomfort, but sources differ on how common tearing and bleeding after first intercourse is. The state of the hymen is not a reliable indicator of virginity, although it continues to be considered so in certain cultures, and virginity testing may be done. Minor injuries to the hymen may heal without visible signs of previous injury. A torn hymen may be surgically restored in a procedure called hymenorrhaphy.

Kirsch

A kirschwasser (, UK also ; German: [ˈkɪɐ̯ʃvasɐ], German for "cherry water") or kirsch is a clear, colorless brandy traditionally made from double distillation of morello cherries, a dark-colored cultivar of the sour cherry. However, it is now also made from other kinds of cherries. The cherries are fermented completely, including their stones. Unlike cherry liqueurs and cherry brandies, kirschwasser is not sweet. Kirsch is sometimes produced via the distillation of fermented cherry juice.The best kirschwassers have a refined taste with subtle flavors of cherry and a slight bitter-almond taste that derives from the cherry seeds.

Neneh Cherry

Neneh Mariann Karlsson (born 10 March 1964), better known as Neneh Cherry, is a Swedish singer-songwriter, rapper, occasional DJ and broadcaster. Her musical career started in London in the early 1980s, where she performed in a number of punk and post-punk bands in her youth, including The Slits and Rip Rig + Panic.

To date, Cherry has released five studio albums under her own name. Her first, Raw Like Sushi, was released 1989 and peaked at number three on the UK Album Chart, thanks in large part to the worldwide hit single "Buffalo Stance". Her second studio album was 1992's Homebrew. Four years later she released Man, with her next studio album, Blank Project, coming in 2014. Her most recent album, Broken Politics, was released in 2018.

In addition to releasing these studio albums, she formed the band cirKus in 2006 and has collaborated with The Thing, releasing an album entitled The Cherry Thing in 2012.

Prunus

Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the fruits plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, and almonds.

Native to the northern temperate regions, there are 430 different species classified under Prunus. Many members of the genus are widely cultivated for their fruit and for decorative purposes. Prunus fruit are defined as drupes, or stone fruits, because the fleshy mesocarp surrounding the endocarp (pit or stone) is edible. Most Prunus fruit and seeds are commonly used in processing, such as jam production, canning, drying or roasting.

Prunus serotina

Prunus serotina, commonly called black cherry, wild black cherry, rum cherry, or mountain black cherry, is a deciduous tree or shrub belonging to the genus Prunus. The species is widespread and common in North America and South America.

Black cherry is closely related to the chokecherry (Prunus virginiana); chokecherry, however, tends to be shorter (a shrub or small tree) and has smaller, less glossy leaves.

RC Cola

RC Cola, short for Royal Crown Cola, is an American brand of cola-flavored soft drink developed in 1905.

The Cherry Orchard

The Cherry Orchard (Russian: Вишнёвый сад, romanized: Vishnyovyi sad) is the last play by Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. Written in 1903, it was first published by Znaniye (Book Two, 1904), and came out as a separate edition later that year in Saint Petersburg, via A.F. Marks Publishers. It opened at the Moscow Art Theatre on 17 January 1904 in a production directed by Konstantin Stanislavski. Chekhov described the play as a comedy, with some elements of farce, though Stanislavski treated it as a tragedy. Since its first production, directors have contended with its dual nature. It is often identified as one of the three or four outstanding plays by Chekhov, along with The Seagull, Three Sisters, and Uncle Vanya.The play concerns an aristocratic Russian landowner who returns to her family estate (which includes a large and well-known cherry orchard) just before it is auctioned to pay the mortgage. Unresponsive to offers to save the estate, she allows its sale to the son of a former serf; the family leaves to the sound of the cherry orchard being cut down. The story presents themes of cultural futility – both the futile attempts of the aristocracy to maintain its status and of the bourgeoisie to find meaning in its newfound materialism. It dramatises the socio-economic forces in Russia at the turn of the 20th century, including the rise of the middle class after the abolition of serfdom in the mid-19th century and the decline of the power of the aristocracy.

Widely regarded as a classic of 20th-century theatre, the play has been translated and adapted into many languages and produced around the world. Major theatre directors have staged it, including Charles Laughton, Peter Brook, Andrei Șerban, Jean-Louis Barrault, Tyrone Guthrie, Katie Mitchell, Mehmet Ergen and Giorgio Strehler. It has influenced many other playwrights, including Eugene O'Neill, George Bernard Shaw, David Mamet, and Arthur Miller.

The Outsiders (novel)

The Outsiders is a coming-of-age novel by S. E. Hinton, first published in 1967 by Viking Press. Hinton was 15 when she started writing the novel but did most of the work when she was 16 and a junior in high school. Hinton was 18 when the book was published. The book details the conflict between two rival gangs divided by their socioeconomic status: the working-class "greasers" and the upper-class "Socs" (pronounced —short for Socials). The story is told in first-person perspective by teenaged protagonist Ponyboy Curtis.

The story in the book takes place in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1965, but this is never explicitly stated in the book.

A film adaptation was produced in 1983, and a little-known short-lived television series appeared in 1990, picking up where the movie left off. A stage adaptation was written by Christopher Sergel and published in 1990.

Tyler, the Creator

Tyler Gregory Okonma (born March 6, 1991), known professionally as Tyler, the Creator, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director, fashion designer and graphic designer. He rose to prominence as the co-founder and de facto leader of alternative hip hop collective Odd Future, and has performed on and produced songs for nearly every Odd Future release. Okonma has created all the artwork for the group's releases and has also designed the group's clothing and other merchandise. As a solo artist, Okonma has released one mixtape and five studio albums, often handling most or all production himself.

Following a large contribution to Odd Future's early work, Okonma released his debut solo mixtape, Bastard, in 2009. After releasing his debut studio album, Goblin, under XL Recordings in April 2011, Okonma signed a joint venture deal for him and his label Odd Future Records, with RED Distribution and Sony Music Entertainment. Following that, he released his second studio album, Wolf, in 2013, which was met with generally positive reviews and debuted at number three on the US Billboard 200, selling 90,000 copies in its first week. His third studio album, Cherry Bomb, was released in 2015, debuting at number four on the US Billboard 200. It received positive criticial reviews but a polarized reception from fans. In 2017, he released his fourth studio album, Flower Boy, to widespread acclaim. It debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200, and was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 60th Annual Grammy Awards. His next album, Igor, was released in 2019 and debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200, becoming Tyler's first US number-one album.

In 2011, Okonma started the clothing company Golf Wang. In 2012, he began hosting an annual music festival named the Camp Flog Gnaw Carnival. He created his own streaming service app named Golf Media; it ran between 2015 to 2018 and contained original scripted series from Okonma himself and the Camp Flog Gnaw Carnival was annually streamed on the service.

Wilt Chamberlain

Wilton Norman Chamberlain (; August 21, 1936 – October 12, 1999) was an American basketball player who played as a center and is considered one of the greatest players in history. He played for the Philadelphia/San Francisco Warriors, the Philadelphia 76ers, and the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He played for the University of Kansas and also for the Harlem Globetrotters before playing in the NBA. Chamberlain stood 7 ft 1 in (2.16 m) tall, and weighed 250 pounds (110 kg) as a rookie before bulking up to 275 and eventually to over 300 pounds (140 kg) with the Lakers.

Chamberlain holds numerous NBA records in scoring, rebounding, and durability categories. He is the only player to score 100 points in a single NBA game or average more than 40 and 50 points in a season. He won seven scoring, eleven rebounding, nine field goal percentage titles and led the league in assists once. Chamberlain is the only player in NBA history to average at least 30 points and 20 rebounds per game in a season, which he accomplished seven times. He is also the only player to average at least 30 points and 20 rebounds per game over the entire course of his NBA career. Although he suffered a long string of losses in the playoffs, Chamberlain had a successful career, winning two NBA championships, earning four regular-season Most Valuable Player awards, the Rookie of the Year award, one NBA Finals MVP award, and was selected to 13 All-Star Games and ten All-NBA First and Second teams. He was subsequently enshrined in the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1978, elected into the NBA's 35th Anniversary Team of 1980, and in 1996 he was chosen as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History.Chamberlain was known by several nicknames during his basketball playing career. He hated the ones that called attention to his height, such as "Goliath" and "Wilt the Stilt". A Philadelphia sportswriter coined the nicknames during Chamberlain's high school days. He preferred "The Big Dipper", which was inspired by his friends who saw him dip his head as he walked through doorways. After his professional basketball career ended, Chamberlain played volleyball in the short-lived International Volleyball Association, was president of that organization, and is enshrined in the IVA Hall of Fame for his contributions. He was a successful businessman, authored several books, and appeared in the movie Conan the Destroyer. He was a lifelong bachelor and became notorious for his claim of having had sexual relations with as many as 20,000 women.

Cherry cultivars
Sweet (Bigaroon, Mazzard)
Sour (Amarelle, Morello)
Other edible
Overviews
Forms
Woods
Tools
Geometry
Treatments
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