Cheduba Island

Cheduba Island (Burmese: မာန္ေအာင္ကြၽန္း; also known as Manaung Island) is an island in the Bay of Bengal close to Ramree Island and belongs to Myanmar, formerly Burma. It has a maximum length of 33 km (21 mi), with an area of approximately 523 km2 (202 sq mi)

Cheduba had a population of 63,761 as of 1983, composed chiefly of Burmese and Arakanese peoples. The main economic activities on the island are farming and cattle raising. Araka = Country name. Arakan = Nations. That is old writing with Anglican literature. Now, everybody changed spelling of countries name, ရခိုင္ ။ Arca = country Arcan = nations

Alphabet, the most earliest founded place is around the country.

Cheduba (Manaung)

မာန္ေအာင္ကြၽန္း
Man Aung (Cheduba) Island seen from Ramree Island's west bank
Cheduba (Manaung) is located in Myanmar
Cheduba (Manaung)
Cheduba (Manaung)
Coordinates: 18°48′N 93°38′E / 18.800°N 93.633°E
CountryMyanmar
StateRakhine
Area
 • Total523 km2 (202 sq mi)
Elevation
205 m (673 ft)
Population
 (1983)
 • Total63,761
Time zoneUTC+6:30 (Myanmar Standard Time)

Geography

Cheduba Island lies about 10 km (6 mi) from the southwestern coast of Ramree Island. It is located between 18° 40′ and 18° 56′ N. lat., and between 93° 31′ and 93° 50′ E. long.[1] The terrain of the island is quite flat with scattered moderate elevations. The highest point 205 metres (673 ft) is on a ridge in the southwestern part of the island.

There are 5 villages connected by a road that circles the island: Owa, Thitpon, Manaung, Budaunggwe, Sachet and Meinmangwe. There is an airfield west of Manaung, the main village of Cheduba, located on the northeast coast. Manaung is linked to the village of Kyaukpyu on nearby Ramree Island by steamer.

Most of the vegetation is tropical rainforest.[2] There are mud cones that emit steam and sulfurous fumes on the island, which indicate some volcanic activity. There are also seepages of oil and gas.[3]

Nearby islands

  • Taik Kyun is a 1.4 km (0.9 mi) wide roughly round islet located 6 km (4 mi) off the eastern coast, about 5.8 km (3.6 mi) north of Ye Kyun.
  • Ye Kyun is a 6.8 km (4.2 mi) long and 2.4 km (1.5 mi) wide island located off the southeastern end of Cheduba Island, separated from it by a 7.8 km (4.8 mi) wide strait with numerous detached reefs. Highest point 32 metres (105 ft).[4]
  • Taung Kyun is a 0.4 km (0.2 mi) long low islet located 1.8 km (1.1 mi) off the southern end of Ye Kyun. Highest point 4.9 metres (16 ft).[4]

Other islands in the vicinity

  • Unguan is a 1 km (0.6 mi) long and 0.4 km (0.2 mi) wide islet located 33 km (21 mi) to the southeast of Cheduba's southern end.
  • Nantha Kyun is a roughly 2 km (1.2 mi) wide round island located 36 km (22 mi) off the mainland coast, about 45 km (28 mi) SSE of Unguan. Highest point 112 metres (367 ft).

History

Cheduba Island was a stop on the coastal trade route from Bengal by which Indian civilization migrated to Myanmar.[3]

Historical records show that an earthquake of a magnitude of 8.5 to 9.0 hit off the western coast of Myanmar in April 1762, and reports speculated that a tsunami could kill more than one million people in Myanmar and Bangladesh.[5] In 1881, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake in the Bay of Bengal caused "broad massive flames of fire" to be emitted on the island.[6] In the 1780s, after the Burmese conquest of the area, Cheduba became a province of Arakan. Cheduba was captured in 1824 by the British, whose possession of it was confirmed in 1826 by the Treaty of Yandabo concluded with the Burmese.[1] The island, along with many other islands in the area, was evacuated and occupied by the Japanese during World War II.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cheduba" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 21.
  2. ^ "Cheduba - MSN Encarta". encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  3. ^ a b "Cheduba Island -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
  4. ^ a b Prostar Sailing Directions 2005 India & Bay of Bengal. Enroute. National Geospatial-intelligence Agency (Feb 1, 2007). p. 169
  5. ^ Anitei, Stefan. "A New Tsunami Could Kill Over 1 Million People!". Softpedia. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  6. ^ Subramanian, V. "Editorial: 1881 - Car Nicobar Island, India, Mw 7.9 Epicentre: Bay of Bengal, West of Car Nicobar Island, India Origin Time: 01:49 Date: 31st December 1881, Magnitude: Mw 7.9 ± 0.1" (PDF). Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  7. ^ Chant, Christopher (1986). The Encyclopedia of Codenames of World War II. Routledge. ISBN 0-7102-0718-2.

