Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman (Urdu: چودھری خلیق الزمان) (25 December 1889 – 1973) was a Pakistani politician and a very important Muslim figure during British India. He was one of the top leaders of the All India Muslim League.
He was born in Chunar, an ancient town in UP's Mirzapur district in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). At the time, his father, Chaudhry Muhammad Zaman, was a naib tehsildar (revenue officer) there. His younger brother, Salimuzzaman Siddiqui (1897 – 1994) was an eminent scientist and researcher in both British India and later in Pakistan.
Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman himself was not only a prominent Muslim League leader, but also one of the founding fathers of Pakistan. At the time of independence of Pakistan on 14 August 1947, he was still serving as the Muslim League member of the Constituent Assembly of India and stayed behind to address that Indian Assembly. He was one of the four individuals who addressed the Constituent Assembly of India in the central hall of Parliament during the moment of Indian independence at midnight of August 14, 1947. The other three were Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. Radhakrishnan. He migrated to newly-created Pakistan in November 1947, when Jinnah expressed his displeasure over his policy. He did not agree with the government of Pakistan that the Indian government was behind Muslms' killings. He was appointed the chief organizer of Muslim League (Pakistan). Later he served as the first president of the Muslim League (Pakistan).
In 1961, he published his memoirs entitled Pathway to Pakistan. The Urdu version of the autobiography came out in 1967. It is entitled Shahrahay Pakistan. This book is considered by many as a rare 'treasure house' of information on the Pakistan Movement. In this book, he wrote: "The two-nation theory, which we had used in the fight for Pakistan had created not only bad blood against the Muslims of the minority provinces, but also an ideological wedge between them and the Hindus of India." He further wrote: “Mr Jinnah himself realized the grave dangers to Muslims who after the partition were to be left in India. I remember that on 1 August 1947, a few days before his final departure for Karachi, Mr Jinnah called the Muslim members of the Constituent Assembly of India to his house at 10 Aurangzeb Road to bid farewell to them.
"Mr. Rizwanullah put some awkward questions concerning the position of Muslims, who would be left over in India, their status and their future. I had never before found Mr. Jinnah so disconcerted as on that occasion, probably because he was realizing then quite vividly what was immediately in store for the Muslims. Finding the situation awkward, I asked my friends and colleagues to the end the discussion. I believe as a result of our farewell meeting, Mr. Jinnah took the earliest opportunity to bid goodbye to his two-nation theory in his speech on 11 August 1947 as the governor general-designate and President of the constituent assembly of Pakistan."
"He (Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy) doubted the utility of the two-nation theory, which to my mind also had never paid any dividends to us. But after the partition, it proved positively injurious to the Muslims of India, and on a long-view basis for Muslims everywhere." According to him, Jinnah bade farewell to it in his famous speech of August 11, 1947.
Feroz Khan Noon
| Governor of East Bengal
March 31, 1953–May 29, 1954
Sheikh Sir Abdul Qadir (15 March 1874 – 9 February 1950) was a newspaper and magazine editor and a Muslim community leader in British India.He led the famous Muslim organization, Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam and used his position as the leader of this organization to form other, pro-partition, organizations. He was an early activist of the Pakistan Movement.Abdur Rab Nishtar
Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 – 14 February 1958; Pashto: سردار عبد الرب نښتر) was a Muslim League stalwart, a Pakistan movement activist and later on a Pakistani politician.Aligarh Movement
The Aligarh Movement was the push
to establish a modern system of education for the Muslim population of British India, during the later decades of the 19th century. The movement′s name derives from the fact that its core and origins lay in the city of Aligarh in Northern India and, in particular, with the foundation of the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental Collegiate School in 1875.
The founder of the oriental college, and the other educational institutions that developed from it, was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He became the leading light of the wider Aligarh Movement.
The educational reform established a base, and an impetus, for the wider Movement: an Indian Muslim renaissance that had a profound implications for the religion, the politics, the culture and society of the Indian sub-continent.
