Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated northeast of Beijing. It is best known as the site of the Mountain Resort, a vast imperial garden and palace formerly used by the Qing emperors as summer residence. The permanent resident population is approximately 3,473,200 in 2017.
In 1703, Chengde was chosen by the Kangxi Emperor as the location for his summer residence. Constructed throughout the eighteenth century, the Mountain Resort was used by both the Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors. The site is currently an UNESCO World Heritage Site. Since the seat of government followed the emperor, Chengde was a political center of the Chinese empire during these times.
The city of Jehol—an early romanization of Rehe via the French transcription of the northern suffix ér as eul—reached its height under the Qianlong Emperor 1735-1796 (died 1799). The great Putuo Zongcheng Temple, loosely based on the Potala in Lhasa, was completed after just four years of work in 1771. It was heavily decorated with gold and the emperor worshipped in the Golden Pavilion. In the temple itself was a bronze-gilt statue of Tsongkhapa, the Reformer of the Gelugpa sect.
Under the Republic of China, Chengde was the capital of Rehe province. From 1933 to 1945 the city was under Japanese control as a part of the Manchurian puppet state known as Manchukuo. After World War II the Kuomintang regained jurisdiction. In 1948, the People's Liberation Army took control of Chengde. It would remain a part of Rehe until 1955, when the province was abolished, and the city was incorporated into Hebei.
Chengde is located in the northeastern portion of Hebei, with latitude 40° 12'－42° 37' N, and longitude 115° 54'－119° 15' E, and contains the northernmost point in the province. It borders Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Beijing, and Tianjin. Neighbouring prefecture-level provincial cities are Qinhuangdao and Tangshan on the Bohai Gulf, and land-locked Zhangjiakou. Due to its Liaoning border, it is often considered a part of both the North and Northeast China regions. From north to south the prefecture stretches 269 kilometres (167 mi), and from west to east 280 kilometres (174 mi), for a total area of 39,702.4 square kilometres (15,329.2 sq mi), thus occupying 21.2% of the total provincial area. It is by area the largest prefecture in the province, though as most of its terrain is mountainous, its population density is low.
The Jehol or Rehe ("Hot River"), which gave Chengde its former name, was so named because it did not freeze in winter. Most sections of the river's former course are now dry because of modern dams.
Chengde has a four-season, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with widely varying conditions through the prefecture due to its size: winters are moderately long, cold and windy, but dry, and summers are hot and humid. Near the city, however, temperatures are much cooler than they are in Beijing, due to the high altitude of at least 1000 metres: the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −9.1 °C (15.6 °F) in January to 24.5 °C (76.1 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 9.11 °C (48.4 °F). Spring warming is rapid, but dust storms can blow in from the Mongolian steppe; autumn cooling is similarly quick. Precipitation averages at 512 millimetres (20.2 in) for the year, with more than two-thirds of it falling during the three summer months. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 50% in July to 69% in October, the city receives 2,746 hours of sunshine annually.
|Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|Shuangqiao District||双桥区||Shuāngqiáo Qū||290,000||311||932|
|Shuangluan District||双滦区||Shuāngluán Qū||100,000||250||400|
|Yingshouyingzi Mining District||鹰手营子矿区||Yīngshǒuyíngzi
|Pingquan City||平泉市||Píngquán Shì||470,000||3,297||143|
|Chengde County||承德县||Chéngdé Xiàn||470,000||3,990||118|
|Xinglong County||兴隆县||Xīnglóng Xiàn||320,000||3,116||103|
|Luanping County||滦平县||Luánpíng Xiàn||320,000||3,195||100|
|Longhua County||隆化县||Lónghuà Xiàn||420,000||5,474||77|
|Weichang Manchu and
Mongol Autonomous County
The first ever bandy match in China was organised in Chengde in January 2015 and was played between the Russian and Swedish top clubs Baykal-Energiya and Sandviken. Chengde city was one of the initiators when the China Bandy Federation was founded in December 2014. The city hosted the 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship. While the record number of participants in previous Women's Bandy World Championships was 7, the organisers had thought out measures with the goal to attract 12 participating countries. However, in the end 8 teams participated.
