Chehalis people

The Chehalis people or Tsihalis are a native people of western Washington state in the United States. They should not be confused with the similarly named Chehalis First Nation of the Sts'Ailes people along the Harrison River in the Fraser Valley area of British Columbia.

"Ts-a-lis" ("place of sand") or "Chi-ke-lis" ("shifting sands") is the Lower Chehalis word for a historic native village at today Westport. Early explorers pronounced the word "Chehalis" and gave this name to the river and the people living upriver who later became the "Chehalis people" or "People of the Sands".

The Chehalis people of Washington consists of two divisions, speaking two distinct languages, which were not mutually intelligible: The Upper Chehalis or Kwaiailk and the Lower Chehalis, the boundary between the two groups was the confluence of the Chehalis River and Satsop River.

Today Chehalis people are enrolled in the federally recognized Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation (Upper and Lower Chehalis), the Quinault Tribe of the Quinault Reservation (predominately Lower Chehalis), Shoalwater Bay Tribe (Lower Chehalis), and Cowlitz Indian Tribe (Upper Chehalis). Chehalis-Population estimates in United States (2010) counts about 250 Upper Chehalis, and 500 Lower Chehalis.

Chehalis (tribe)

Tribal lands and Chehalis bands or village groups

The "Upper Chehalis bands" hunted from the mountains, across the prairies, and fished the Cowlitz, Upper Chehalis, Newaukum, Skookumchuck, Black, and Satsop rivers, the "Lower Chehalis bands" fished the Middle and Lower Chehalis, Wynoochee, Wishkah, Humptulips, Elk, Johns, Hoquiam, North, Willapa, Niawiakum, and Palix rivers to Grays Harbor and in the Lower Puget Sound. Like many Northwest Coast natives, the Chehalis relied on fishing from local rivers for food and built plank houses (longhouses) to protect themselves from the harsh, wet winters west of the Cascade Mountains.

Lower Chehalis bands or village groups (from the Pacific coast westward inland to below the Satsop River mouth into Chehalis River; with their dependence on natural resources like cedar and fish, especially on Pacific salmon, living in compact villages composed of Plank houses they differed little from their Coast Salish neighbors of the Pacific Northwest Coast):

  • Copalis (on Copalis River and the Pacific Coast between the mouth of Joe Creek and Grays Harbor, in 1805, Lewis and Clark estimated a population of 200 Copalis in 10 houses, the 5 individuals assigned to a "Chepalis" tribe in an enumeration given by Olson of the year 1888 probably refers to them. Most Copalis are part of the Quinault Tribe of the Quinault Reservation, other Copalis descent are enrolled with the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation)
  • Humptulips (on the Humptulips River, and part of Grays Harbor, including also Hoquiam River and Wishkah River (Hwish-kahl), meaning "stinking water", today part of the Quinault Tribe of the Quinault Reservation, the Shoalwater Bay Tribe, and Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation)
    • Hli'mtimi (near North Cove on north coast of Willapa Bay)
    • Hooshkal (on the north shore of Grays Harbor)
    • Hoquiam (from Ho'-kwee-um or Ho-kwim - "hungry for wood", name of a Chehalis village at present Hoquiam, Washington, named because of the great amount of driftwood at the mouth of the Hoquiam River)
    • Kishkallen (on the north shore of Grays Harbor)
    • Klimmim (Gibbs), 1877, no location mentioned)
    • Kplelch (at the mouth of North River into Willapa Bay)
    • Kwapks (at the mouth of North River)
    • Mo'niltimsh (at Georgetown)
    • Nooachhummik (on the coast north of Grays Harbor)
    • Nookalthu (north of Grays Harbor)
    • Nu'moihanhl (at Tokeland, Washington on north coast of Willapa Bay, named after 19th century Chief Toke)
    • Whiskah or Whishkah (lived along Wishkah River, a tributary of the Chehalis River)
  • Wynoochee (on Wynoochee River, today part of the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation and the Quinault Tribe of the Quinault Reservation)

Upper Chehalis bands or village groups (along the Satsop River and above its mouth westward upriver the Chehalis River, they depended more on wild plants and edible vegetables or fruits (camassia, bitterroot, kouse root, serviceberry, chokecherry, huckleberry, and wild strawberry), fish, especially salmon, and game, and had seasonal villages, by 1800 they had adopted the Horse, allowing them to enlarge their trade and groups of hunters rode far to hunt deer, and elk, their culture therefore resembles that of their Interior Salish neighbors of the Northwest Plateau):

  • Satsop (along Satsop River, today part of the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation)
  • Kwaiailk (Q'ʷay'áyiłq') or Upper Chehalis proper (Kwaiailk / Q'ʷay'áyiłq' was the name of one of at least four bands of Upper Chehalis, they inhabited the Upper Chehalis River country, an area that extended from Cloquallam Creek to the Upper Chehalis River, above the Satsop River, and on the Cowlitz River, they spoke two dialects - Oakville Chehalis dialect west of Grand Mound, Washington, and Tenino Chehalis dialect southeast of Grand Mound. In 1855, according to Gibbs, they numbered 216, but were becoming amalgamated with the Cowlitz, today most are part of the Cowlitz Indian Tribe, some also Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation)


The Lower and Upper Chehalis languages belong to the Coast Salish family of languages among Northwest Coast indigenous peoples.


The Chehalis people settled on their current Chehalis Indian Reservation (46°49′04″N 123°11′42″W / 46.81778°N 123.19500°W) along the Chehalis River in 1860. The reservation has a land area of 18.188 km² (7.022 sq mi) in southeastern Grays Harbor and southwestern Thurston Counties. As of the 2000 census its resident population was 691 persons. The major communities within the reservation are Chehalis Village and part of the city of Oakville. In the 2010 census, the population increased to 853 members. 639 of them were full-blooded.[1]


  1. ^ "2010 Census CPH-T-6. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes in the United States and Puerto Rico: 2010" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-09. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

External links

Chehalis, Washington

Chehalis ( (listen) shə-HAY-lis) is a city in Lewis County, Washington, United States. The population was 7,259 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Lewis County.

Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation

The Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of Upper and Lower Chehalis, Klallam, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, and Quinault peoples. They are one of the Northern Straits branch Central Coast Salish peoples of indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast. Their tribe is located in southwest Washington.

The Confederated Tribes' traditional territories were along the Black, Chehalis, Cowlitz, Elk, Johns, Newaukum, Satsop, Shookumchuck, and Wynoochee Rivers, and near Grays Harbor and on the lower Puget Sound of Washington.

Douglas Ranges

The Douglas Ranges are a subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of the Canadian province of British Columbia, about 70 km (43 mi) east of downtown Vancouver, north of the Fraser River and between the valleys of Stave and Harrison Lakes. They are approximately 4,900 km2 (1,900 sq mi) in area. Their highest peak is Mount Robertson 2,252 m (7,388 ft), at the northwest limit of the range.

The Douglas Ranges among the smallest and lowest of the major named subranges Coast Mountains, but in addition to being smallest and lowest they are also the southernmost part of the Coast Mountains and therefore also of the Pacific Ranges. The only thing more southerly than the Douglas Ranges, other than floodplain, is the unnamed hill-country that is most of Districts of Mission and part of Maple Ridge, from the Alouette River east across the upland to Hatzic Prairie. And in addition to being the most southerly and relatively lower than the rest of the Pacific Ranges, it is also among the wettest and, for being lowland country relative to the rest of its parent ranges, among the ruggedest.

The southern abutment of the Douglas Ranges is over 1,500 m (5,000 ft) above the Fraser River between Dewdney and the Harrison River, which flows along the southeast flank of the range.

East of the Douglas Ranges, across Harrison Lake, are the Lillooet Ranges, while to the west and northwest are the Garibaldi Ranges. Southeast across the Fraser River is the Canadian portion of the Cascade Range.

Harrison Mills, British Columbia

Harrison Mills, formerly Carnarvon and also Harrison River, is an agricultural farming and tourism-based community in the District of Kent west of Agassiz, British Columbia. The community is a part of the Fraser Valley Regional District. Harrison Mills is home to the British Columbia Heritage Kilby Museum and Campground.

Hazel Pete

Hazel Pete (March 21, 1914 – January 2, 2003) was a woman of the Chehalis Tribe in Washington State and known for her rare skills in the ancient craft of Chehalis basket weaving.

List of counties in Washington

There are 39 counties in the U.S. state of Washington. Washington came from what was the western part of Washington Territory and was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. The first counties were created from unorganized territory in 1845. Eight of the counties were created by Oregon governments prior to the organization of Washington Territory, 26 were created during Washington's territorial period, and five more were created after Washington became a state (Benton, Chelan, Grant, Ferry, and Pend Oreille).Article XI of the Washington State Constitution addresses the organization of counties. New counties must have a population of at least 2,000 and no county can be reduced to a population below 4,000 due to partitioning to create a new county. At least one early county, named Quillehuyte, was disestablished by the territorial government due to low population. To alter the area of a county, the state constitution requires a petition of the "majority of the voters" in that area. A number of county partition proposals in the 1990s interpreted this as a majority of people who voted, until a 1998 ruling by the Washington Supreme Court clarified that they would need a majority of registered voters.The Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) code, used by the United States government to uniquely identify counties, is provided with each entry. The FIPS code links in the table point to U. S. Census "quick facts" pages for each county.

Washington's postal abbreviation is WA and its FIPS state code is 53.

List of place names in Canada of Indigenous origin

This list of place names in Canada of Indigenous origin contains Canadian places whose names originate from the words of the First Nations, Métis, or Inuit, collectively referred to as Indigenous peoples. When possible the original word or phrase used by Indigenous peoples is included, along with its generally believed meaning. Names listed are only those used in English or French, as many places have alternate names in the local native languages, e.g. Alkali Lake, British Columbia is Esket in the Shuswap language; Lytton, British Columbia is Camchin in the Thompson language (often used in English however, as Kumsheen).

Marah oreganus

Marah oregonus, the Oregon manroot, coastal manroot or western wild-cucumber, is a common manroot of the northwest coast of the United States. It ranges from California north to Canada.

Satsop River

The Satsop River is a stream in the U.S. state of Washington. It has three main tributary forks, the East Fork, West Fork, and Middle Fork Satsop Rivers. The main stem Satsop River is formed by the confluence of the West and East Forks. The Middle Fork is a tributary of the East Fork. The three forks are much longer than the main stem Satsop itself, which flows south from the confluence only a few miles to join the Chehalis River near Satsop, Washington. Other significant tributaries include the Canyon River and Little River, both tributaries of the West Fork Satsop, and Decker Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Satsop River. The Satsop River's major tributaries originate in the Olympic Mountains and its southern foothills, the Satsop Hills, within Grays Harbor and Mason counties. Most of the Satsop River's watershed consists of heavily wooded hill lands. The upper tributaries extend into Olympic National Forest, approaching but not quite reaching Olympic National Park.

The Satsop River watershed is located east of the Wynoochee River and south of the Skokomish River watersheds.

Sts'Ailes people

The Sts'ailes (also known as Chehalis) are an indigenous people from the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia, Canada.

Their band government is the Chehalis First Nation, formerly known as the Chehalis Indian Band. The band's name community is located on Indian Reserve lands at Chehalis, which is on the lower Harrison River between the towns of Mission and Agassiz. Their band's mailing address is in nearby Agassiz.

Westport, Washington

Westport is a city in Grays Harbor County, Washington, United States. The city's population was 2,099 at the 2010 census. It is located on a peninsula on the south side of the entrance to Grays Harbor from the Pacific Ocean.

The public Westport Marina is the largest marina on the outer coast of the United States's Pacific Northwest. The marina is home to a large commercial fishing fleet and several recreational charter fishing vessels. A summer-only passenger ferry, discontinued in 2008, previously connected the town to Ocean Shores, across the mouth of the harbor to the north.

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