One of indirect consequences of the awakening is the notion that without this revival of a Muslim self-consciousness and self-confidence, directly attributable to the Movement, there could or would have been no Pakistan Movement in the run up to Indian Independence.Amin ul-Hasanat
Amin ul-Hasanat (February 01 1922–January 05 1960), better known as the Pir of Manki Sharif, was the son of Pir Abdul Rauf and Islamic religious leader in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Brisith India (modern Pakistan). After joining the Muslim League in 1945, he was noted for his campaign in the referendum that saw the NWFP become part of Pakistan rather than India. He was known as ''Fateh-e-Referendum''.East Bengal
East Bengal (Bengali: পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh. With its coastline on the Bay of Bengal, it bordered India and Burma. It was located very near to, but did not share a border with, Nepal, China, the Kingdom of Sikkim and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Its capital was Dacca.
The Partition of British India, which divided Bengal along religious lines, established the borders of Muslim majority East Bengal. The province existed during the reign of two monarchs, including George VI and Elizabeth II; and three Governors-General, including Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Khawaja Nazimuddin and Ghulam Muhammad. Its provincial governors included a British administrator and several Pakistani statesmen. Its chief ministership was held by leading Bengali politicians.
East Bengal was the most populous and cosmopolitan province in the dominion. East Bengal was a hub of political movements, including the Bengali Language Movement and pro-democracy groups. It was dissolved and replaced by East Pakistan during the One Unit scheme implemented by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra.
The provincial legislature was the East Bengal Legislative Assembly.Fourteen Points of Jinnah
The Fourteen Points of Jinnah were proposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.In 1928,an All Parties Conference was convened to solve the constitutional problems of India.A committee was set up under Moti Lal Nehru.That committee prepared a report which is known as "Nehru Report".This report demanded "Dominion Status" for India.Separate electorates were refused and the reservation of seats for the Muslims of Bengal and Punjab was rejected.In this report,not a single demand of the Muslims was upheld.
Since Nehru Report was the last word from Hindus therefore Mr.Jinnah was authorized to draft in concise term the basis of any future constitution that was to be devised for India Jinnah's aim was to get rights for Muslims. He therefore gave his 14 points. These points covered all of the interests of the Muslims at a heated time and in this Jinnah stated that it was the "parting of ways" and that he did not want and would not have anything to do with the Indian National Congress in the future. The League leaders motivated Jinnah to revive the Muslim League and give it direction. As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims' thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.G. Allana
Ghulam Ali Allana known as G. Allana (22 August 1906 – 8 March 1985) was a friend and biographer of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan. He was an English-language Pakistani poet and also a counselor and friend to Fatima Jinnah, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's sister.Ghulam Bhik Nairang
Syed Ghulam Bhik Nairang (26 September 1876 – 16 October 1952), also known as Mir Nairang, was a distinguished lawyer, a poet and a prominent Pakistan Movement leader. He held the office of Deputy Leader, from 1938 to 1942, with the All-India Muslim League in the pre-partition India.Iftikhar Hussain Khan Mamdot
Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan of Mamdot (31 December 1906 - 16 October 1969) was a Pakistani politician from the Punjab and a key supporter of the Pakistan Movement in British India.Lahore Resolution
The Lahore Resolution (Urdu: قرارداد لاہور, Qarardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab), was prepared by Muslim League Working Committee and was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940. The resolution called for independent states as seen by the statement:That geographically contiguous units are demarcated regions which should be constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North Western and Eastern Zones of (British) India should be grouped to constitute ‘independent states’ in which the constituent units should be autonomous and sovereign.Although the name "Pakistan" had been proposed by Choudhary Rahmat Ali in his Pakistan Declaration, it was not until after the resolution that it began to be widely used.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah's address to the Lahore conference was, according to Stanley Wolpert, the moment when Jinnah, a former proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity, irrevocably transformed himself into the leader of the fight for an independent Pakistan.Lucknow Pact
The Lucknow Pact was an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916. Through the pact, the two parties agreed to allow overrepresentation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures. The Muslim League leaders agreed to join the Congress movement demanding Indian autonomy. Scholars cite this as an example of a consociational practice in Indian politics.Malik Barkat Ali
Malik Barkat Ali (1 April 1886 – 5 April 1946) was a Muslim Indian politician, lawyer and journalist.Objectives Resolution
The Objectives Resolution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on March 12, 1949. Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, had presented it in the assembly on March 7, 1949. Out of 69 members of the assembly, 21 voted for it. All the amendments proposed by minority members were rejected. Consequently, all of them voted against it.
The resolution proclaimed that the future constitution of Pakistan would not be modeled entirely on a European pattern, but on the ideology and democratic faith of Islam. The resolution, in its entirety, has been made part of the Constitution of Pakistan under Article 2(A).Pakistan Muslim League
The Pakistan Muslim League (Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ; known as PML), is the name of several Pakistani political parties that have dominated the Right-wing platform since the 1960s. The first Pakistan Muslim League was founded by President Ayub Khan in 1962 as a successor to the original Muslim League. Just a short period after its foundation, the party broke into two factions: Convention Muslim League that supported the President and the new Constitution, and the Council Muslim League, that opposed the new Constitution, denouncing it as undemocratic that made the Presidency an autocratic position. Following President Ayub's resignation, Nurul Amin, a right-wing political veteran, attempted to reunite the factions of Pakistan Muslim League. His efforts were supported by some, while opposed by others. Before the 1970 Elections, a senior leader of Council Muslim League, Abdul Qayyum Khan formed his own variant of the Muslim League that opposed cooperation with a party that once supported a Dictator. In 1973, Amin's efforts succeeded and the Functional Muslim League (PML-F) was founded.
Both the PML-F and the Qayyum-led faction declined under the Bhutto administration, and many of its members joined the leftist People's Party.
The Pakistan Muslim League formally dissolved alongside other parties following the 1977 Martial Law, though it supported it. However, it was restored in 1985, when General Zia organised his supporters into a formal party under the leadership of Muhammad Khan Junejo. In 1988, Zia dismissed Junejo and the party split between Pakistan Muslim League (N) and Pakistan Muslim League (J). In 1988, after Zia's death, Pakistan Muslim League came under the leadership of Nawaz Sharif and joined the Islamic Democratic Alliance. In 1993, after the Alliance has been dissolved. After the 1999 Coup, PML-N went into a temporary decline and three new factions of Pakistan Muslim League were founded: Anti-Musharaf PML (Zia), Pro-Musharaf conservative Awami Muslim League and Pro-Musharaf liberal Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q).
In 2004, the PML-Q and the PML-F briefly reunited as the Pakistan Muslim League. However, the reunion was unsuccessful and within few days, both the parties went off in separate directions once again.Provincial Government of East Pakistan
The Provincial Government of East Pakistan governed the East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) province and was centered in its provincial capital Dhaka. The head of the province was the Governor, who was nominated by the President of Pakistan. While the head of the province of East Pakistan was the Chief Minister who was elected by the East Pakistan Assembly.
The East Pakistani government was dominated by the Awami League. It was succeeded by the Government of Bangladesh following the province's secession in 1971.Qazi Muhammad Essa
Qazi Muhammad Essa (1913 – 19 June 1976) was a Pakistani politician and one of the prominent leaders of the Pakistan Movement.Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (Urdu: شبیر احمد عثمانی, Shabbīr Aḥmad ‘Usmānī; October 11, 1887 – December 13, 1949) was an Islamic scholar who supported the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s. He was a theologian, writer, orator, politician, and expert in tafsir and Hadith.Shaukat Ali (politician)
Maulana Shaukat Ali (10 March 1873 – 26 November 1938; Urdu: مولانا شوكت علي) was an Indian Muslim leader of the Khilafat Movement that erupted in response to the fall of the Ottoman Empire. He was the elder brother of the renowned political leader Mohammad Ali Jouhar.Yusuf Haroon
Muhammad Yusuf Abdullah Haroon (Urdu: یوسف ہارون) ( 1916– 12 Feb 2011) was a politician from Sindh, Pakistan.