With road and railroad links to Beijing, Chengde has developed into a distribution hub, and its economy is growing rapidly. The newly built Jingcheng Expressway connects Chengde directly to central Beijing, and more freeways are planned for the city. The city's new airport was opened on 31 May 2017. It is located 19.5 kilometres (12.1 mi) northeast of the city center in Tougou Town, Chengde County.
The project of building Chengde Mountain Resort started in 1703 and finished in 1790. The whole mountain resort covers an area 5,640,000 square meters. It is the largest royal garden in China. The wall of the mountain resort is over 10,000 meters in length. In summers, emperors of Qing Dynasty came to the mountain resort to relax themselves and escape from the high temperature in Beijing.
The whole Resort can be divided into three areas which are lakes area, plains area and hills area. The lakes area, which includes 8 lakes, covers an area of 496,000 square meters. The plains area covers an area of 607,000 square meters. The emperors held horse races and hunted in the area. The largest area of the three is the hills area. It covers an area of 4,435,000 square meters. Hundreds of palaces and temples were built on the hills in this area.
The elaborate Mountain Resort features large parks with lakes, pagodas, and palaces ringed by a wall. Outside the wall are the Eight Outer Temples (外八庙), built in varying architectural styles drawn from throughout China. One of the best-known of these is the Putuo Zongcheng Temple, built to resemble the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. The resort and outlying temples were made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. The nearby Puning Temple, built in 1755, houses the world's tallest wooden statue of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara.
Another popular attraction of the Chengde area is Sledgehammer Peak (磬锤峰), a large rock formation in the shape of an inverted sledgehammer. A variety of other mountains, valleys, and grasslands lie within the borders of the city.
Chengde has city partnerships with the following locations:
2018 Women's Bandy World Championship was held in China, in the city of Chengde on 9–13 January 2018. This was the IXth Women's Bandy World Championship.
While the record number of participants in previous tournaments is 7, the organisers had thought out measures with the goal to attract 12 participating countries. However, in the end the number of teams were 8, including the debutants Estonia and Switzerland, while Canada declined this year. The matches were be played on naturally frozen ice on the lake at Chengde Mountain Resort.Sweden and Russia met for the ninth time of nine possible in the final. For the eighth time Sweden won.Beijing East railway station
Beijingdong (Beijing East) railway station (simplified Chinese: 北京东站; traditional Chinese: 北京東站; pinyin: Běijīngdōng Zhàn) is a railway station in Chaoyang District, Beijing. The station is located near Sihui.Chengde County
Chengde County (simplified Chinese: 承德县; traditional Chinese: 承德縣; pinyin: Chéngdé Xiàn) is a county in the northeast of Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of the Chengde City.Chengde Mountain Resort
The Mountain Resort in Chengde (simplified Chinese: 避暑山庄; traditional Chinese: 避暑山莊; pinyin: Bìshǔ Shānzhuāng; literally: 'Mountain Villa for Avoiding the Heat'; Manchu: Halhūn be jailara gurung) or Ligong (离宫; 離宮; Lígōng), is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the city of Chengde in Hebei, China. Because of its vast and rich collection of Chinese landscapes and architecture, the Mountain Resort in many ways is a culmination of all the variety of gardens, pagodas, temples and palaces from various regions of China.It is one of China's four famous gardens, World Heritage Site, national relic protection unit and Class 5A Tourist Attractions in China.Chengde Puning Airport
Chengde Puning Airport (IATA: CDE, ICAO: ZBCD) is an airport serving the city of Chengde in Hebei Province, North China. It is located 19.5 kilometres (12.1 mi) northeast of the city center in Tougou Town, Chengde County. Construction began on March 25, 2011 at an estimated cost of 1.5 billion yuan. The airport was opened on May 31 2017.Hebei
Hebei (河北; formerly romanised as Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili Province or Chihli Province. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.The modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911, when the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928.
Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, and Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, and Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.
