Chequers Estate Act 1917

The Chequers Estate Act 1917 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that designates Chequers as the official country residence of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. It was given Royal Assent on 20 December 1917.

The Act was the first piece of legislation to recognise the existence of a Prime Minister even though the head of government had been referred to unofficially as "Prime Minister" since the early 18th century.[1][2]

Chequers Estate Act 1917
Long titleAn Act to confirm and give effect to a deed of settlement relating to the Chequers Estate and other property and for purposes connected therewith
Citation1917 c.55 7 and 8 Geo V
Territorial extentEngland and Wales
Scotland
Northern Ireland
Dates
Royal assent20 December 1917
Other legislation
Amended byChequers Estate Act 1958
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted
Text of the Chequers Estate Act 1917 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.

References

  1. ^ Rozenberg, Joshua (3 June 1998). "UK Politics: Talking Politics - Conventions of the constitution". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  2. ^ Hennessy, Peter (2001) [2000]. The Prime Minister; The Office And Its Holders Since 1945. Penguin Group. p. 39. ISBN 0-14-028393-5. OCLC 47063414.
Arthur Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham

Arthur Hamilton Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham, (8 November 1868 – 21 July 1947), was an English soldier, diplomat, politician, philanthropist and patron of the arts. After military postings and an assignment to the British Embassy in Washington, he retired from the military in 1900. He entered politics, was first elected in 1900, and later served as Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and First Lord of the Admiralty following the First World War. He donated his country house, Chequers, to the nation as a retreat for the Prime Minister, and co-founded the Courtauld Institute of Art.

Chequers

Chequers, or Chequers Court, is the country house of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. A 16th century manor house in origin, it is located near the village of Ellesborough, halfway between Princes Risborough and Wendover in Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom, at the foot of the Chiltern Hills. It is about 40 miles (65 km) north west of central London. Coombe Hill, once part of the estate, is located two thirds of a mile northeast. Chequers has been the country home of the Prime Minister since 1921. The house is listed Grade I on the National Heritage List for England.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1900–1919

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1900–1919. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.

For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.

List of enacting clauses

An enacting clause, or enacting formula, is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by a legislature. It usually declares the source from which the law claims to derive its authority. In many countries, an enacting formula is not considered necessary and is simply omitted.

The simplest enacting clauses merely cite the legislature by which the law has been adopted; for example the enacting clause used in Australia since 1990 is "The Parliament of Australia enacts". Alternatively an enacting clause may invoke the ultimate sovereign. For example, California, based on the principle of popular sovereignty, has the following enacting clause: "The People of the State of California do enact as follows."[1]

Ministers of the Crown Act 1937

The Ministers of the Crown Act 1937 (C.38) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that set salaries for members of the government and opposition. It is notable as the first Act to formally recognise the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.

United Kingdom constitutional law

United Kingdom constitutional law concerns the political governance of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. With the oldest continuous political system on earth, the UK constitution is not contained in a single code but principles have emerged over the centuries from statute, case law, political conventions and social consensus. In 1215, the Magna Carta required the King to call "common counsel" or Parliament, to hold courts in a fixed place, guarantee fair trials, guarantee free movement of people, free the church from the state, and enshrined the rights of "common" people to use the land. After the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution 1688, Parliament won supremacy over the monarch, as well as the church and the courts, and the Bill of Rights 1689 recorded that the "election of members of Parliament ought to be free". The Act of Union 1707 unified England, Wales and Scotland, while Ireland was joined in 1808, but the Republic of Ireland formally separated between 1916 and 1921 through bitter armed conflict. By the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928, every adult man and woman was finally entitled to vote for Parliament. The UK was a founding member of the International Labour Organization, the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the Council of Europe, the European Union, and the World Trade Organization. The principles of Parliamentary sovereignty, the rule of law, democracy, and internationalism guide the UK's modern political system to advance the social and economic development of its people.

The central institutions of modern government are Parliament, the judiciary, the executive, the civil service and public bodies which implement policies, and regional or local governments. Parliament is composed of the House of Commons, elected by a democratic vote, and the House of Lords which is mostly appointed on recommendation of cross-political party groups. To make a new Act of Parliament, the highest form of law, both Houses must read, amend, or approve proposed legislation three times. The judiciary is headed by an eleven-member UK Supreme Court, and underneath is the Court of Appeal for England and Wales or the Court of Session for Scotland, and a system of High Courts, Crown Courts, or Tribunals depending on the subject in the case. Courts interpret statutes, progress the common law and principles of equity, and can control the discretion of the executive. UK courts are usually thought to have no power to declare an Act of Parliament unconstitutional. The executive is headed by the Prime Minister, who must command a majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister appoints a cabinet of people who lead each department, and form Her Majesty's Government. The Queen herself is a ceremonial figurehead, who gives royal assent to new laws. By constitutional convention the monarch must not usurp the democratic process, and has not done since 1708. Beyond the Parliament and cabinet, a civil service and a large number of public bodies, from the Department of Education to the National Health Service, deliver public services that implement the law and fulfil political, economic and social rights.

In practice, most constitutional litigation occurs through administrative law disputes, concerning the operation of public bodies, and human rights. The courts have an inherent power of judicial review, to ensure that every institution under law acts according to law. Except for Parliament itself, courts may declare acts of any institution or public figure void, to ensure that discretion is only used reasonably or proportionately. Since it joined the European Convention on Human Rights in 1950, and particularly after the Human Rights Act 1998, courts are required to review legislation to be compatible with international human rights norms. These protect everyone's rights against government or corporate power, including liberty against arbitrary arrest or detention, the right to privacy against unlawful surveillance, the right to freedom of expression, freedom of association including joining trade unions and taking strike action, and the freedom of assembly and protest. Every public body, and private bodies that affect people's rights and freedoms, is accountable under the law.

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Acts of Parliament by states preceding
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Acts of Parliament of the
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Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom of
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