External links

Battle of Ramree Island

The Battle of Ramree Island (also Operation Matador) was fought in January and February 1945, during the Second World War, as part of the XV Indian Corps offensive on the Southern Front in the Burma Campaign. Ramree Island (Yangbye Kywan) lies off the Burma coast, 110 km (70 mi) south of Akyab (now Sittwe). The island had been captured by the Imperial Japanese Army in early 1942, along with the rest of Southern Burma. In January 1945, the Allies launched an attack to retake Ramree and its neighbour Cheduba Island, to establish airbases on the islands for the supply of the mainland campaign. There have been reports of Japanese soldiers being eaten by saltwater crocodiles living in the inland mangrove swamps; the Guinness Book of World Records has listed it as "worst crocodile disaster in the world" and "most number of fatalities in a crocodile attack" but scientists and historians have dismissed this as implausible.

Burma campaign

The Burma campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily involving the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and collaborator units such as the Burma Independence Army, which spearheaded the initial attacks against British forces, and the Indian National Army. British Empire forces peaked at around 1,000,000 land and air forces, and were drawn primarily from British India, with British Army forces (equivalent to 8 regular infantry divisions and 6 tank regiments), 100,000 East and West African colonial troops, and smaller numbers of land and air forces from several other Dominions and Colonies.The campaign had a number of notable features. The geographical characteristics of the region meant that weather, disease and terrain had a major effect on operations. The lack of transport infrastructure placed an emphasis on military engineering and air transport to move and supply troops, and evacuate wounded. The campaign was also politically complex, with the British, the United States and the Chinese all having different strategic priorities.

It was also the only land campaign by the Western Allies in the Pacific Theatre which proceeded continuously from the start of hostilities to the end of the war. This was due to its geographical location. By extending from Southeast Asia to India, its area included some lands which the British lost at the outset of the war, but also included areas of India wherein the Japanese advance was eventually stopped.

The climate of the region is dominated by the seasonal monsoon rains, which allowed effective campaigning for only just over half of each year. This, together with other factors such as famine and disorder in British India and the priority given by the Allies to the defeat of Nazi Germany, prolonged the campaign and divided it into four phases: the Japanese invasion, which led to the expulsion of British, Indian and Chinese forces in 1942; failed attempts by the Allies to mount offensives into Burma, from late 1942 to early 1944; the 1944 Japanese invasion of India, which ultimately failed following the battles of Imphal and Kohima; and finally the successful Allied offensive which reoccupied Burma from late-1944 to mid-1945.

Burma campaign 1944–45

The Burma campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily by British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of Imperial Japan, who were assisted to some degree by Thailand, the Burmese National Army and the Indian National Army. The British Commonwealth land forces were drawn primarily from the United Kingdom, British India and Africa.

Partly because monsoon rains made effective campaigning possible only for about half of the year, the Burma campaign was almost the longest campaign of the war. During the campaigning season of 1942, the Japanese had conquered Burma, driving British, Indian and Chinese forces from the country and forcing the British administration to flee into India. After scoring some defensive successes during 1943, they then attempted to forestall Allied offensives in 1944 by launching an invasion of India (Operation U-Go). This failed with disastrous losses.

During the next campaigning season beginning in December 1944, the Allies launched several offensives into Burma. American and Chinese forces advancing from northernmost Burma linked up with armies of the Chinese Republic advancing into Yunnan, which allowed the Allies to complete the Burma Road in the last months of the war. In the coastal province of Arakan, Allied amphibious landings secured vital offshore islands and inflicted heavy casualties, although the Japanese maintained some positions until the end of the campaign. In Central Burma however, the Allies crossed the Irrawaddy River and defeated the main Japanese armies in the theatre. Allied formations then followed up with an advance on Rangoon, the capital and principal port. Japanese rearguards delayed them until the monsoon struck but an Allied airborne and amphibious attack secured the city, which the Japanese had abandoned.

In a final operation just before the end of the war, Japanese forces which had been isolated in Southern Burma attempted to escape across the Sittang River, suffering heavy casualties.

Geography of Myanmar

Myanmar (also known as Burma) is the northwestern-most country of mainland Southeast Asia. It lies along the Indian and Eurasian Plates, to the southeast of the Himalayas. To its west is the Bay of Bengal and to its south is the Andaman Sea. It is strategically located near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes. The neighboring countries are China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Laos.

Gloire (1799 ship)

Gloire was a ship launched at Bayonne in 1799 as an armed merchantman. She became a privateer in the Indian Ocean that the British captured in 1801 in a notable single-ship action and named HMS Trincomalee, but then sold in 1803. The French recaptured her in 1803 and recommissioned her as the privateer Émilien, but the British recaptured her in 1807 and recommissioned her as HMS Emilien, before selling her in 1808.

HMAS Norman (G49)

HMAS Norman (G49/D16) was an N-class destroyer operated by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) during World War II. Entering service in 1941, the ship was on loan from the Royal Navy.

Early in her career, Norman participated in Operation Vigorous and the Madagascar campaign, but spent most of the time between 1942 and the start of 1945 on uneventful patrols of the Indian Ocean. In January 1945, the destroyer was involved in the Burma campaign, before being transferred from the British Eastern Fleet to the British Pacific Fleet. During April and May, Norman was involved in the Battle of Okinawa, but then spent the rest of World War II as the duty destroyer at Manus Island.

Norman was returned to the Royal Navy in October 1945. The ship was not reactivated, and was broken up for scrap in 1958.

HMS Ameer (D01)

The escort carrier USS Baffins (CVE-35) (originally AVG-35, then later ACV-35) was launched 18 October 1942 by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding, Tacoma, Washington; sponsored by Mrs. Laurence Bennett, wife of Commander Bennett; and commissioned 28 June 1943, Captain W. L. Rees in command. She was named after Baffin Bay in southern Texas.

HMS Paladin (G69)

HMS Paladin was a P-class destroyer of the Royal Navy that served in the Second World War. She was built by John Brown and Co. Ltd., Clydebank. She saw action in the Mediterranean and Far East. After the war she was converted into a type 16 frigate and was eventually scrapped in 1962.

HMS Phoebe (43)

HMS Phoebe was a Dido-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy. She was built by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company (Govan, Scotland), her keel was laid down on 2 September 1937. She was launched on 25 March 1939, and commissioned on 30 September 1940.

Indian Ocean in World War II

Prior to World War II, the Indian Ocean was an important maritime trade route between European nations and their colonial territories in East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, British India, Indochina, the East Indies (Indonesia), and Australia for a long time. Naval presence was dominated by the Royal Navy Eastern Fleet and the Royal Australian Navy as World War II began, with a major portion of the Royal Netherlands Navy operating in the Dutch East Indies and the Red Sea Flotilla of the Italian Regia Marina operating from Massawa.

Axis naval forces gave a high priority to disrupting Allied trade in the Indian Ocean. Initial anti-shipping measures of unrestricted submarine warfare and covert raiding ships expanded to include airstrikes by aircraft carriers and raids by cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. A Kriegsmarine Monsun Gruppe of U-boats operated from the eastern Indian Ocean after the Persian Corridor became an important military supply route to the Soviet Union.

List of World War II military operations

This is a list of known World War II era codenames for military operations, and missions commonly associated with World War II. As of 2008 this is not a comprehensive list, but most major operations that Axis and Allied combatants engaged in are included, and also operations that involved neutral nation states. Operations are categorised according to the theater of operations, and an attempt has been made to cover all aspects of significant events. Operations contained in the Western Front category have been listed by year. Operations that follow the cessation of hostilities and those that occurred in the pre-war period are also included. Operations are listed alphabetically, and where multiple aspects are involved these are listed inline.

Flags used are those of the time period.

Nay Toe

Nay Toe (Burmese: နေတိုး [nè tó]; born Nay Lin Aung on September 9, 1981) is a three-time Myanmar Academy Award winning Burmese actor and comedian with the Burmese traditional dance troupe Htawara Hninzi. He won his first Myanmar Academy Award for Best Actor in 2011 with "Moe Nya Einmet Myu" and achieved his second award for Best Actor in 2016 with "Nat Khat Mhar Tae Tite Pwal" and third award for Best Actor in 2018 with "Tar Tay Gyi".He is number one actor in the country and also best actor in Rakhine community.

Operation Dracula

During World War II, Operation Dracula was the name given to an airborne and amphibious attack on Rangoon by British, American and Indian forces during the Burma Campaign.

The plan was first proposed in mid-1944 when the Allied South East Asia Command was preparing to reoccupy Burma, but was dropped as the necessary landing craft and other resources were not available. In March 1945 however, it was resurrected, as it was vital to capture Rangoon before the start of the monsoon (which was expected in the second week of May) to secure the lines of communication of the Allied troops in Burma.

During April 1945, units of the British Fourteenth Army advanced to within 40 miles (64 km) of Rangoon, but were delayed until 1 May by an improvised Japanese force which held Pegu. On the same day, as part of Operation Dracula, a composite Gurkha parachute battalion landed on Elephant Point at the mouth of the Rangoon River. Once they had secured the coastal batteries, minesweepers cleared the river of mines. On 2 May, the Indian 26th Division began landing on both banks of the river. The monsoon also broke on this day, earlier than had been expected. However, the Imperial Japanese Army had abandoned Rangoon several days earlier, and the units of the Indian 26th Division occupied the city and its vital docks without opposition. They linked up with Fourteenth Army four days later.

Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean theatre, the South West Pacific theatre, the South-East Asian theatre, the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Soviet–Japanese War.

The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when the Japanese invaded Thailand and attacked the British colonies of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, and the Philippines.The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter aided by Thailand and to a lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet Union's declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria and other territories on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands and other minor islands as determined by the Allies. Japan's Shinto Emperor relinquished much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms.

Ramree Island

Ramree Island (Burmese: ရမ်းဗြဲကျွန်း; also spelled Ramri Island) is an island off the coast of Rakhine State, Myanmar (Burma). The area of the island is about 1,350 square kilometres (520 sq mi) and the main populated center is Ramree.

Unguan

Unguan is a small island off the coast of Rakhine State, Myanmar.

Islands of Myanmar (Burma)

Languages

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