A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào (燕趙), after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history.Imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty
The imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty was an annual rite of the emperors of China during the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). It was first organized in 1681 by the Kangxi Emperor at the imperial hunting grounds at Mulan (modern-day Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County, near what would become the summer residence of the Qing emperors at Chengde. Starting in 1683 the event was held annually at Mulan during the autumn, lasting up to a month. The Qing dynasty hunt was a synthesis of earlier Chinese and Inner Asian hunting traditions, particularly those of the Manchus and Mongols. The emperor himself participated in the hunt, along with thousands of soldiers, imperial family members, and government officials.
The Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty used the hunt as a military exercise to train their troops in the traditional martial skills of archery and horsemanship. The hunt was also a bonding ritual intended to emphasize the shared Inner Asian martial traditions of the Manchu and Mongol soldiers of the Eight Banners who were selected to participate (Han Chinese troops were excluded from the hunt). The event provided an opportunity for Qing emperors to leave the confines of the Forbidden City in Beijing and return to the forests "north of the wall", closer to their ancestral homelands, where they could hunt and live as their ancestors did. As the Manchus grew accustomed to living in Chinese cities, Qing emperors expanded and ritualized the imperial hunt as a sort of invented tradition, using it to preserve the traditional Manchu way of life. The Qianlong Emperor made it a key element of his effort to halt the steady decline of military discipline within the Eight Banners during his reign.
Each year, for the duration of the hunt, Mulan served as a temporary capital and a venue for diplomatic activities. The Qianlong Emperor required the leaders of Inner Asian tributary states to join in the hunt on a rotating basis, and he frequently received foreign emissaries there rather than in the imperial palace at Beijing. To facilitate the continued operation of the imperial government in the emperor's absence, many government officials accompanied the emperor to Mulan, where they lived and worked in a tent city replicating the layout of the Forbidden City, exchanging correspondence regularly with Beijing and Chengde.
Altogether, the Kangxi, Qianlong, and Jiaqing Emperors participated in 91 hunts during their reigns. As an important element of Qing military culture, and an embodiment of Manchu identity, the Qing imperial hunt featured regularly in the official artwork and poetry of the Qing dynasty. It was the subject of several paintings by Giuseppe Castiglione, the Italian Jesuit who served as a court painter to Qianlong. Images of the hunt, much like images commemorating victories in battle and other military subjects, were regularly commissioned by the imperial court as a form of propaganda, portraying Qing emperors as exemplars of traditional martial (wu) values.List of administrative divisions of Hebei
The administrative divisions of Hebei, a province of the People's Republic of China, consists of prefecture-level divisions subdivided into county-level divisions then subdivided into township-level divisions.Longhua County
Longhua County (simplified Chinese: 隆化县; traditional Chinese: 隆化縣; pinyin: Lónghuà Xiàn) is a county in the northeast of Hebei province, China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the east. It is under the administration of Chengde City.Luanping County
Luanping County (simplified Chinese: 滦平县; traditional Chinese: 灤平縣; pinyin: Luánpíng Xiàn) is a county of northeastern Hebei province, with the Great Wall demarcating its border with Miyun County, Beijing to the southwest. It is under the administration of Chengde City, and has a population of 340,000 residing in an area of 3,195 km2 (1,234 sq mi). The G45 Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway, China National Highways 101 and 112, and the Beijing–Tongliao Railway pass through the county. Other bordering county-level divisions are Fengning County to the northwest, Longhua County to the north, Chengde's core districts of Shuangqiao and Shuangluan to the east, and Chengde County to the southeast.Manchu people
The Manchu (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; Abkai: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are an ethnic minority in China and the people from Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats. The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.
Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country. They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning and one-fifth in Hebei. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.Pingquan
Pingquan (Chinese: 平泉; pinyin: Píngquán) is a county-level city of northeastern Hebei province, China, bordering Liaoning province to the east. It has a population of 470,000 residing in an area of 3,297 km2 (1,273 sq mi). It is a centre of trade and business, and gold and silver are mined nearby.Puning Temple (Hebei)
The Puning Temple (Chinese: 普宁寺; pinyin: Pǔníng Sì; literally: 'Temple of Universal Peace'), commonly called the Big Buddha Temple, is a Buddhist temple complex in Chengde, Hebei province, China. It was built in 1755 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor in the Qing dynasty. It is near the Chengde Mountain Resort and alongside the equally famed Putuo Zongcheng Temple. Puning is one of the "Eight Outer Temples" of Chengde.
The Puning Temple was modeled after the Samye Monastery, the sacred Lamaist site in Tibet (much as the Putuo Zongcheng Temple was modeled after the Potala Palace in Lhasa). The front temple was constructed in the Chinese style, although the temple complex follows both Chinese and Tibetan architectural styles. The Puning Temple houses the world's tallest wooden sculpture of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara (22.28-meter-high and 110 ton), hence it is often nicknamed the "Big Buddha Temple". The complex features temple halls, pavilions, drum towers and bell towers.Putuo Zongcheng Temple
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple (Chinese: 普陀宗乘之庙; pinyin: Pǔtuó Zōngchéng zhī miào, Tibetan: གྲུ་འཛིན་་་བསྟན་པའི་རྩ་བའི་ལྷ་ཁང༌།, Wylie: Chunzin Dainbaiza Pailhakang) of Chengde, Hebei province, China is a Qing dynasty era Buddhist temple complex built between 1767 and 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735–1796). It is located near the Chengde Mountain Resort, which is south of the Putuo Zongcheng. Along with the equally famed Puning Temple, it is one of the Eight Outer Temples of Chengde. The temple was modeled after the Potala Palace of Tibet, the residence of the Dalai Lama built a century earlier. Since it was modeled after the Potala palace, the temple represents a fusion of Chinese and Tibetan architectural styles. The temple complex covers a surface area of some 220,000 square metres (2,400,000 sq ft), making it one of the largest in China. Many of its halls and pavilions are adorned with copper and gold tiled roofs, adding to the splendor of the site.Shuangluan District
Shuangluan District (simplified Chinese: 双滦区; traditional Chinese: 雙灤區; pinyin: Shuāngluán Qū) is a district of Chengde, Hebei province, China. As of 2007, it has a population of 120,800 residing in an area of 250 km2 (97 sq mi).Shuangqiao District, Chengde
Shuangqiao District (simplified Chinese: 双桥区; traditional Chinese: 雙橋區; pinyin: Shuāngqiáo Qū; literally: 'double bridge') is a district of Chengde, Hebei, China.Xinglong County
Xinglong County (simplified Chinese: 兴隆县; traditional Chinese: 興隆縣; pinyin: Xīnglóng Xiàn) is a county in the northeast of Hebei province, bordering the municipalities of Beijing to the west and Tianjin to the southwest. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Chengde, with a population of 320,000 residing in an area of 3,116 km2 (1,203 sq mi).Xumi Fushou Temple
The Xumi Fushou Temple (Chinese: 须弥福寿之庙; pinyin: Xūmí Fúshòu Zhī Miào; literally: 'Temple of Happiness and Longevity of the Sumeru Mountain') is one of the Eight Outer Temples in Chengde, Hebei, China. This Buddhist temple is in the north of the park complex of the Chengde Mountain Resort, to the east of Putuo Zongcheng Temple on the north side of a slightly upward slope hill. The temple covers an area of 37,900 square metres (408,000 sq ft).Yingshouyingzi Mining District
Yingshouyingzi Mining District (simplified Chinese: 鹰手营子矿区; traditional Chinese: 鷹手營子礦區; pinyin: Yīngshǒuyíngzǐ Kuàng Qū) is a district of Chengde, Hebei, China.
|Climate data for Chengde (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−14.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||2.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.6||2.1||3.7||4.5||7.8||11.1||14.2||12.6||7.7||5.0||2.5||1.4||74.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||51||46||44||39||46||58||71||74||67||58||56||54||55|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||195.6||202.3||240.6||258.7||276.4||262.0||229.1||234.0||240.2||236.2||193.5||177.2||2,745.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||66||68||65||65||62||58||50||55||64||69||65||62||62|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration |